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corporation tax in 1899, the automobile tax in 1907. One new source of revenue was the state income tax of 1917, the first $2 0,000 of this going to the school fund, the surplus, if any, to the hig way department. In 1917, also, the collateral inheritance tax was changed to a direct graduated inheritance tax, with a consequent revenue for 1919 of $199,0 3. Apart from these sources increased sums came from fees and rom the corporation, automobile and franchise taxes. The much-discussed corporation tax became the state's main re_ fiance as a revenue producer. A state banking department was created (1919), with a banking commissioner and a deputy, whose duty it was to examine every bank at least once a year. In 1917 the budget plan was adopted for a two years’ trial, but in 1919 it was not continued. In 1921 the plan was again under discussion with a reasonable chance of adoption. State finances were reenforced by the " Federal Aid " revenue. In 1919 the recei ts from the Federal Government were $135,294. 2, distributed as ollows: (1) $50,000 to Delaware College under 'ederal grants; (2) $9,472.69 for vocational education; (3) $75,821.83 for road construction.

History—The two dominant facts in the history of the state in the period 1910-20 are: (1) the passage of a considerable number of modern and rogressive laws, and (2) the reaction of the state to the strenuous emands and activities of the World War. In the latter respect, Delaware met the situation squarely and was well organized, with the various war—time activities centred in the state Council of Defense, of which Secretary of State E. C. ohnson was the directing spirit. The number of troops furnished y the state in the World War was 7,484, and the amount raised in Liberty and Victory loans $103,898,3 o. In this period two progressive governors, Charles R. Miller andejohn G. Townsend, by their qualities of leadership, accomplish much for the state. During the administration of the latter, for example, a number of im rtant statutes were enacted, including a Chi (1 Labor law (1917 , a Workmen's Compensation Act (1917), laws for the regulation of hours of labour for women, an Income Tax law (19l7). a Direct Inheritance Tax law (1917), an Act creating a state banking department (1919), and a thorough revision of the school laws, known as the New School Code (1919). These Acts, together with the Agricultural Extension Act (1911), mark a new era in the development of the state. After 1?10 the Re ublicans maintained their control of state affairs, eecting the ollowing govemors: Simeon S. Pennewill (1909-13); Charles R. Miller (1913-17); John G. Townsend 1917-121); and William D. Denn (1 21- ). Much of the time, however, the Democrats control ed t e House of Representatives, and in {(1)16 they elected part of their state ticket. In 1921 the senior S senator, osiah, O. Wolcott, was a Democrat; the junior senator, L. eisler Ball, a Republican. In the presidential election of 1921 the Democrats carried the state, in 1916 and 1920 the Republicans won by a considerable ma in. A third characteristic of the period should be mentioned. Pu lie-spirited citizens of the state contributed large sums for education, for public highways, for child welfare, for charitable pur ses, and for other worthy causes. It has been estimated that the gi ts of Mr. Pierre S. duPont to public education total 33,653,?‘4035. Gen. Coleman T. duPont completed and presented to t e state a modern highway 20 m. in length, extending from Shelb ille to Geo etown. nder a state highway commission this wor was exten ed by a magnificent system of highways, either under construction (1921) or projected.

See Henry C. Conrad, History of Delaware, 3 vols. (1908); Edgar Dawson, “Public Archives of Delaware," in The Annual Report X the American Historical Association for 1906, II, pp. 129-148;

delaide R. Hasse, Index of Economic Material in Documents of the State: of the United States, Delaware, 1789-1904 (1910); Amandus ghnson, The Swedish Settlement: on the Delaware, 2 vols. (1912);

:laware School Code (1920). (E. V. V.)

