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low passes render communication easier. The lower Danubian plateau is the only part of this region in which relief, climate and
reduction are almost uniform; the unbroken monotonous surface ‘S dissected regularly by dee -cut asymmetric valleys facin fault scarps, running from S. by \ . to N. by E. Like southern Tussia and Rumania, it is covered with neogene sediments and loess of wonderful fertility, but trees and grass are very scarce out of the valleys, the water table being too deep down. During excessively dry summers the small streams cease to flow, and in cold winters even the Danube is frozen. Summer droughts make the crops of wheat uncertain. The characteristics of extreme continental climate and vegetation increase eastward in Dobrudja and favoured the settlement of the steppe Slavs and Ugro-Finnish Bulgars, while the uniformit of relief and the roximity of Constantinople made control 0 the country by the Turks eas .
The central and western Balkans stan out in contrast: high hill masses of palaeozoic schists, granite and mesozoic rocks, often chalk, are bounded on the south by abrupt fault scarps of a few hundred metres overlooking the plains, and, on the north, gradually fall in folded ranges. The eastern Balkans, consisting of sandstone, schists, flysch, are lower. Unlike the mountains of the central parts of the
ninsula, the folded Balkans contain few faulted basins (Orhaniye). Except for the Yantra and Isker running south-north through the massij's and the Kamtshiya and Provadiya running west-east throu h e igenctic ravines, they have an undiversified drainage and are Ii e t e basins cultivated with oats, barley and tatoes, while cattle are raised on the grassy and forested hills. etween the schists and anites of the Rhodopes and the mesozoic rocks of the Balkans es the tectonic basin of the Maritsa, showing strata of sandstone and paleogene limestone below alluvial deposits. The climate varies:
it is Mediterranean as far north as Philippopolis, favouring the cultivation of maize, tobacco, the pepper plant, the vine and mulberry trees along the Maritsa; in the east around Jamboli and Stara Zagora a steppe climate prevails, favouring wheat. The small tectonic basins of the sub-Balkan depression are liable to lesser extremes of climate and are well known for their rose gardens as at Kazanlik and fruit orchards as at Zlatitsa. The whole re ion facing Constantinople felt Byzantine or Asiatic influences strong y and was the first domain of the Bogomils durin the Middle A es.
West of Sofia, the upper lsker basin is a natural Vis r unit. In the centre, the Viskar and Lulyin mountains are an area of eruptive rocks and mesozoic strata folded east-west and surrounded by low limestone rid e , gentle on the north (Srbnitsa) and ragged on the south (V lashEa). Isolated tectonic basins and karstic depressions, such as Kyustendil and Grahovo, are the only cultivable areas. The country, poor and deforested, is a barrier to communication—the Shop tribe lives there under primitive conditions with Bulgars settled at the approaches. Sofia overlooks the Isker, Struma and Nishava, leading respectively to the Danube, to the Aegean and to the Morava-Vardar. To the south, the Rhodope system, a high mass showing glacial valleys and cirques, and almost renmal snows, is covered with forests or meadows partly inha ited by Pomaks, Yuruks and by transhumant Kutzo-Vlachs (see fig. 3).
Unlike the Balkan the Morava-Vardar region is not open to eastern influences. Its main communications are longitudinal, along a depression leading from Central Europe to the Aegean Sea. Various formations are displayed in the relief—the pretertiary Rho— dope mass, the tertiary Dinaric and Carpathic ranges, the eruptive rocks of the Ibar and Bregalnitsa with their rich iron and copper fields, most of them by their great height impeding the west-east communications. The massif: enclose tectonic basins still or formerly occupied by lakes, and connected with the Morava and Vardar valleys or with the Ovtshe Polye and the Strumitsa. North of Nish, the Shumadya is the southern part of the neogene Pannonic lake. It slopes gradually by seven terraces from 960 metres to 120 metres towards the Danube and the Sava. On a lacustrine soil, the monotony of the crops is broken only by forested hills—former islands in the Pannonic lake and remnants of an ancient extensive forest. Similar morphological features are found E. of the Carpathic Rtany (1,566 metres) in the Timok basin, previously occupied by a Pliocene lake. The climate is of modified Central European type, with abundant rain; and a lon mild autumn, and a soil of loess and humus make Shumadya the est maize district in the peninsula.
