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CONTRIBUTORS TO

THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA (11TH EDITION) AND THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES SIGNED BY THEM

ABBE, CLEVELAND, A.M., LL.D. (C. A.)
Meteorology.
ABBOTT, LAURENCE. (L. A.*)
Roosevelt, Theodore.
ABBOTT, REV. LYMAN, D.D. (L. A.)
Beecher, Henry Ward.
ABNEY, SIR WILLIAM DE WIVELESLIE, K.C.B., D.C.L.,
D.Sc., F .R.S. (\V. dc \V. A.)
Photography.
ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL, M.A. (I. A.)
gews, Dis ersion to Modern Times; and articles On Jewish
ubjects, cholars, &c.
ADAMS, BRAMAN BLANCHARD. (B. B. A.)
Railways, Accident Statistics; Signal, Army Signalling (in
part), and Railway Signalling (in pan).
ADAMS, PROF. FRANK DAWSON, D.Sc.,- Ph.D., F.R.S.
F. .D. A.
Britis(h Columb)ia. (in part) ; Quebec (in part) ; Queen Charlotte
Islands; Vancouver Island.
ADAMS, PROF. GEORGE BURTON, A.M., B.D., Ph.D., LltLD.
(G. B. A.)
Feudalism.
ADAMSON, ROBERT, M.A., LL.D. Bacon, Francis; Bacon, Roger; Berkeley, Bishop; Butler
Bishop (in part); Category (in part); Fichte; Hume, (in part) ; Kant (in part) ; &c.
ADDIS, REV. WILLIAM E., M.A. E. A.)
Order, Holy.
ADDISON, REV. DANIEL DULANY. (D. D. A.)
Protestant Episcopal Church.
AIRY, OSMUND, M.A., LL.D. (O. A.
Penn, William; Russell, Lord William; Shafteabury, lit earl
of; Sidney, Algernon; Somers, John, Lord.
AIRY, WILFRED, M.Inst.C.E. AY.)
Tacheometry; Weighing Machines.
AITKEN, JOHN, LL.D., F.R.S. A.*)
Dust.
AKERS, CHARLES EDWARD. (C. E. A.)
Brazil, History (in part) ; Chile, History (in par!) ; Peru,
History (in part).
ALABASTER, CHALONER GRENVILLE. (C. G. ALA.)
Money-Lending.
ALCOCK, CHARLES WILLIAM. (C. W. A.)
Football, Association (in part).
ALEXANDER, REV. WILLIAM LINDSAY, D.D., LL.D-
(W. L. A.)
Calvin (in fiart).
ALLBUTT, SIR THOMAS CLIFFORD, K.C.B.,_ M.A., M.D.,
D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. (T. C. A.)
Lister, 1st Baron; Medicine, Modern Progress; Semm'elweiss,
Ignatz.

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ALLEN, PERCY STAFFORD, M.A. (P. S. A.)
Erasmus (in part).
ALLEN, THOMAS WILLIAM, M.A. (T. W. A.)
Homer (in part).
ALLMAN, PROF. GEORGE JOHNSTON, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc.,
F.R.S. (G. A.)
Ptolemy (in part) ; Pythagoras, Geometry; Thales (in part).
ALPHANDERY, PROF. PAUL DANIEL. (P. A.)
Albigenses; Apostolici; Auto-da-Fé; Flagellants; Fraticelli;
Inquisition; John XXII. (pope) ; &c.

ANCHEL, ROBERT. (R. A.*)

Boissy D'Anglas, F. A. de; Cambon, Pierre Joseph; Convention,
The National; Cordeliers, Club of the; Hi-rault de Séchelles;
Louis XVI. ; &c.

ANDERSON, ADELAIDE MARY, M.A. (A. M. AN.)
Labour Legislation.

ANDERSON, JOHN GEORGE CLARK, M.A. G. C. A.)
Ancyra; Angora; Galatia; Gordium; Kastamuni; Pontus}
Sinope; &c.

ANDERSON, JOSEPH, LL.D. AN.)