DELBRUCK, HANS (r848- ), German historian (see 7.9 5z).—Undcr the old regime Prof. Delbriick vigorously opposed the policy of the Prussian Government in dealing with the Danes and the Poles, with the result that he was twice subjected to disciplinary penalties as a professor and therefore, in Prussia, a civil servant. From 1889 to 1920 he edited the Proussirche Jahrbilcher, the most important political magazine in Germany. He was the author of a great number of articles and works, of which the following were published after 1910:— Numbers in History (1913); Rcgienmg and Volkrwille (1914); Bismarck: Erbe (19:5); Krieg and Polilik (1918); Kaulsky tmd Harden (1920) and Ludendorfl, Tirpifz, Falkenhayn (1920). Special attention may be called to the book Rcgierung und Volkswillo, in which Prof. Delbriiclt attempted a defence of the old system of government in Germany and Prussia with par_ ticulnr reference to its “ dualism, " if. parliamentary representation and simultaneously a certain degree of autocracy on the part of the sovereign in Prussia and of the federated Government in the empire. At an early stage of the World War he became pessimistic regarding the possibility of any real success for


Germany except by military and political strategy and tactics of a purely defensive character. He was, on tactical rather than on moral grounds, a strenuous opponent of intensified submarine warfare, and did not conceal his conviction that the result of this method of warfare would ultimately be the intervention of America. After the Armistice of Nov. 1918 he devoted himself mainly to endeavours to prove that Germany could not be made solely responsible for the outbreak of war, although she had formally declared war upon Russia and France. He was one of those who were sent to Versailles during the Peace Conference in order to draw up a statement of the German case with regard to the responsibility for the outbreak of war.

For a succinct statement of Prof. Delbrilck's views on this subject and an English reply see articles by Delbrilck and j. \V. Headlam-Morley in the Contemporary Review (March 1921).

DELCASSE, 'I'l-IEOPHILE (1852- ), French statesman (sec 7.953), returned to oflice in the Monis Ministry of Feb. 1911.15 Minister for the Navy, :1 post which be retained when Caillaux succeeded Monis, and in the Poincaré Cabinet which was formed on Jan 9 1912 after the fall of Caillaux over the Moroccan negotiations. He was appointed ambassador in St. Petersburg on Feb. 20 1913, and became once more Minister for Foreign Affairs in the reconstructed Viviani Cabinet on Aug. 26 1914. In this post he was actively concerned in counteracting the efforts of German diplomacy throughout the world, and particularly in England. He resigned from the Cabinet on Oct. 14 1915, partly on account of differences of opinion as to the advisability of proceeding with the dispatch of the expedition to Salonika in the changed conditions created by the resignation of M. Venizelos, and partly on the grounds of ill health.

DELHI, India (see 7.9 54).—The planning and laying-out of I. New Delhi has been in progress since 1912, as the outcome of the official transfer of the capital of British India to Delhi from Calcutta, announced by the King-Emperor George V. at the C010nation Durbar on Dec. 12 1911. Two inauguration stones were laid by the King-Emperor himself on Dec. 15 1911, when he said: “ It is my desire that the planning and designing of the public buildings to be erected will be considered with the greatest deliberation and care so that the new creation may be in every way worthy of this ancient and beautiful city." The first step taken was the appointment of a town-planning committee to advise on the choice of a site for, and a layout of, the new capital. This committee consisted of Capt. G. S. C. Swinton (chairman), Mr. J. A. Brodie and Sir Edwin Lutyens. Mr. V. Lanchester was subsequently consulted by the Government on certain aspects of the question. After a full consideration of all possible sites near the existing city of Delhi on which a new capital could be built, they found two alternative sites, known respectively as the Northern and Southern Sites—the former to the N. of Delhi and to the W. of the range of rocky hills which run S.W. from near the village of Wazirnbad (3} m. N. of the Kashmir Gate), giving a belt of land gradually increasing in width from W. to B. between the hills and the river Jumna; and the latter to the S. of Delhi and to the E. of this range.

The committee’s first report was issued on June 13 1912, and with regard to the Northern Site, on which the Durbar camps of 1911 had been pitched and where the inauguration stones were laid, they found it had some general advantages—This area is upwind and upstream of the existing city of Delhi; the ruins of the Delhis of the past do not cumber the ground; whilst external communications might need improvement, the area is fairly well served by existing railways; roads, canals and internal communications could be made convenient without excessive expenditure, and a good deal of money had already been spent on the area in connexion with the Durbar. But its disadvantages were found to be overwhelmingz—the site ".LS too small for the proposed new city, and part of the area was liable to flooding.