Pigs are raised in the decreasing forest area. White villages, crowded by a purely rural population reputed for good sense, humour, democratic spirit and strong national traditions, are scattered among green lum orchards. n close touch with Central European civilization, humadya early cast off the yoke of distant Constantinople and became the Piedmont of the Serbian renascence. South of Nish the country is more isolated: Rashka is composed of tectonic basins (Nish, Kosovo, and Skoplye) encompassed by abrupt slopes of compact masses of schists and limestone. The higher summits show ancient glacial features. Towards the south, the relief is more and more complex. In Macedonia, crystalline schists and granites of the Rhodope system prevail on the east, sandstones, serpentines and limestones of the Pindus on the west. Among the latter are higher summits (Perister, Kajmakcalan, 2,525 metres) and tectonic basins (Presba, 900 metres). The climate is continental except in the south-east where several Aegean gulfs penetrate the interior along the Struma and Vardar, but winters last longer and are colder than in Shumadya. The lake-floored basins are occupied by orchards or wheat and flax, but forests and summer pastures of the hills are a region of “ transhumance," especially in the west, equidistant from the Adriatic and the Aegean. Fields of poppies and rice and vineyards occupy lar e spaces in south-eastem Macedonia. The inhabitants live most y in the basins but also on the terraces. In Rashka and Macedonia towns are more of the Turkish type—with their ag regations of wooden shops on narrow, dirty streets grouped roun a central covered bazaar. In Shumadya, more open to European influence, the town streets converge towards a central piazza or market, and the villages extend alon valleys and roads, contrastin with those of the Chifllik type 0% the Vardar count There isolation of small natural units helped the particularism and submission to Turks which are still noticeable amongst the people, though disappearing through the influence of returned emigrants.
The Pindo-Dinaric region differs from that of the Morava-Vardar in its lack of penetration and union and l) a well-defined morphology. From the Lyublyana basin to the Gul of Arta, it is delimited on t e E. by depressions, among which are the upper valleys of the Vrbas, Neretva and Drin. The beds are folded and dislocated N.W.-S.E., so that from W. to E. the littoral area Efn'morye) is succeeded by a barren karstic plateau zagora) an then by high mountain ranges lam'na) parallel to t e coast, which is a coast of submer ence of w ich the higher parts form islands. The strike of the fol s restricts transverse relations, exce t S. of Scutari where, in the Pindus ranges, it becomes west-east. 8rests of the underlying carboniferous roc 5 often appear through the folded and dislocated surface, but the rag ed dolomitic peaks are higher. Depressions and gentle slopes prevail in the Bosnian schists of the east, steps of
Cretaceous limestones sloping from 2,000 metres to 800 metres in the lateau 0f the west. These steps have been transformed into barren rst, with subterranean rivers, high temperatures and abundant rains. as far as a new line of ranges along the coast. Important mineral deposits, especially iron and copper, are found in the palaeozoic and tertiary rocks. ‘ -,,,
The karstic morphology is less important where the schists, sandstones and ser entine predominate in the Pindus regions. Instead of being indhnted and island-dotted, as in Dalmatia, the Albanian coast is straight and deltaic. The Mediterranean type of climate extends farther than in the Dinaric regions. Winters last long and snowfalls are abundant on the nines, autumn is early in the zagora, and the barometric dient in the “ bora," a wind blowing from the mountains towar s the Adriatic cyclones, is extremely steep. The rainfall reaches 4,640 mm. at Tserkvitse in the Gulf of Cattaro. The vegetation is varied: the slopes of the lam'nas up to 1,700 metres are occupied by forests, farther u by lpine villages and fields of summer crops, then by pastures. fjntensive agriculture is possible only on the " terra rossa " of the depressions in the karst. Mediterranean cultivation revails on the coast. The alluvial Pindus valleys are cultivabe areas and the Albanian slopm are covered with pasture and olives up to Elbassan on the east. The population is scattered except on the edge of the flflh'e, where it cancentrates in order to avoid building on the limite “ terra rossa" area. The Alpine type of house prevails on the plnm'nas from Carniola to the districts occupied by the Vasoyevitschi tribe in the upper Lim valley, the Clii'fllik in southern Albania, the Mediterranean on the Primarye and some parts of Zagora. The towns in Albania are of mixed Turkish and Mediterranean type (Dura'zalo, Valona). On the other hand, Spalato, Zara and Ragusa, old harbours along small bays and narrow headlands, are an element of maritime life which helped Slav and Latin influences to combine in the ear" cities, producing a high civilization. On the planinas a pastoral lie favoured a sturdy independence. The same characteristics are noticeable in the Pindiis region which, isolated from the sea by marshes and la oons, is still the most extensive domain of tribal life. Thus, unit of ife, as well as morphologic features, is a determinant factor of the natural region.
