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Agglutination Test—A serological test which has undergone some development in .recent years is that of agglutination. It has ome more necessary to distinguish between 5 ecific and group agglutination. When an agglutinating serum has en prepared by inoculating an animal with one species of bacteria, it is found that the serum is capable, not only of agglutinating that species to a high degree (5 ecihc agglutination). but also frequently of agglutinating other c osely re ated species (group or co-ag lutination), and this sometimes to Bractically the same extent as it oes the homoloous species. Furt er, it has been observed that an organism isolated firom an individual infected with some other quite alien, bacterial species will have acquired. more or less temporarily, the property of agglutinating with serum specific to that alien infecting species. This is called parag lutination. Perhaps the most striking case of paragglutination is t at of a certain strain of B. Proteus, named by its discoverers X19, and isolated by them from cases of typhus. Here an or anism, well known as an agent of bacterial decomposition and 0 some virulence for the human body, though productive of no symptoms com rable with those of typhus and believed not to participate in t at disease at all, has acquired the property of agglutinating with the serum of individuals who have contracted tyhus. This it does to so marked a degree that the paragglutination as actually been used as a means of diagnosing the illness, far removed from one another though B. Proteus and the causal agent of typhus are in the scale of living organisms. And in this case, the paragglutinating character has been seen to be more than a tempora acquisition.
bsorption Test—To distinguish between specific and non-specific or group agglutination, a modification of the agglutination test is employed—the absorption test. It is found that, after complete absorption of a serum with its own 5 cific species, all agglutinins have been removed. When a co-a g utinating species is employed only the group agglutinins will be a sorbed, the specific agglutinins remaining intact. By this means it has been possible to discriminate between closely related strains and to divide species into a variety of types. This has been notably the case with the neumococcus, the meningococcus, the dysentery and paratyphoid groups. The recognition of the existence of different types of pneumococci and meningococci has proved of great im rtance for diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic reasons. In t e case of prophylactic inoculation against pneumonia, as carried out so extensively by Lister on South African miners, it was seen to be very essential that the types predominant should be outstandin ly represented in the vaccine used. In the serum therapy of bot pneumonia and cerebrospinal meningitis cases it is necessary for the best results that the type of pneumococcus and meningococcus concerned should be known and a corresponding anti-serum administered. When dealing with B. tetanus, on the other hand, the importance of distinguishing between the various agglutinatory and absorptive types does not maintain; an identical toxic element appears to be common to them all, so that one anti-toxin serves for whatever type may be responsible for the infection.
Schick Test—Valuable aid in combating diphtheria epidemics is afforded by the Schick test. This supplies a criterion of the immunity an individual possesses against infection by the diphtheria bacillus and is carried out by the injection of a small quantity of diphtheria toxin into the skin of the person tested. If the individual possesses immunity the toxin is neutralized and no reaction in the tissues takes place; if there is no immunity the toxin, by irritation of the skin, sets up a small inflammatory condition which is easily recognizable. The practical application of this measure lies in the possibility thus afl'orded of discovering, in, say,_ a school or other arge bod of people who are running the risk of diphtheria infection, which in ividiials possess no natural immunity and thus need safeguarding. The treatment, which may then be limited to those requiring it, consists of passive immunization with diphtheria antitoxin, if protection is needed for but a short time; or, if active immunization, by injecting a mixture of toxinand anti-toxin, in which case the immunit acquired may be expected to last for one to two
ears. Those individuals who, without treatment, disclose by the
hick test a natural immunity are regarded as possessing it probabl for life.
“silliness—References to most of the work here detailed can be found only in the journals specially devoted to those subjects, the more important of these being :—British Medical Journal; Lancet; Journal 0 Pathology and Bacteriology; Journal of Hygiene; Tropical Diseases ulletin; Special Reports of the Medical Research Council; Journal of Experimental Medicine; Journal of Infectious Diseases; Journal of Medical Research; International Journal of Public Health; Annales de l’Institut Pasteur; Bulletin de l‘Institut Pasteur; Zeit
schrift ju‘r H giene und Iryektionskrankheiten; Centralblatt fu'r Bocteriologie. hmann and eumann's Bakteriologische Diagnostik
(1920) contains many literature references, mainly European. (H. L. H. S.) BADEN, FREE STATE 01’ (see 3.r84).-—The population of the Free State of Baden, Germany, was, according to the census of rote, 2,208,503. Political and Constitutional H istory.——Ba.den was, till the
revolution of 19x8, a constitutional monarchy; the sovereign bore the title of Grand Duke. The Diet (Londtag), which was composed of two Chambers, had indeedutheright of legisla‘ tion and of voting taxation, but the ntin'atéi-s' were appointed by the Grand Duke at his own discretion. The government had always been conducted in a liberal spirit; Baden had in Germany the reputation of being the model of a diminutive Liberal country (ein Libcroles M usterldndle), though the population was preponderatingly Catholic. Thereiwas certainly a powerful Clerical minority in the second Chamber of the Diet. When at a general election there was a danger that a ClericalConservative majority would be elected, the two Liberal parties (the National Liberals and the Progressists) concluded an alliance for election purposes with the Social Democrats, thus constituting the so-called “ grand bloc.” The result was that the Social Democrats held a considerably difi’erent position in Baden from that which they occupied in the empire.1 But in Baden, too, the line was drawn at allowing Socialists to become members of the Government. The Social Democratic party nevertheless endeavoured to place as few difliculties as possible in the path of the Government, and it did not, as elsewhere, vote against the budget. When the World War broke out in 1914, the leader of the Baden Social Democrats, Ludwig Frank, at once enlisted as a. volunteer and fell in one of the earliest battles.