The committee therefore recommended the site on the eastern slopes of the hills to the S. of Delhi, on the margin of the area occupied by the Delhis of the past. They found this site free from liability to flooding, with a natural drainage. It Ill


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not too much cumbered with monuments and tombs needing reverent treatment and, whilst it was reasonably near the centre of the existing city, it was capable of almost indefinite expansion southward. The committee had also examined other areas in the neighbourhood but found none suitable for the purpose. No good site existed E. of the Jumna. Similarly the Naraina Plain, on the western slopes of the hills to the S. of Delhi, was not recommended mainly because a new city built there could hardly be considered to be Delhi at all, and the area was destitute of historical associations and shut out by the hills from all view of the existing city. This area was, however, found suitable as a site for the new cantonment.

The publication of this first report aroused considerable interest both in India and in England. Articles in the Indian press expressed a preference for the Northern Site, a predilection which had also been felt by the town-planning committee when they commenced their labours. In Dec. 1012 Sir Bradford Leslie read a paper before the Indian section of the Royal Society of Arts in London, in which he set forth plans for building the new capital on the Northern Site and producing a fine water effect by a treatment of the river _Iumna. The town-planning committee therefore, in Feb. r913, issued their second report, in which they restated the arguments for and against the Northern Site.

"The soil is r on the Northern Site as compared with the Southern. The uthern Site is already healthy and has healthy surroundings. The Northern Site, even after expenditure on sanitary requirements, will never be satisfactory. If the Northern Site IS to be made healthy, this involves going outside the site itself and making the neighbourhood healthy also. The building land to the S. is generally good. On the N., to be used at all, it has in places to be raised at considerable cost. There is no really suitable healthy site for a cantonment in proximity to a city on the Northern Site. The exigencies of fitting in the requirements to the limited area of the Northern Site endanger the success of a layout as a whole and tend to make for cramping and bad arrangement. The result of placing a city on the Northern Site appears to the committee to be the creation of a bad example in place of a good one."

In Feb. 1913 a committee was appointed to consider the comparative healthiness of the Northern and Southern Sites. The committee reported on March 4 1913 “ that no doubt can exist as to the superior healthiness of the Southern Site, the medical and sanitary advantages of which are overwhelming when compared with those of the Northern Site." The committee therefore, on March 20 1913, issued their final report with a layout for the proposed new city on the Southern Site.

The focal point of the new city (see map) is located on Raisina Hill, and the buildings of the Government Centre are arranged symmetrically about what is practically an E. and \V. axis connectin the focal point with the northwestern or Talaki Gate of the old ort of Indrapat or Purana Kila. The two great blocks of secretariats are situated to the N. and S. of this focal point, with Government Court between them. Westward from Government Court, a raised platform or i'orum connects Raisina Hill with the high ground of the southern ridge, so that the whole Government Centre appears to be built ona 5 ur of the ridge itself. This raised forum is known as the Viceroy's ourt and at the westem end of this court is situated Government House. The Vicero 's Court is also reached both from the N. and S. by roadways wit eas gradients and at the intersection of these roadways with the and W. axis of the court is placed the Jaipur Column surmounted by the Star of India.

Government House itself is also approached both from the N. and S. along fine avenues and to the westward of these avenues lies the vicer al estate. with its gardens and parks, wherein are located the bunga ows of the viceroy s rivate and military secretaries, and the surgeon and com troller, t e uarters for the viceroy's troops and bod 'guard and or other sta s connected with the viceregal estate. he southern of these two avenues leads from Government House to the residence of the commander-in-chief in India.

Below the eastern facade of the secretariats a forecourt, known as the Great Place, is laid out. This is partially enclosed by a beautiful Sanchi railing in red sandstone and is adorned with six water basins and fountains. In two chambers, one in each basement of the two secretariats, the chambers being entered from the Great Place, are now installed the inaugural stones laid by the KingEmperor, surmounted by the royal insignia cast in bronze.

Eastward again, below the Great Place, is a park known as the Central Vista, planted with lines of jaman-trees and having two water basins, one on either side of the central roadway, for the whole of its length. On either side of this Central Vista are arranged the houses of the members of Council. The Central Vista at its eastern end opens out into a park, hexagonal in shape, in which is to be


built the All-India War Memorial Arch. This central parkway was intended ultimately to terminate at a small lake, the waters of which would wash the base of the northern end of Indrapat.

