« السابقةمتابعة »
what he wants in the quickest and easiest way has been the guiding principle thrqghout. It is, for instance, scarcely necessary to enumerate the different holders of a title web as the earldom of Derby, when the majority of them are dealt with only in the article “ Derby, Earls; of." In 'all such cases the one general reference,to the article has been allowed to cover all the particular references to individual earls; but if important references to these individuals occur in other articles, such as the article “ English History," they vill be found in the Index under the name of the earl in question
No index can divine every difficulty in advance or forestall every objection. There are many words, more or less synonymous, which might equally well be chosen as index heldings. Is “Arboriculture” or “ Forestry" to be taken' as the heading under whih to group foresters' lore ? Is theology and legend about the prince of darkness to )e indicated under the heading "Satan" or “ Devil"? Here the work of the compilers of th: Index has been to a great extent simplified by the necessity of following the article heaings, which all appear in the Index, standing out boldly in capital letters. There are artites on both “ Arboriculture" and " Forests and Forestry." The Index gives one reference to thefirst, adding a cross-reference "see also Forests and Forestry," and under this heading groups all further information on the subject. Similarly under “ Satan " we find “see Devil," and the first reference under “ Devil" is to the article so entitled. _
The aim of the Index is, in fact, twofold. In the first place it seeks to distribute under a still larger number of headings the information which the editor has distributed over 40,00cheadings in the book. The measure of success attained may be estimated by the fac that these headings total over 500,000, every one of which is, as it were, the slelcton of an encyclopxdic article. Even a single textual reference and a map-reference to a town nt important enough to call for a separate article enable the reader to find its geographical positiot its accessibility by rail, sea, river or canal, its distance from other towns, and its commercial, listorical or other principal interest. In the second place the Index seeks to group round :ach of the 40,000 article headings all other important references to the same subject found in (her parts of the book. It is important, however, to notice that in all such cases the first referenctgiven is the reference to the article itself, and that references to the same subject from other Iaticles will be naturally fewer in proportion to the amount of detail contained in that article. Hencc the absence of any specific reference in the Index to any special event in a man's life, or to one paiicular aspect of a well-known theory, does not imply that the information is not in the book, but rerely that it is so fully dealt with in the article itself that other references would add no substantial iformation.
On the other hand, in the case of very large articles such as those on Egypt. Egland or the United States, the Index will be found to contain further references to special sections If the article Arrangement itself. This is especially noticeable when it has been necessary to coect together “""m'wu- information germane to such sections from other articles. The best exmple of this principle is to be found in the history sections of the Index under the names of 2] the larger countries. The Index has throughout steadfastly avoided the common fault of suprying merely a long list of entries without specific description. Such entries—technically called “lind"—have been limited to four at the outside. Those which will be found standing at the head i a group of specified entries are to passages giving general information. Thus, if a commander as an article heading, the first entry directs the inquirer to that article: the second perhaps 3 a passage describing his importance in the history of the country to which he belonged ; the thirdto an article on the military aspects of the war in which he fought. Specified entries thereafter w'll refer to particular battles described in and by themselves from the tactical standpoint. All suth enf'ies.
Selection of headings.