Barrow; Crannog; Lake Dwellings; Tumulus. ANDERSON, WILLIAM, F.R.G.S. (W. AN.) Japan, japanese Art (in part). ANDERSON, LIEUT.-COL. WILLIAM PATRICK, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.G.S. (W. P. A.) Erie, Lake; Great Lakes; Michigan, Lake; Ontario, Lake; St Lawrence, River; Superior, Lake.

ANDREWS, PROF. HERBERT THOMAS. T. A.) Catechumen; Ignatius; Logia; Missions in pm); Polycarp; Presbyter. .

ANTROBUS, SIR REGINALD LAURENCE, K.C.M.G. (R. L. A.) St Helena (in part).

ARBER, EDWARD, D.Ll“., F.S.A. A.)

Smith, John (1580-1631).

ARCHER, THOMAS ANDREW, M.A. (T. A. A.)

Salvian; Silvester II. (pope); Templars (in part); Ursula, St
(in part) ; Vincent of Beauvajs.

ARMITAGE, REV. ELKANAH, M.A. AR.*)
Superintendent; Zwingli.

ARMSTRONG, EDWARD, M.A. AR.)

Charles V. ARMSTRONG, PROF. HENRY EDWARD, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (H. E. A.) valency. ARMSTRONG, SIR WALTER. Orchardson, Sir W. Q. ARNDT, WALTER TALLMADGE, A.M. (W. T. AR.) New York (in pm). ARNOLD, CHANNING, M.A. (C. All.) Australia, Aborigines.

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(B. w. B.) Iames, Epistle of ; Jude, The General Epistle of. BADEN-POWELL, MAJOR BADEN F. 8., F.R.A.S., F.R.MOLS. (B. F. s. B.-P.) Kite-flying. BAGWELL, RICHARD, M.A., LL.D. (R. BA.) Ireland, Modern History. BAILEY, CYRIL, M.A. (C. BA.) Roman Religion. BAILEY, JOHN EGLINTON. E. B.) Cryptography. BAILEY, LIBERTY HYDE, LL.D. H. B.) Horticulture, American (in part). BAIN, ROBERT NISBET. (R. N. B.) Hungary, History (in part) ; Poland, History (in part) ; Sweden, History (in fart); and Hungarian, Polish, Russian and Swedish biographies. BAINES, SIR JERVOISE ATHEISTANE, 0.5.1. (I. A. B.) Census; Population. BAIRD, SPENCER FULLERTON, LL.D. (S. F. B.) Henry, Joseph. ‘ BAIRD, WILLIAM RAIMOND, LL.D. (W. R. B1‘) Fraternities, College.

BAKER, HENRY FREDERICK, M.A., D.Se., F.R.S. . F. BA.) Difierential Equation; Function, Functions 0 Comp!“ Variables.

BAKER, JULIAN LEVETT, F.I.C. L. B.)

Fermentation.

BALCARRES, LORD, M.P., F.S.A. Art Galleries; Museums of Art.

BALDRY, ALFRED LYS. (A. L. B.)
Fortuny.

BALDWIN, HON. SIMEON EBEN, M.A., LL.D. (S. E. B.)
American Law ; Conveyancing, United States; Extradition,
United States.

BALE, EDWIN, R.I. BA.)

Process.

BALFOUR, PROF. ISAAC BAYLEY, M.D., F.R.S. (I. B. B.)

Angiosperms (in part).

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BALL, REV. CHARLES JAMES, M.A. (C. 1'. B3‘) Lamentations.

BALL, SIR ROBERT STAWELL, LL.D., F.R.S. (R. S. B.) Nebular Theory.