The Liberal sympathies of the Baden dynasty were maintained during the war. The heir to the throneLPrince Max of Baden, tried to exercise his influence in favour of a peace by understanding and of Liberal reforms in the internal policy of the empire. When in Oct. 1918 William II. at last decided to agree to the reform of the constitution by which the parliamentary form of government was introduced for the empire, Prince Max was appointed imperial chancellor. It was too late. He could not arrest the progress of the revolution. When the monarchy fell in the empire, it could not be maintained in Baden, although there was in this instance no reason for complaint on the score of misgovernment. On Nov. 10 the revolutionary Provisional Government was formed, containing representatives of the Social Democratic, the two Liberal parties and the Catholic Centre. On Nov. 22 the Grand Duke therefore definitely abdicated, with the assent of the heir to the throne, Prince Max.
The Provisional Government of Baden issued as early as Nov. 20 an ordinance by which elections were instituted for a National and Constituent Assembly.’ This representative body met on Jan. 15 r919 and at once began to discuss the draft of the constitution which had been submitted to it by the Government. On May 21 1919 the new constitution was passed by the National Assembly. Baden was thus the first German state which put an end to the lawless revolutionary situation. The consequence, it is true, has been that the Baden constitution has in several points been nullified by the con~ stitution of the Reich, which was enacted at a later date; for the independence of the German Territories, as the states united in the ‘Reich are designated, was considerably curtailed by the constitution of the Reich of the year 1919. Nor is there any room in the constitutions of the Territories for provisions regarding the “ Fundamental Rights of the People," since the constitution of the Reich has settled these Fundamental Rights.
Baden in 1 2! was a republic with a democratic constitution. The powers 0 State were actually vested in the Diet (Landtag), which consists of a single Chamber. The Diet does not only possess the right of legislation, but it chooses the ministry and selects from among the ministers the minister-president. He has the title of
" President of the State," but he is not the head of the state, but merely the person who presides over the minist The Diet can
at any time dismiss the whole ministry or individual members
of it. The franchise for the election to the Diet is possessed by all men and women who have completed their twentieth ear. There must be a general election every four years. The disso ution of the Diet can be brought about before the end of the legislative period by a vote of the people. Laws can also be passed by a vote of the ople, and that in two ways: a law which has been voted by the iet can be submitted to the vote of the ple by the Referendum, if the ministry so decides or if the peope itself so demands: secondly, an appeal may be proposed‘byPopular Initiative. Laws involvmg an amendment of the constitution must always be submitted to a Popular Referendum. The constitution of Baden has thus a great resemblance to that of the Swiss Confederation; but there is the essential difference that in Baden the Government is dependent upon Parliament. (W. v. B.) BADENI, KASIMIR, COUNT (1846-1909),‘ Austrian statesman, was born Oct. 14 1846 at Surachovo in Galicia, his family being of Italian origin. He studied law and served some years in the Ministry of the Interior and from 1879 at Cracow as lieutenant of the governor of Galicia. He resigned the Government service in 1886, but two years later was appointed governor (Statthalter) of Galicia, where he ruled the Ruthenians with a strong hand. In Sept. 1895 he was appointed Austrian prime minister, and his attitude was at first satisfactory to the German-Austrians. In 1897, however, in order to gain the support of the Czechs for the new Ausgleich with Hungary, he made certain important concessions in respect of the official use of the Czech language in Bohemia. This was done by ordinance, without parliamentary sanction, and met with violent opposition from the German deputies, some of whom were imprisoned. The storm of indignation aroused among the German-Austrians by this policy, which led to imposing demonstrations in the streets of Vienna, led to Badeni’s downfall on Nov. 28 1897. He died July 9 1909. (C. BR.) BADOGLIO, PIE'I‘RO (1871— ), Italian general, was born at Grazzano (Alessandria) Sept. 28 1871. He received his commission in the artillery, and thence passed to the general stafi. During the Italo-Turkish War he served in Tripoli on the staff, receiving special promotion to major after the battle of Zanzur in June 1912. In the spring of 1915 he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel and on Italy's entry into the World War he held the post of sub-chief-of—stafI of the II. Army under Gen. Frugoni. In quick succession he acted as chief-of-staff of the 4th Division, and commanded the 74th Infantry Regiment on Monte Sabotino. In July 1916 he received another step, and as colonel commanded the “ Slbotino Sector.” He planned