however, are ‘admitted only .Pih they lead to material information not in the article on the commander himself. I - e , This has been the first economy. The second has been effected by the shortness of the form of reference adopted. It is a moot point how far an index should itself convey information. Is every individual to have a date and a description attached to his name? If he has, he will occupy two lines, where one will do; if he has not, he may get confused with a place or a thing, or with , another person of the same name. To obviate this catastrophe Christian names Ma; r initials are given wherever possible, and in their absence a short description, 2g. Nhmmi‘author," “general," “vizier,” “Persian governor." Geographical references can be recognized s such by the fact ‘that every town name is followed by an abbreviation indicating the country in which it is situated, whilst physical features such as lake, river, mountain are so described. Now and again, no doubt, confusion is possible; every index has its humours, and at first sight the _cryptic form " Folk, 0. 20-26 (l-l-l4) ” may not suggest a town in Ohio. But the initiated, who have consulted the list of abbreviations on p. 1, will know that on p. 26 in vol. 20 they will find that place in the map square (ll-14). In the case of references which are neither to persons nor to places, a description is seldom given, the assumption being that the man who consults an index knows what he is looking for and is capable of recognizing it when he sees it. But in the case of names very similar to each other, or of terms used in more than one science, such distinguishing marks as “geol.", “ bot." or “2001.” are added in parentheses. In a word, the principle has been‘ to avoid any possible confusion. The system of alphabetization adopted is that of the Encyclopedia itself, which takes every _ heading, whether consisting of one word or of more than one, as read right through. For example, "Ant" comes before “Antae," but "Ant-bear" between "Antarctic" and “Ant- Abb‘bgtlll eater." ' Some slight modifications have, however, been introduced. In the case of ""1persons bearing the same first name, but with various distinguishing epithets or phrases which, if read right through, would cause them to be separated by intervening blocks of geographical or other references, these suffixes have been enclosed in brackets, so that all persons bearing the names Albert, Alfonso, Alexander, John, William, &c., worthy of reference in the Index, stand in .a continuous list. These lists are then alphabetized by the sufiix or territorial designation. Where the number of such persons is very great the territorial magnates are placed in one list
arranged thus :_ Alexander (of Macedon) '
and the scholars, bishops, chroniclers, &c., in another list, as—
The system adopted for the’ geographical references has already been indicated. It will be found that the very numerous maps have been systematically indexed throughout, and that every place marked in them appears in the Index, these map references being M8,, "fer, readily distinguishable by the addition of letter and number in brackets, indicating Ina-'8' map squares, ag. 5-403 (A2). "The Index is, _therefore, not only an index, but also a gazetteel.
The numerous illustrations, whether Plates or Cuts in the text, received careful consideration. As economy of space was throughout an urgent necessity, it was finally decided not to index the illustration‘ ‘as such where’ it appears in its natural context, or where there is a reference to the description in the text. For instance, the article “Carp,” about a column in length, contains an illustration. It did not appear necessary to duplicate the reference to “ Carp" in the Index, so as to indicate this figure. But if the figure had appeared elsewhere (cg. m mutation" the article "1chthy010gy"), the Index would have added to its references under l “ Carp" a reference to the volume and page where this figure occurred, with the contraction “fig.” & after the reference. The reference is always specifically given, if the figure is not described in I the text. The Plates illustrating long articles such as Painting, Sculpture, Greek Art, Ceramics, " Heraldry, Ship, &c., are indexed wherever there is no text reference, and wherever the Plat itself has a sufficiently distinctive title. Little would be gained by directing a man to sud} illustrations as “Faience plaque, Cnossus" under that title; but he can be directed under th 7 name "Cnossus” to illustrations of articles found there. Or if he is interested in the works of a\ particular sculptor, the Index will assist him more by a reference under that sculptor’s name to the \ ‘Plates of his works in the article "Sculpture," than by specific references to the names of works_ ‘ known only to experts. On the other hand, pictures, statues or other objects of interest bearing 3 well-known distinctive names are separately indexed with their Plate references.
One other class of references calls for special notice. It has been the aim of the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica to assist readers in the interpretation of technical or unusual
Dictionary terms. To this end the editor has included a number of dictionary headings, Le. I
1"“"19- short articles giving the derivation, meaning and various uses of such terms. These article headings appear as a matter of course in the Index, but a much greater number of terms, English and foreign, defined in the course of the scientific, philosophical and other articles have
also been indexed. To such references the word “ dict." is added by way of an indication that the ,
information to be found will be of a dictionary rather than of an encyclopaedic character.
The value of any index- depends to a large extent on the fulness of its cross-references. This( Index has tried' to supply a reasonable number of variants to names which a reader may look for’ am”. under more than one spelling. It has also indicated the relationship between family “fawn” names and titles, by cross-referencing the first to the second. Under such geographical prefixes as "North," "South," "High," “ Low," “Great,” “Little,” a general crossreference indicates that such names are as a rule to be found reversed, cg. "Wycombe, High," except in American place-names, and a few other special cases. It should be observed that the simple cross-reference ("julius Caesar: see Caesar") is used only when the two sides of the .eference are exactly equivalent. Other cross-references (mg. a single peer to the family title) are in the form "see also " or "see under."