BALLANTYNE, ROBERT MICHAEL. (R. M. B.)
Life-boat, British (in part).
BALLIN, JACOB SAMUEL. S. B.)
Apprenticeship.
BALZANI, COUNT UGO, LitLD. (U. B.)
Villani, Giovanni.
BARCLAY, SIR THOMAS. (T. BA.)
International Law; Neutrality; Peace; and articles on other
subjects connected with International Law.
BARING, THE HON. MAURICE. (M. BA.)
Taine.
BARKER, PROF. ALDRED FARRER, M.Sc. (A. F. B.)
Alpaca; Felt; Wool, Worsted and Woollen Manufactures.
BARKER, ERNFST, M.A. BR.)
Crusades; Diet; Emperor; Empire;
Tancred; Teutonic Order; &c.
BARLOW, SIR HILARO WILLIAM WELLESLEY, BART.
(H. W. B.)
Sword, Modem Military (in part).
BARNABEI, FELICE, LitLD. (F. B.)
Herculaneum.
BARNES, REV. WILLIAM EMERY, M.A., D.D. (W. E. B.)
Ecclesiasticus.
BARRATT, J. ARTHUR, LL.B. A. BA.)
Admiralty Jurisdiction, United States.
BARRON, OSWALD, F.S.A. (0. BA.)
Arms and Armour, English; Butler, Family; Costume,

Jlledieval and M odern European; Genealogy, Modern; Heraldry; Howard, Family ; Russell, Family ; &c.

BARTLET, PROF. JAMES VERNON, M.A., D.D. V. B.) Acts of the Apostles; Apostle; Congregationalism; Hebrews, Epistle to the ; Matthew, St; Luke, St ; Paul, the Apostle; &c.

BARTLETI‘, JAMES. BT.)

Building; Carpentry; Heating; Masonry; Roofs; Sewerage; Timber; Ventilation; &c. ' BARTLEY, SIR GEORGE CHRISTOPHER TROUT, K.C.B. (G. c. T. B.) Savings Bahks (in part). BARTOLI, ADOLI-‘O. (A. BA. Italian Literature (in part .

BARWICK, GEORGE FREDERICK. (G. F. B.)

Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg; Alice, Grand-Duchess o! Hose:
Dhuleep Singh ; Lavigerie; Midhat Pasha.

BASTABLE, PROF. CHARLES FRANCIS, M.A., LL.D. (C. F. B.)
Bimetallisrn; Decimal Coinage ; English Finance; <‘inance ;
Monetary Conferences; Money; Seigm'orage; Token Money.

BATESON, MISS MARY. BAT.) ,

Borough, English.

BATHER, FRANCIS ARTHUR, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (F. A. B.) Echinoderma; Starfish.

BAUERMANN, HILARY, F.G.S. B.)

Anthracite; Coal (in part); Coke; Fuel, Solid; Safety-lamp.

BAXENDALE, WALTER. (\V. B.)

Dog (in part).

BEALBY, JOHN T. T. BE.)

Russia, Geography and Statistics (in part) ; Caucasia: St
Petersburg (in part) ; and other articles on Russian topography.

BEARE, THOMAS HUDSON, M.IDSLC.E., M.lnst.M.E. (T. H. B.)
Water Motors.

BEAZLEY, PROF. CHARLES RAYMOND, M.A., D.Lifl.,

F.R.G.S., F.R.HlSt.S. (C. R. B.
Columbus, Christopher; Cook, Captain; Hakluyt (in PM:
Henry the Navigator; Mercator; Polo, Marco (in part) ;
Ptolemy (in pm) ; Sindbad the Sailor, Voyages of; &c.

BECK, FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON, M.A. G. M. B.)
Germany, Ethnography and Early History; Sweden, Early
History; z'Ethelred; Deira; Goths (in part); Lombard: (in
part); Mercia; Northumbria; Saxons; Wessex; &c.

BECKE, ARCHIBALD FRANK. (A. F. B3’)

Waterloo Campaign.

BEDDARD, FRANK EVERS, M.A., F.R.S. (F. E. B.)

Earth~worm; Leech; Nematode (in part).

Peter the Hermit ;

I

BELL, HON. ARCHIBALD GRAEME, M.lnst.G.E. (A. G. 3.‘)
Georgetown (British Guiana) ; Guiana.
BELL, CHARLES FREDERIC MOBERLY. (C. F. M. B.)
N ubar Pasha.
BELL, GERTRUDE MARGARET LOTHIAN. (G. BE.)
Druses (in part).
BELL, LOUIS, Ph.D. (L. BL.)
Motors, Electric; Power Transmission, Electrical.