and carried out the successful attack on Monte Sabotino which preceded the fall of Gorizia (Aug. 1916). For this success he was once more promoted. After serving as chief-of-staff of the VI. Corps and commanding the Cuneo Brigade, he became chief-of-stalf of the so-called “ Gorizia Zone ” under Capello, with whom he remained when the command of the “ Gorizia Zone ” was extended to the whole II. Army. On the eve of that army's offensive in May 1917, Capello, dissatisfied with the artillery preparation in the sector of the II. Corps, obtained the appointment of Badoglio as interim commander of the corps (May 12). After the capture of Monte Kuk and Monte Vodice this appointment was confirmed, and he received another step of promotion. He commanded the II. Corps at the beginning of the August offensive but when the XXVII. Corps on the extreme left of the attack failed to make the progress expected he was sent to take over the corps. This time, however, the endeavour to make up for lost time was unavailing. At the battle of Caporetto, Badoglio commanded the same corps, the left wing of which was broken by Otto von Below’s attack from the Tolmino bridgehead. On the reorganization of the Italian Supreme Command (Nov. 1917) he was appointed as one of the two sub-chiefs-of-staff then nominated, the other being Gen. Giardino. From Feb. 1918, on Giardino’s transference to Versailles, Badoglio acted as sole sub-chief-of-staff under Diaz. He conducted the Armistice preliminaries at Villa Giusti, and signed the Armistice on behalf of Italy. In Nov. 1919 he was appointed to the rank of army general and from Diaz's resignation to Feb. 1921 he was chief of the general staff in succession to Diaz.
Badoglio’s rapid rise was explained by the qualities which he showed in a special degree: determination, energy, and thoroughness. These qualities, joined to a natural military instinct developed by much study and backed by a powerful ambition, marked him out early and brought him very, quickly to the front. He was blamed in various quarters for his ‘disposition of the XXVII. Corps before the Austro-German attack in Oct. 1917, but the Caporetto Commission of Inquiry rejected most of the criticisms made upon him.
BAEYER, JOHANN FRIEDRICH WILHELMI ADOLF VON (1835-1917), German chemist (sec 3.192), died at Munich Sept. 5 1917. Up to within a year of his death he continued in full active work as one of the best-known teachers in the world of organic chemistry.
BAGWELL, RICHARD (1840-1918), Irish historian, was born Dec. 9 1840, the eldest son of John Bagwell, M.P. for Clonmel from 1857 to 1874. Educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford, he was afterwards called to the English bar, but never practised. As a large landowner in Tipperary he devoted constant and conscientious attention to local afi'airs, serving on all boards and committees until 1898 when, on the passing of the Local Government Act, his wide experience led to his appointment for five years as a special local government commissioner. In 1905 he became a commissioner for national education. As a historian his reputation rests mainly on his two works, Ireland under the Tudors (5 vols. 1885—90) and Ireland under the Stuarts (5 vols. 1909-16), which are monuments of careful research and wide learning. In recognition of his historical work he was given the hon. degree of Litt.D. by Dublin University in 1913 and that of D.Litt. by Oxford University in 1917. Mr. Bagwell was an uncompromising Unionist, and was well known as a speaker and writer for the cause. He died at Marlfield, Clonmel, Dec. 4 1918.
BAIRNSFATHER, BRUCE (1887— ), English humorist, was born at Murree, India, July 9 1887, and was educated at the United Services College, Westward Ho. He became a civil engineer, and also had some military experience in a. militia battalion of the Royal Warwickshire Regt. In 1914 he rejoined this regiment and went to France, serving there until 1916, when he obtained a War Oflice appointment. Bairnsfather’s reputation as an artist was made by his black
~and-white sketches of life in the trenches, which first appeared
in The Bystander. His soldier characters became popular favourites, and a play, The Better ’Ole (1917), founded on the adventures of “ Old Bill ” and his friends, enjoyed a great success. Many of Bairnsfather’s drawings were published in volumes entitled Fragments from France. He also produced Bullets and Billets (1916) and From Mud l0 Mufti (1919). In 1919 he started Fragments, a weekly comic paper.
BAKER, GEORGE PIERCE (1866— ), American educationist, was born at Providence, R. 1., April 4 1866. He graduated from Harvard in 1887 and taught English there as instructor, assistant professor and, from 1905, as professor. His courses dealing with the theory of the drama were highly successful, and his famous laboratory, known as the “47 Workshop,” afforded practical training for his students, many of whom became well-known playwrights. In 1919 he was entrusted with the preparation of a pageant to commemorate the tercentenary of the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth in the State of Massachusetts. This pageant, “ The Pilgrim Spirit,” was presented accordingly at Plymouth in Aug. 1921.