A second principal avenue of the city intersects at right angles the Central Vista about midway in its len th. In the four angles formed by this intersection were plann four large buildings, to accommodate. amongst other institutions, the Imperial Record Ofhce, the Ethnological Museum, the Medical Research Institute, a Library and War Museum. At the northern end of this avenue is situated the business and commercial centre of the city. This consists of a circus, 1,600 ft. in diameter, around which are arranged 12 blocks of buildings, each three storeys high. At this circus the new post and telegraph office is to be located. Of the 12 roads which radiate from this centre, that due N. will give a state entrance to the new joint railwa station. This same avenue, southward of the Central Vista, wi I sight on to the Anglican cathedral, around which are built the residences of the rincipal officers of Government.

The avenue radiating due . from the focal point of the city on Raisina Hill sights on to the Roman Catholic cathedral, all around which are situated the houses of the Indian and European su erintendents and clerks of the secretariats, the Lady Hardinge Me ical College and Hospital for \Vomen being slightly to the north-east.

A ittle towards the E., the next main avenue asses through the business centre already referred to, and si hts in the distance on to the dome of the _Iama Masjid in the ol city. Immediately below the northern block of the secretariats is placed the building designed to accommodate the Council of State, the Legislative Assembly and the Chamber of Princes. A little farther eastward, the next avenue sights on to the proposed Delhi University.

Facing now due 5., an important avenue leads to the club, with the racecourse beyond, a large recreation park being slightly to the W. and Safdar _lang's mausoleum slightly to the east. Turning again a little farther to the E., we overlook the Lodi Park, in which are situated the tombs of the Lodi dynasty.

The eastern side of the city will be largely occupied by the residences of rulin princes and chiefs and prominent Indian gentlemen.

At the Royal Academy in 1914 there were exhibited drawings by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Mr. Herbert Baker (the architects jointly res nsible), which showed how it was proposed to treat the main arc itectural problems of the new ca ital. Government House and the two blocks of secretariats were p anned as one roup or capitol facing eastward, with the afforested southern ridge hind it to the west. A rolon ed “ battle of the styles " has been waged over the New Delhi, and; if these designs give satisfaction to neither of the extreme and opposed schools, they clearly showed an endeavour to apply, with due regard for Indian sentiment, the spirit of the great traditions of architecture to the solution of structural problems conditioned upon Indian climate and r uirements. The inspiration of these designs is manifestly Westem. ut they combine with it distinctive Indian features without doing violence to the principles of structural fitness and artistic unity.

Government Court has a length from W. to E. of about 1,100 ft. and a width between the two blocks of secretariats of about _%00 feet. These buildings have been designed by Mr. Baker. he eastern end of each block is marked by deep loggias looking out over the Central Vista. In the centre of each block is a dome. In the case of the N. block this marks an entrance hall; in the S. block it surmounts a conference hall with a suite of reception-rooms. Each block contains four floors: on the main round floor are the eneral ofiices of the departments; on the first oor are the offices 0 members of Council. secretaries and other officers; whilst the remaining floors are occupied by clerks' rooms and records. An 'essential feature of the design, and one which sets the character of the whole building. is the provision of loggias and recessed gateways or exedrae giving views through to the fountain courts situate in the interior of the blocks, and these take the place of the continuous verandahs that are so familiar a feature of Indian buildings. The architect relies for control of temperature on these 10 gias and recesses, on thick external walls, together with window s utters as adopted so widely in southern Euro , and on the wide chaj‘a characteristic of Oriental buildings. T‘hee Viceroy's Court is a ut 600 ft. in width and 1,300 ft. in length and it will be treated with grass, waterways and fountains and shady trees, and will form a dignified approach to Government House. Here will be erected the column, funds for which were provided by the Maharaja of Jaipur.