An entirely new feature has been added to the Index volume of this edition for the use of those desiring to study subjects as a whole. At the conclusion of the Index proper there will be found a Classified up), classified table of contents, in which the article headings in the Encyclopaedia are “mmentg- grouped broadly according to their subjects, e.g. Geography, History, Religion, Art, and subdivided into their natural sections (eg. Art into Painting, Sculpture, Music, Architecture). In all cases the biographical articles will be found together with the appropriate subject headings. A fuller account of the system adopted is prefixed to the table itself.
At the end of the volume is appended a complete alphabetized list of the contributors of signed Lino! articles, the principal articles being specified. This supplements the special lists mmb't‘m' prefixed to each of the twenty-eight volumes, where biographical information about
the contributors is given.
JANET E. HOGARTI—I.
I. Tim—Headings printed in bold Clarendon type (e.g. ALEPPI) represent article headings in the Encyclopwdia, and the firs icfcrence under every such heading is to the article in questiri. I
All rferences show (1) the volume in bold Clarendon figures ; (2) th page in light face type; (3) the exact quarter of the page ‘_\‘ means of the letters a, I), c, d, signifying respectively the ippt-r and lower halves of the first and second columns, e.‘ A (letter) i-la. In geographical references these letters are rplaced by an indication of the map square in the usual form, Lg. “(B4),"
Amie 0r dash (—) denotes the repetition of the preceding heading, 01' of its first-separate word. Hyphened words are treated 85 Single ‘\vords. Headings in italic type denote books, news
as part of the heading for alphabetical purposes except II" a
Ill. Geographical Headings—The names of towns and villages are followed by the abbreviation for the couritry to which they belong. For this purpose English counties and the states of the United States rank as countries. All other topographical headings are described as “riv.,” “mt,” &c. In cases like “Big Mountain,” ?‘ Big River,” denoting physical features the arrangement is
-—-,riv. Such a heading as “ Big Mountain, Utah” would therefore denote a town, not a mountain. In the names of American counties, ag. Madison Co., the word Co. is treated as part of the heading.
IV. Abbreviations—The following list includes general contractions adopted for the purpose of this Index. The contractions usual in special branches of knowledge are included in the Index itself and in the article Abbreviation (vol. i. page 27).
-' LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Aby- Abysolnin Babyl. Bnbyloiiia Cape Col. Cape Colony
Dorset. Dur. E-l\ln Ec. eecl. econ. Egy. eieo. omhryol. Eng. engin. Ep. Erit. Ess. est ethnol. Eur. Falkls. Fin. Fla.
Glos. Go.Ost. gov t. (i 1'.’ Green. 0 not. 0 uin. llai. Hunts harb. Haw. her. llereiford. lIerts. llorz. Hell. llo nd. hort. Hung. liunts. I. In. Ice. Ida. Iii. Ind. Ind.O. I. o! M. Ire. Is. isl. isls. lath. It. Iv.Cst. Jam. J up. J av. Kan. Ker. Ky. I18» Lab. Lao.“Lag. Lanes. Lelcs. 11 I h I Lib.Des. Lines. lit. Lend. Luxem. Lye. In.
East A irlca
N .J .
Okla. Ont. Orcg. Or.Fr.St. Oxon. Pa. Pac.O. Pal. paiacog. Pan. Para g. path. penln. Pcrs. petrol. phllol. phllos. phot. phren. phys. physioi. P.Is. plat. Port. Port.E.At. PorLGuin. RR. prnv. Prus.
N orth-East. Africa
N ew Mexico
N ew York
Orange Free State Oxfordshiro Pennsylvania Pacific Ocean Palestine palaeography Panama Paraguay pathology peninsula
petrology philoiogy philosophy photography phrenelogy physics physiology Philippine Islands plateau Portugal Portuguese E. Atrica Portuguese Guinea Porto Rice province
Russia in Asia
Sierra Leone sociology Somersclshire Somuliiand Spain Staflordshire strait
Yucatan Zanzibar zo nlogy