His works include Specimens of Argumentation (1893); Principles 0 Argumentation (1825); The Forms of Pnblic Address (190 ); ' he _Devel?1nent of S akespeareas a D_ramamt (1907); Some npublzshed 0rrcspondence o Damd Garnck (1907); The Correspondonce 0 Charles Dickens a lllan'a Beadnell and Dramatic Technique (1919 and Modern American Plays (collected and edited with introduction, 1920).
BAKER, HERBERT (1862— ), English architect, was born in 1862, and educated at Tonbridge school. He was articled to Arthur Baker, and later entered the office of Sir Ernest George, where he remained as assistant for some years. He studied at the R.A. schools, and in 1889 was awarded the Ashpital prize of the R.I.B.A. In 1892 he left England for South Africa, and there, with Cecil Rhodes as his friend and patron, began the work of reviving the old traditions of the architecture and craftsmanship of the colony. For Rhodes he built Groote Schuur, afterwards the permanent home of the prime ministers of South Africa, and also a house which the same patron built on Table Mountain for his friend Rudyard Kipling. Cecil Rhodes sent him on a tour of travel and study in Egypt and southern Europe, and, as a recognition of this generosity and the value of such an opportunity to a young architect, Baker founded the South African Scholarship at the British School in Rome. After the death of Rhodes he carried out the great Memorial on the slopes of Table Mountain, important features of which were the sculpture work of J. M. Swan, R.A.——the bronze lions and a head of Rhodes himself— and the mounted equestrian figure-—“ Physical Energy”— by G. F. Watts, R.A.
The end of the South African War saw Baker in full practice in the Transvaal and South Africa. In addition to the Government buildings at Pretoria—the administrative capital of South Africa—he carried out the cathedrals at Cape Town, Pretoria, and Salisbury, and many colleges and schools. Amongst the houses he built in South Africa are the Government House in Pretoria, and that for Sir Lionel Phillips, afterwards the governor-general’s Johannesburg home. He also designed the buildings for the S. A. Institute of Medical Research at Johannesburg, and laid out many model mining villages on the Rand. His works in England include Sir Philip Sassoon’s house at Lympne and the restoration of Chilham Castle, Kent. He was appointed one of the three principal architects for the war cemeteries in England and Flanders, and carried out many war memorials in England, amongst them those at Canterbury, Winchester and at Harrow school. Baker was appointed in 1913 joint architect for the new Imperial City of Delhi, in collaboration with Sir Edwin Lutyens. For this great scheme he designed the buildings for the secretariats, the Legislative Assembly, the Councils of State and of Princes, and the Viceroy’s Dome for General Assembly.
BAKER, NEWTON DIEHL (1871— ), American politician, was born at Martinsburg, W. Va., Dec. 3 1871. He was educated at Johns Hopkins (AB. 1892) and Washington and, Lee (LL.B. 1894). In 1896 he became private secretary to Postmaster-General Wilson, but the following year opened a law office in his native town. Later he moved to Cleveland, 0., where in r902 he was made city solicitor and in 1912 mayor. The latter office he had held for two terms when in 1916 he was appointed US. Secretary of War by President Wilson. He had declined the Secretaryship of the Interior in 1912. After the outbreak of the World War he endorsed the Administration’s peace policy, supported the League to Enforce Peace, and urged that the national guard be tried fully before compulsory service be decided upon. After America entered the war he recommended moderation towards conscientious objectors and forbade men in uniform to interfere with anti-conscription meetings. The charge of pacifism was often brought against him, and his career generally as Secretary was widely condemned throughout the United States as lacking in energy, foresight and ability, and especially for his failure to prepare adequately in the months immediately preceding the American declaration of war.
BAKST, LEON NICOLAIEVICH (1866— ), Russian painter and theatrical designer, was born at St. Petersburg May 10 (April 27 0.5.) 1866. He was educated at St. Petersburg, where he afterwards studied art, and later went to Paris, subsequently returning and working in Moscow. In 1906 he seitled in Paris, and soon became popular as a designer. In 1909 the Imperial Russian Ballet first visited Paris, and Bakst at once leapt into fame through his designs for the setting of the ballets Scheherazade and Cleopatra, followed in 1012 by L'/! presMidi d'un Fauna, Héléne dc Sparta, and SI. Sebastian, and in 1913 by La Pisanella. He published in 1913 an article in La Nouvclle Revue, entitled “ Les l’roblémes de l’Art Nouveau.”
See L'Art décoratif de Lian Boles‘, with appreciation by Arsene Alexandre, translated by H. Melvill (1913).
BALAKIREV, MILI ALEXEIVICH (1836-1910), Russian musical composer (sec 3.234), died at St. Petersburg in May 1910.