The great portico of Government House is raised some 20 ft. above the level of the Viceroy's Court and 3 ft. above the surrounding country. The house itself centres roun the great Durbar Hall, a domed structure which dominates the scheme of the buildings surrounding it. Grouped round the Durbar Hall are the state rooms and the great stairways from the entrance courts on the N. and S. sides. Projecting from this central block are four wings: that on the SW‘. contains the viceroy's private a artments; in the SE. wing accommodation is provided for the A. .C.'s to the vicero ; guests are accommodated in the N.W. wing; whilst the N. . wing contains the offices of the Viceroy's private and military secretaries. On the W. side of the house will be a raised garden, walled and terraced after the manner of the Moghals. This building, with the subsidiary buildings of the viceregal estate, has been designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens.

The building which will accommodate the Legislative Chambers is circular in plan and surrounded by a colonnade. The plan is divided into six sectors, utilized respectively by the Council Chambers and subsidiary accommodation for the Council of State, the Legislative Assembly and the Chamber of Princes, with three open courts se 1arating these three chambers. A common library is situated in t e centre of the buildin . The foundation stone for this building was laid on Feb. 12 1 21 gby the Duke of Connaught, and the building has been designe by Mr. Baker.

The All-India War Memorial is to be a monument in the form of a triumphal arch. it will be built in white stone u n a red sandstone base and will rise to a height of 162 feet. It will b: surmounted by a flare. so that on occasions of commemoration a column of smoke by day and of flame by night will rise. The structure consists of a mass pierced throu h from E. to W. by the great arch, 87} ft. high and 35 ft. wide, w ich spans the Processional Avenue. The iers thus formed are pierced by smaller arches which run throug at right angles to the main arch. The freedom from intricate ornament and the simplicity of the design give the monument an appearance of dignity. Above the great cornice is inscribed the one word “ lNDlA," flanked by the dates “ 1914 " and “ 1919." This monument was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, and the foundation stone was laid by the Duke of Connaught on _Feb. 10 1921. _ _

The estimate of cost for those works in the new capital which were bein carried out by Government, according to the revised figures available in March 1921. was Rs. (or at Rs. 15 t0 the £1, £8,612,000).

On Oct. 1 1 12. by proclamation, there was constituted the Administrative rovince of Delhi under a chief commissioner. This area was taken entirel from the old Delhi district of the Punjab. Delhi rovince ha originally an area of 528 sq. m., to which was adde later an area of 4¥jsq._m., t0 the E. of the Jumna river and taken from the United rovinces, to serve as a grazing ground for the cattle of the city. The total area of the province is now therefore 5 3 sq. m.. comprising, on the basis of the census of 1911, a pop. 0 412,821. H. W. M.")

DELISLE, LEOPOLD VICTOR (1826-1910), French bibliophile and historian (see 7.964), published in 1909 his edition of the Rouleau Mortuaire du B. Vital, Abbe dc Savigni, and also Les Acres dz Henri II. (vol. ii appeared in 1916). He died at Chantilly July 22 1910.

See R. L. Poole, Léopold Delisle (1911); X. Delisle, Lethe: dc Léopold Ddislc (1911—4).

DELIUS, FREDERICK (1863— ), English musical composer, born at Bradford, Yorks., Jan. 29 1863, was educated primarily at the International College, Isleworth, and was destined by his parents for a. mercantile career. To Delius the prospect thus held out was unendurable, though, rather paradoxically, when he declined the business career profiered to him in Bradford, he set out for Florida, where he established himself as an orange planter. His spare time, however, was devoted to such musical study as he could obtain from such books as were in his diminutive library. In this sense he, like Elgar, was selftaught. But he quickly broke away from orange-groves and betook himself to Leipzig, where he underwent a more or less regular course of training at the hands of Jadassohn, though probably he learnt more of practical use from Grieg who at that time was resident in Leipzig studying the art of scoring for a modern orchestra. In or about 1900 Delius took up his abode at Grez-sur-Loing (S. et L.), near Fontainebleau, which subsequently was his principal domicile, though he travelled in many lands. He was in Norway in 1897 when his incidental music was produced to Gunnar Hciberg’s Falkeraadcl, and, by its satirical use of the National Anthem, set the town by the ears. Meanwhile compositions flowed from his ready brain. He gave a concert of some of them in London in 1899 when his Légcnde for violin (composed in 1892) was produced. In 1893 his fantasie-overture Over the Hills and Far Away was done by Dr. Haym at Elberfeld, and followed in 1897 by his pianoforte concerto in C minor. This fine work, however, was ultimately recast and produced in London at a promenade concert in 1907 by Theo. Szanto, a Hungarian pianist. But before then, in 1896, Dclius's first opera, Koanga, was in the making. It was produced at Elberfeld in 1904. His second opera, Romeo and Julirl in the Village, was first performed at the Komische Oper in Berlin in 1907, and subsequently was given by Sir Thomas Bcccham at Covent Garden in Feb. 1910 and, in a revised version, in 1010. A third opera, Frnnimvrc and Gerda, was staged at Frankfurt all“ soon after the Armistice.