BELL, MALCOLM. (M. BE.)
Pewter; Sheffield Plate; Watts, George Frederick. I

BEMONT, CHARLES. D. 65 L., D.Lltt. (C'. B.*)
France, Bibliography 0] History; Annals; Beam; Chronlclol
Commines; Gascony; Sorel, Albert; Thou, Jacques de; 8w.
BENEDITE, PROF. LEONCE. (L. BE.)
Painting, Modem French; Sculpture, Modem French.
BENNE'l'l‘, REV. WILLIAM HENRY, M.A., D.D., D.Dtt.
(W. H. BE.) ‘
Ange ; Atonement; Balaarn; Beelzebub; Gomer; Ham;
Japhet ; Lamech ; Nimrod; Noah; Seth.
BENSON, ARTHUR CHRISTOPHER, C.V.O., M.A. (A. C. BE.)
Church, Dean.
BERNARD, VERY REV. JOHN HENRY, M.A., D.D., D.C.L-
(j. H. BE.)
Ireland, Church of.
BERNSTEIN, EDUARD. BN.)
Marx.

BERRY, GEORGE ANDREAS, M.B., F.R.C.S., (DC. A. BE.)
Eye, iseases.
BESANT, SIR WALTER. (W. BE.)
Froissart ; Jefleries.
BETHELL, LIEUT.-COL. HENRY ARTHUR. (H. A. B.)
Ordnance, Field Artillery Equipments.
BEVAN, EDWYN ROBERT, M.A. R. B.)
Alexander the Great; Demetrius of Macedonia: Helletfllml
Macedonian Em ire; Lysimachus; Perdiccas; Philip 1., II.,
and V. of Mace om'a ; Ptolernies; Seleucid Dynasty.
BHOWNAGGREE, SIR MANCHERJEE MERWANJEE, K.C.LE.
'I. M. Bu.
Aga n; Jezejeebhoy; Patel; Readymoney, Sit C. j.|
Takhtsingji.
BIDWELL, SHELFORD, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (S. BI.)
Magnetism.
BIGG, REV. CHARLES, M.A., D.D. (C. BI.)
Clement of Alexandria. (in part) ; Philo (in part).
BIGGAR, C. R. W., M.A., K.C. (C. R. ‘V. B.)
Mowat, Sir Oliver.
BIGGAR, HENRY PERCIVAL. P. B.)
Cabot, John; Cartier, Jacques.
BIISON, JOHN. BN.)
Architecture, Romanesque and Gothic (in Englcafl.
BINGHAM, PROF. HIRAM, A.M., Ph.D. (H. BI.)
Philippine Islands, History.
BINYON, LAURENCE. (L. B.)
Burne-Jones, Sir 12.; China, Chinm An; Lawson, Cecil
Gordon.
BIRDWOOD, SIR GEORGE CHRISTOP MOLEWORTH.
K.C.I.E. (G. B.)
Incense.
BISHOP, ISABELLA L.. (I. L. B.)
Korea (in part).
BLACK, C. E. D. (C. E. D. B.)
Kashgar (in pm .
BLACK, JOHN A. A. BL.)
Proof-reading (in part).
BLACK, REV. JOHN SUTHERLAND, M.A., LL.D. S. BL.)
Fasting: Feasts and Festivals; Free Church of tland (m
art); Huss, John: Kashgar (in part); M , the mother of
fiesus (in part) ; Mazzini: Missal; Nestor-lug?” part).
BLACKMAN, PROF. VERNON HERBERT, M.A., D.Sc. (V. H. B.)
Bacteriology, Botany; Fungi (in part) ; lichens (in part).
BLAIN, WILLIAM, C.B. (W. BL.)
National Debt, Conversions (in part).
BLAIR, ANDREW ALEXANDER. (A. A. B.)
Assaying.

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BLONDAL, SIGFUS. (S. BL.)
Hallgrtmsson; Iceland, Recent Litoratun Sigurdnson, Ml
Thomsen, Grimur; Thoroddsen, Jon. I I .