BALDISSERA, ANTONIO (1838-1917), Italian general, was born at Padua 1838, and died at Florence, on Jan. 9 1917. His birthplace in 1858 being still under Austrian rule, young Baldissera entered the Austrian army, in which he served with distinction in an infantry regiment; he was captain in the 7th Jagers at Custozza (1866). But when Venetia became Italian, he opted for Italian nationality, retaining his rank in the Italian army. In 1879 he was promoted colonel of the 7th Bersaglieri and major-general in 1887, when he went to Eritrea under Gen. Asinari di San Marzano, remaining in the colony as governor after the latter’s return. Both as a soldier and an administrator he showed high qualities. He occupied Asmara, Korea and other territories, defeated the armies of Ras Alula, and had planned still further extensions of Italian dominion, profiting by the anarchy of Abyssinia. He organized the admirable native troops (Ascari), developed agriculture and built roads. But owing to a disagreement with the home Government over his Abyssinian policy he asked for and obtained his recall after two years of successful activity. In 1892 he was promoted lieutenant-general. When war with Abyssinia broke out in 1895 the then governor of the colony, Gen. Baratieri, did not enjoy the confidence of the Government, which decided to send out Baldissera once more. Although the appointment was kept secret, Baratieri got wind of it, and this probably decided him to attack the enemy with an inferior force and insufficient supplies, hoping to win glory for himself before his successor’s arrival. The result was the disaster of Adowa (March I 1896); when Baldissera arrived he found a defeated and demoralized army, and the victorious enemy advancing in force. With lightning speed he reorganized the remains of Baratieri's army and the reenforcements just landed, freed the beleaguered garrisons of Cassale and Adigrat, drove back King Menelck’s army and reoccupied a large part of the lost territory. But peace was concluded before he had completely retrieved the defeat of Adowa, and he was forced to limit his activities to the internal reorganization of Eritrea. But even this task he could not carry out as thoroughly as he wished owing to the opposition of the home Government, which was tired of African affairs. In 1897 Baldissera returned to Italy and resumed his duties in the home army, successively command ing the VII. and VIII. Army Corps. In 1906 he was madca senator. In 1908 he had to retire from the army under the age limit.
BALFOUR, ARTHUR JAMES (1848- ), British statesman (see 3.2 50), was confronted, as Conservative leader, after the general election of Jan. 1910, with a situation of some embarrassment. He had to endeavour to save the effective authority of a second Chamber and to avert Irish Home Rule, with his supporters not yet completely united on the issue of Tarifi Reform, and in face of a Liberal Ministry dominated once more by a body of 80 Irish Nationalists, who held the balance of power in the House of Commons, and who notified their intcntion not to vote'for Mr. Lloyd George’s disputed budget unless their forward policy was adopted. He advocated House of Lords reform as an alternative to the Ministerial Veto Resolutions, which he denounced as irrational; and when Mr. Asquith announced that, if he could not secure statutory effect for his policy in that Parliament, he would not dissolve except under conditions which would ensure that the will of the people should be carried into law in the next Parliament, he exclaimed that the Prime Minister had “bought the Irish vote for his Budge!» but the price paid is the dignity of his oflicc.” In the lull 1n the party fight which followed the death of King Edward. Mr. Balfour welcomed the suggestion of a conference bctwccn the parties to endeavour to arrange a compromise, and was one of the eight leaders who met on 21 occasions between June and Nov. without coming to an agreement. When the conference failed and ministers announced another dissolution, Mr. Balfour did his best to rouse the country to the dangers which, in his opinion, threatened it. In a speech at the Albert Hall he expressed his readiness to submit Tariff Reform to a referendum, and maintained that the Government for their part should be ready to submit Home Rule also to a referendum. The offer was not accepted. When the second general election of 1910 confirmed the verdict of the first, the dissatisfaction with Mr. Balfour’s leadership, which had been long entertained by a considerable section of the Unionists, began to spread. It was pointed out that he had now led the party to three electoral defeats in succession; and this record was contrasted with Lord Salisbury’s victories in 1886, 1895 and 1900. The course of the session of 1911 intensified this dissatisfaction. Mr. Balfour did indeed fight the Parliament bill, in its passage through the House of Commons, with courage, persistency, acuteness and passion. While he admitted the need for some change in the Constitution, and promoted Lord Lansdowne’s measure for reconstructing the House of Lords and making it a Chamber partly hereditary, partly nominated, and partly elective, he denounced the Ministerial bill as practically constituting single-chamber government. Ministers, he said, were forcing constitutional changes on the country by coercion as they had imposed them on the country by fraud. In committee he strove hard, but in vain, to get fundamental laws exempted from the operation of the bill. But he shrank, as in 1832 the Duke of Wellington had shrunk, from encouraging the House of Lords to persist in opposition, when ministers announced that they had obtained the King's consent to the creation of sufiicient peers to make its passage certain. He did indeed move a vote of censure imputing to ministers a gross abuse of the Constitution in the advice they had given to the Crown; but he declared that he would stand or fall with Lord Lansdowne in the recommendation which the latter made to the Unionist peers to abstain from further resistance as being no longer free agents. This attitude was passionately resented by a large number of " Diehards,” who organized themselves under the leadership of Lord Halsbury, and with the approval of Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, then in retirement owing to illness. Mr. Balfour’s counsel prevailed, and the bill was allowed to pass; but his position and authority as leader had been seriously shaken. Though both he and leading “ Diehards,” in speeches in the autumn, treated the dispute as ancient history, he decided that the time had come for him, after 20 years of leadership, to resign; and he announced his decision to a meeting of the Conservative Association in the City of London on Nov. 8. He said that he desired to abandon his heavy responsibility before he could be suspected of suffering from a sort of petrifaction in old courses and inability to deal with new problems: and that he felt he had not the vigour, at his time of life, again to conduct a ministry. He treated the unrest in the party as nothing exceptional, and spoke of Unionism as on the upward grade. The announcement, in spite of the signs of discontent, came as a great shock to the party and the country; and the Prime Minister, Mr. Asquith, himself expressed the general feeling when he said at the Guildhall banquet next day that the resignation involved an irreparable loss to the daily life of Parliament.