In between the intervals of opera-com in . Delius was v busy producin purely orchestral works-Polar zworks for ch03 and orchestra or the concert room. Thus Life's Dance dates from 1898; Paris: the Song ofa Great City from 1900; Appalachia (1903); Sea Draft (1904) ; A Mass of Life (after Nietzsche, 1905); Brigg Fair (1908); In a Summer Garden (1908) ; Requiem (1909); a Poem of Li]: and_Love and Evenlyr (191 ). Besides all this Delius composed a violin concerto and a doub e concerto for violin and Violoncello, a violin and a ‘cello sonata. and a string quartet, many songs and several a capella choruses.

DEMOBILIZATION AND RESE'l'l'LEMENT.—N0 labour problem of greater difficulty has ever had to be faced than that of national demobilization, whether military or civilian, after the World War, because of the dimensions to which the calling-up of national man-power had attained. An account of post-war demobilization and resettlement in industry, in the United Kingdom, from the civilian point of view, divides itself into three clearly marked periods: (A.), the preparations during the pre Armistice period; (13.), the action taken immediately after the Armistice; and (C.), during the first two years of resettlement. (For the Army demobilization. see Am.)

(A.) Pu-ARms-ncs PERIOD

There were two lines upon which British Government preparations proceeded during the pre-Armistice period in respect of civilian workers:—

(a) The bringing _of workers demobilized from munitions work andkwar work as quickly and as conveniently as possible to peace wor .

_(b) The rapid turnover from war to peace so that employment might be available for the lar est number at the earliest moment. For the provision for unemp oyment. see the article UNEMPLOYmam.

(a) The Bringing of Workers Demobilized from Munitions Work and War W0rk.—In making plans for the demobilization of civilians account had to be taken of the possibly simultaneous demobilization of the armed forces. The ideal would have been to have fitted civilian workers into their places before the forces had been demobilized so that there should be no confusion as between the two masses of demobilized persons. In point of fact it was recognized from the outset that it would be impossible to complete one process before the other began, first because industry could not in many places be started up again without the return of numbers of pivotal men with the forces, and secondly because large numbers of men with the forces had either a statutory right or a promise to return to a particular employment. It was accordingly necessary to frame a scheme for civilian workers which could work conveniently side by side with the scheme devised for the demobilization of the forces. The demobilization of the forces took into account throughout the necessity of approaching the matter, subject to paramount strategic considerations, upon an industrial basis. From the first report on military demobilization, signed in Dec. 1914 by Sir H. Llewellyn Smith and Sir R. H. Brade (as secretaries of the Board of Trade and War Ofiice respectively), right through to the second interim report of the Ministry of Reconstruction Committee on the demobilization of the army, in Oct. 1917, this aspect of the question was steadily faced. It was recognized that demobilization must be so arranged as to render the transition from war to peace as easy as possible, which meant arranging it so far as possible to fall in with the immediate needs of the postdrlr industrial situation.

The principles upon which the recommendations as to military demobilization proceeded must be briefly explained. in order that the way in which these were related to those laid down for civilian workers may be appreciated.

The objects aimed at were to reduce unemployment to the lowest possible point, but at the same time to make adequate pmvision_fot such unemployment as was inevitable. ln order to meet the hr‘ point it was recommended that demobilization should, subject to military exigencies. be carried out according to the requirements at trade and industry. which meant disbandini: first men for whom employment was ascertained to be available or men in trades specified in a priority list drawn up with reference to the rclatiu‘ urgency of the industrial requirements of the country. To me‘! the second oblect the committee recommended the Jimvisjnm 0| s free unemployment insurance policy to be given on emobiluauoa

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