BLOUNT, BERTRAM, F.C.S., F.I.C. (B. BL.)
Cement.
BLOWITZ, HENRI G. S. A. (16. (DE B.)
Lesseps, Ferdinand de; Paris, History (in M.
BLUNT, CHARLES JASPER, A.O.D. (C. I. B.)
Mohmand Campaign; Tirah Campaign.
BLUNT, HERBERT WILLIAM, M.A. W. B’)
Logic, History. .
BLYTH, JAMES, M.A., LL.D. BL.)
Graduation.
BODLEY, JOHN EDWARD COURTENAY, M.A. (J. E. C. B.)
France, History, 1870-1910.
BOLTZMANN, LUDWIG. (L. BO.)
Model.

BONAR, JAMES, M.A., LLD. (J'. B.) Socialism.

BORLEY, JAMES OLIVER, M.A. O. B.

Dredge and Dredging, Marina; Trawling, and Netting.

BOSANQUET, ROBERT HOLFORD MACDOWALL, M.A., F.R.S..

mans. (R. H. M. B.) Organ, Modem.

BOTSFORD, PROF. GEORGE WILLIS, A.M., Ph.D. (G. W. B.) Amphictyony; Areopagus.

BOUDINHON, PROF. AUGUSTE, D.D., D.C.L. (A. B0.*) Canon Law, General; Cardinal: Conclave; Concordatl Consistory; Curia Romana; Decretnls; Index Librorum Prohibitonim; Infallibility; Pope; Syllabus.

BOULENGER, GEORGE A., Ph.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. (G. A. B.) Axolotl; Batrachia; Carp; Cat-fish; Cod; Flat-fish; Ichthy~ ology (in part) ; Salmon and Salmonidae; Trout ; &c.

BOULGER, DEMETRIUS CHARLES. (D. C. B.)

Belgium, Geography and Statistics ; Antwerp; Bruges;
Brussels; Rafiles, Sir Stamford; Tournai.

BOURCHIER, JAMES DAVID, M.A., F.R.G.S. D. B.)
Athens; Balkan Peninsula; Bulgaria; Crete, Geography and
Statistics and Modern History; Greece, Geography and
Modern History; Greek Literature, (111.) Modem; Macedonia;
Montenegro; &c.

BOURNE, PROF. GILBERT CHARLB, M.A., D.SO., F.L.S.,

ms. (G. c. B.)
Anthozoa: Coral-reefs.

BOUSSET, PROF. WILHELM. (W. B0.)
Antichrist; Basilides; Gnosticism; Valentina! and the
Valentinians.

BOUTELL, REV. CHARLES, M.A. (C. B.)
Effigies (in part).

BOWER, PROF. FREDERICK ORPEN, D.SB., F.R.S. (F. O. B.)
Hofmeister; Mohl, Hugo von.

BOX, REV. GEORGE HERBERT, M.A. (G. H. BO.)

{ohn the Baptist; oselgh (New Tesla : Jubilee, Year of

, in pm) ; Nahum; hy ctery (in part); S ekmah; Teraphim

in part) ; Urim and Thurnmim. v1,1

BOYLE, VERY REV. GEORGE DAVID, M.A., D.D. (G. D. B.) Colen'dge, S. T. (in part). . WW‘ .tq

BRABROOK, SIR EDWARD WILLIAM, C.B., F.S.A. W. B.) Building Societies, United Kingdom: Friendly Societies.

BRADFORD, PROF. JOHN ROSE, M.D., D.Se., F.R.C.P., F.R.S.

. R. B.)
Kldng Diseases (in part).
BRADLEY, VERY REV. GEORGE GRANVILLE, M.A., D.D.
(G. c. B.)
Stanley, Dean.

BRADLEY, HENRY, M.A., Ph.D. BR.)
English Literature I.) ; Beowulf; Caedmon; Cynewuli ;
Heliand; Orm; Rid es; Slang.

BRAEKSTAD, HANS LIEN. L. B.)
Nomay, History, 1814-1907.

BRAMWELL, EDWIN, F.R.C.P., F.R.S.(Edln.). BRA.)
Hysteria (in part).

BRANDIN, PROF. LOUIS MAURICE, M.A. (L. M. BR.)
Anglo-Norman Literature.

BRANDIS, SIR DIETRICH, K.C.LE., F.R.S. (D. BR.)

Teak (in pm).

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