Mr. Balfour was then only 63, and his powers as a parliamentarian were really at their height. Although after his resignation of the Unionist leadership he devoted more time to his manifold other interests in life—philosophy, science, literature, music—he still took at intervals a prominent part in debate, and made occasional speeches in the country, giving throughout a loyal support to his successor in the House of Commons, Mr. Bonar Law. The renewed controversy on Home Rule afi’orded him a great opportunity, and the powerful series of speeches which he delivered, at Westminster and elsewhere, in the course of the next three years, did much to awaken Great Britain to the imminent danger of civil war in Ireland, and to force ministers into the policy of excluding Ulster, in some form or other, from the operation of their bill.
When the World War broke out he cordially accepted the policy of the Unionist leaders in sinking all political differences in support of the national Government. Speaking at the Guild hall on Lord Mayor’s Day 1914, he said that the Allies were fighting for civilization and the cause of small states, and, whether the war was short or long, they would triumph. In this spirit he joined the first Coalition Government in May 1915, accepting the first lordship of the Admiralty under Mr. Asquith; and from this time onward he took a statesman’s share in the conduct of the war, and in the making of peace. The Admiralty had been distracted by a quarrel between Mr. Churchill, the First Lord, and Lord Fisher, the distinguished admiral, who was First Sea Lord. Both had now resigned, and Mr. Balfour appointed an eminent scientific sailor, Adml. Sir Henry Jackson, as First Sea Lord, and speedily restored the harmony of the Board. He also reversed Mr. Churchill's policy of differentiating against prisoners from submarines as compared with other German prisoners, though he insisted that there was no change of opinion as to the unlawful, mean, cowardly, and brutal character of their acts. In introducing the Navy Estimates in 1916 he said that, except in armoured cruisers, the fleet was far stronger than when war broke out; that ships, guns and ammunition had increased and would increase; and that the personnel had more than doubled. His principal critic was Mr. Churchill, who averred that the existing Board had not so much energy, speed, push and drive as his own, and who, to the astonishment of the House, recommended the recall of Lord Fisher—~a suggestion upon which Mr. Balfour commented severely. Perhaps the best work which he did at the Admiralty was the issue, at intervals, of some cogent papers, mainly for the benefit of the Americans, vindicating the great work of the British navy in the war, and exposing the fallacies involved in the captivating phrase, “ the freedom of the seas.” The chief naval battle of the conflict, the battle of Jutland, was fought during his term of office; and he incurred widespread criticism by the manner in which the news was officially communicated
to the public, the great losses in men and ships being dwelt on .
to such an extent as to suggest that, instead of being a victory, the action was a defeat. In a speech a few days later he claimed that, as a result of the fight, the Germans were relatively far inferior to what they had been. In late Oct. there was a daring German raid by 10 destroyers into the English Channel; an empty British transport and one British destroyer were sunk and another destroyer seriously damaged. Mr. Balfour confidently predicted at the Guildhall on Lord Mayor's Day that any further Channel raiders would suffer disaster. His confidence was probably based in part on a new arrangement of the high naval appointments, which he announced before the end of November. Sir John Jellicoe was brought into the Admiralty as First Sea Lord, and Sir David Beatty was appointed to succeed him as commander-in-chief. These changes were promptly followed by a change of First Lords when Mr. Lloyd George formed his Ministry in Dec. 1916. Lord Grey of Fallodon declined to continue at the Foreign Office under the new, Prime Minister; and as it was essential to have a man of experience and weight there, the post was pressed upon Mr. Balfour, who had in times past occasionally acted as Foreign Secretary in Lord Salisbury’s absence, and had been intimately associated, during his Premiership, with Lord Lansdowne’s work in the department. \
Mr. Balfour took up his new duties as Foreign Secretary only a few weeks before Germany instituted the unrestricted submarine warfare which brought the United States into the war; and in April 1917 he headed a British mission which visited America in order to arrange for regular cooperation between the two countries. His attractive personality greatly impressed his hosts, and he received the compliment of being invited to address the House of Representatives on May 5; his speech showed a complete sympathy, that was highly appreciated, with the spirit in which the United States had entered the war. He subsequently proceeded to Canada, and there addressed the two Houses of Parliament. The concentration of power in the
hands of the War Cabinet, and the great personal ascendancy which Mr. Lloyd George, as Prime Minister, rapidly acquired, both tended rather to reduce the importance of the Foreign Secretary during Mr. Balfour’s tenure of the post. It should be noted, however, that it was Mr. Balfour, as Foreign Secretary, who in Nov. 1917 gave a promise on behalf of his Government to provide a “ national home ” for the Jews in Palestine after the war. The exceptional amount of work to be dealt with at this period impelled him to ask for extra help in the oflice; and Lord Robert Cecil was taken from the Ministry of Blockade in the summer of 1918 and made an assistant Secretary of State. Mr. Balfour went to the Paris Conference in 1919 as the second British plenipotentiary; but as eventually the terms of peace were settled by a council of three, Mr. Wilson, M. Clemenceau, and Mr. Lloyd George (or of four, when the Italian prime minister attended), his share in the work was somewhat subordinate, though be appended his signature to the Treaty of Versailles, and to the treaty of guarantee to France against German aggression. When the Conference was over, he was glad to be relieved of the burden of a laborious ofiice, and therefore relinquished the Secretary of State’s seals to Lord Curzon, but remained himself in Mr. Lloyd George's Cabinet in the honourable but comparatively sinecure ofiice of Lord President of the Council. He was appointed chief representative of the British Government at the first Assembly of the League of Nations in 1920; and also at the Disarmament Conference at Washington, D.C., in Nov. 1921.
Mr. Balfour’s eminence, and his patriotic readiness to resume in war-time, in spite of advancing years, ofhcial labours in a secondary position, were suitably recognized on the King’s birthday in 1916 by the grant of the Order of Merit. In 1919 he received a distinction which he must have peculiarly valued, when he was elected chancellor of his old university, Cambridge, in succession to his brother-in-law, Lord Rayleigh.
(G. E. B.)
BALFOUR 0F BURLEIGH, ALEXANDER HUGH BRUCE, 10111 (or 6111) BARON (1849-1921), British politician, was born at Kennet, Alloa, Jan. 13 1849, the son of Robert Bruce of Kennet. He was educated at Loretto, Eton and Oriel College, Oxford, and in 1869 was restored by Act of Parliament to the barony of Balfour of Burleigh, to which he was entitled by his descent from the 5th baron, who was attainted after the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. He first came into public notice as a member of the factory commission of 1874, and afterwards acted as chairman of many other commissions, including that on educational endowments (1882-9). From 1889 to 1892 he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade in the Conservative Government, and from 1895 to 1903 (when he resigned as a Free Trader opposed to tariff reform) Secretary for Scotland. In 1903 he became chairman of the commission on food supply in time of war, and in 1909 of that on trade relations with Canada and the West Indies, receiving in 191 1 the G.C.M.G. as a reward for his services. From x916 to 1917 he was chairman of the committee on commercial and industrial policy after the war. Lord Balfour, who received hon. degrees from all the Scottish universities, was from 1896 to 1899 lord rector of Edinburgh University and from 1900 chancellor of St. Andrews University. In 1904 he was appointed Lord Warden of the Stannaries. He published in 1911 The Rise and Development of Presbytcrianism in Scotland. He died in London July 6 1921.
BALKAN CAMPAIGNS (1914—8): see SALONIKA CAMPAIGN and SERBIAN CAMPAIGNS.
BALKAN PENINSULA (see 3.258).——-Geographically speaking, the Balkan Peninsula is a meeting-point of European and Asiatic relief (see fig. 1): the Dinaric ranges belong to the Alps, the Carpathians and the Balkans seem to be connected in an arc, and the main tectonic systems of the peninsula have a geological structure similar to the ranges of Asia Minor from which they have been separated since the Pliocene or diluvial period. In the same way, areas of strongly contrasted climate are to be found in close proximity, e.g. Mediterranean on the Adriatic and Aegean coast; Steppe, like that in Asia, on the
extensive plain formed by the Danube and the Maritsa; Central European in most of the peninsula; Alpine on the higher summits (see figs. 1 and 2). They are sometimes intermingled: valleys which reach far into the mountain masses enjoy a Mediterranean climate as, e. g. the lower Drin valley in Albania.
The distribution of soil affects the character of the vegetation as much as climate: north of the Balkans and of the Kopaonik plateau extensive tracts are covered by lake or marine deposits, loess and humus, where steppe meadows, forests and general cultivation prevail. On the central highlands are coniferous forests and Alpine pastures, while the isolated basins show the characteristics of northern soils and vegetation. The slopes facing the A ean Sea, like those facing the Adriatic, give rise to deciduous ush and pseudo-mdquis. The extreme limit of Mediterranean vegetation sometimes reaches as far as the upper Morava and the depressions S. of the Balkans in the eastern art of the peninsula, but does not extend farther than a few miles Earn the Adriatic or a few hundred metres above sea~level in the western part. To N. and E. of this limit, large areas, especially in Bosnia and Serbia, are still covered with forests of oak and birch trees, remnants of extensive primitive forest growth in the valleys as well as on the hills; while to S. and “1. low scrub prevails on the bare rocks. Tobacco, rice and cereals are grown in the fertile plains of Thrace and Macedonia, olive and orange trees flourish in the most sheltered places along the coast.
The extension of mountain barriers, climatic influences and zones of vegetation do not alone make the Balkan Peninsula a world by itself. Peripheral influences travel from Italy over the Adriatic, by the straits and the island-dotted Aegean to the indented Hellenic coast, then through the great longitudinal depressions which traverse the peninsula from N.\V. to SE. The morphological features combine to constitute the basis of natural regions—the Aegean, the Balkans, the Morava-Vardar and the Pindo~Dinaric regions—whose main characteristics depend more on morphology than on ethnography or history.
Natural Re ions.—The Aegean 'on is remarkable for the indentation 0 its coast. On the Hel enic part (Pelo nnesus and Euboea) each morphological feature—islands, gulfs an headlands—
ints S.E. towards Asia Minor and turns its back to Europe.
arstic characteristics are well developed in the limestone areas of the Ionian coast. The climate is typicall Mediterranean: summers are rainless, the atmos here is clear an temperature is high. The rivers are not perennia . Among the md'quis growth, cultivation is restricted to small fields like oases. On the slopes and in the bottoms of the sheltered depressions, oranges, grapes, lemons and pomenates survive the dry summer: the olive is prominent in the andscape. Animal as well as vegetable life is very restricted. The isolation of the units and the poomess of the soil would have almost prevented development if the population had not turned seaward. attracted by extraordinary opportunities for fishing, navigation and trade. The Aegean is the only region in the peninsula inhabited almost exclusively by Greeks, mostl seamen or traders, living in towns of the Mediterranean type, with high stone houses and narrow streets, or in large villages on terraces.
The Thraco-Macedonian region combines the characteristics of the Hellenic and continental regions. The coast is also indented. but the large valle s of perennial streams (Vardar, Struma) 've access to the gulfs. he land surface, chiefly consisting of crystalfi‘ne, metamorphic rocks, denuded, displaced and dislocated, shows sharp contrasts of plateaus and basins, and here and there residual ridges. The tectonic basins, when not filled by the sea, as at Salonika and Orfano, are occupied by alluvial and tertiary lake deposits as in Thessaly and Thrace, or by lakes (Doiran, Langadha, Beshik) or. in the valleys, by marshes. The climate is half continental and half Mediterranean with rainy summers and cold winters. The Vardam: blowing in the rear of the deep winter cyclones brings snow to the hills and freezes the coast, while violent south-west winds bring excessive heat in summer. The proximity to the coast of high hill masses has a great influence on the vegetation: the true " L1 growth extends to an altitude of 200 metres on the coastal slopes, ut olive and vine cultivation reaches as high as 400 metres. Oaks and chestnuts, at first scattered, increase with the elevation until they form forests, then coniferous trees appear and finally the cloudwra t Alpine summer pastures provide an area of " transhumance " to utzo-Vlakh and Slav shepherds, who spend the winters on the coastal plains. The area available for agriculture lies in the basins—— Thessaly for wheat, Seres for cotton, t e plain of Salonilca for rice. Kavalla for tobacco. The towns (Salonika, Kavalla), inhabited by Spanish Jews, Turks and Greeks, are built like amphitheatres on the slopes and the villages are inhabited by Slavs and Arumans. The latter are often of the Turkish Chifllik type with square rooms grouped around the landowner‘s house, or are composed of house! made of sun-dried bricks. _
Strongly contrasting with the Aegean, the Balkan region is a continental mass. The straight Black Sea coast does not favour peripheral influences travelling inward, and the high Rila and Rho dope systems form a barrier against western penetration. The westeast folded Balkans divide the 'on into two parts, the lower Danubian plateau on the N., and t e Maritsa basin on the S.. but