Area and PaPuLaIinm—The political divisions do not exactly correspond with natural units described above :—
Civilizations and Mctanastasic M ovcmenls (see fig. 3).—Various civilizations—Byzantine, Turkish, Occidental and Patriarchal—were adapted in their distributions to geographical conditions, each of them leaving a deeper impress in a. definite area. Byzantine influence impressed material life and moral ideals throughout the Middle Ages, and it was carried by the Greeks and Ararnuni along the longitudinal depressions under Turkish rule up to the Danube and the Sava, but could not be maintained in the areas successively cleared by the Turks. It does not now appear farther north than the Balkans and the Shar Planina. It is still noticeable in the city life, relying on strict trade unions, in dogmatic quarrels, and in the struggle to make money at all costs. Turkish and Oriental influences first came across the straits and the island-dotted Aegean. The Greeks and Turks brought wheat, fruit trees, flowers, and methods of irrigation from Asia Minor, the last of these especially into Bulgaria. The Islamized Serbs extended the area of Turkish habits and mental— ity far north and west into Bosnia. Turkish and Oriental influences are still manifested in special care for weapons and harness, in lazy habits, and in a strange mixture of goodness with brutal passions. Under submission for so long, the Christians still maintain the raya mind and conceal their feelings. In Turkish territory and Thessaly the economic system of tenure called
-“- _.-v ‘- we“ -—~v-.-\
Cln'flh'k persists. The begs and agasfand Greek landowners of Thessaly, the former being descendants of the landowners who adopted the creed of the conquering race, own the ground cultivated by the kmets or chiftshiye and impose heavy taxes upon them.
The western European countries and the Balkan world came early into contact. The Romans crossed the Adriatic and Latinized the old Illyrian tribes up to a line from Alessio on the Adriatic to Ratiaria on the Danube, south-east of which the Greek language prevailed. Later, the House of Anjou in Albania, the Franks in Constantinople, and the maritime and commercial empires of Genoa and Venice hardly carried Occidental in
fluences over the main ranges into the interior of the peninsula. But the Mediterranean type is conspicuous in Dalmatia and in Constantinople, and the Latin is less noticeable on the planinas. Occidental architecture may be noticed in a Serbian church of the r3th and 15th century at Detchain. From that time, in consequence of these commercial and intellectual relations, a few words of Latin origin were introduced into the Serbo-Croatian language. After the 18th century it was a principle of Austrian policy to carry Central European influences far southwards; the Austrians brought their habits of city life, their methods of trade, their engineering, and their house furniture, but did not make their mark on intellectual development. North of the Shar Planina and of the Balkans, except on the coast and in the Serbian plains, the patriarchal type of civilization prevails. It is also noticeable in Albania. Its main characteristics are the organization of the tribes in Montenegro, northern Albania and Rashka, and that of the Zadruga from the Adriatic to the river Iskar. In the latter three or four families live together, obeying the oldest member of the group, and cultivating ground which is owned in common. The Zadruga is chargeable for the taxes, controls the expenditure, is responsible by law for, and makes profit on the work of, each member. Some groups consist of as many as 70 members. The ground, except forests or pastures (slojer), becomes more and more divided up. The nucleus of the tribes is made up of old families related together and enlarged by the admission of foreign groups, or by conquest of new territories. The Montenegrin tribes hardly made a livelihood on the barren karst and had to keep small in number; while the Rascian tribes, in an area full of resources, became more and more important. On account of geographical isolation and the prevention of exogamy amongst the old tribes, tribal life developed into particularism, but the wars against the Turks united those tribes which, when not fighting, were occupied only in pastoral pursuits or the leading of convoys.
The distribution of civilization has been greatly influenced by metanastasic movements. The invasion of the Turks in the 14th
century determined local migrations, especially among the Serbs. The Dinaric Serbs from Montenegro and Herzegovina moved eastward and settled in the forest glades of Shumadya, or northwards along the Dinaric ranges as far as Istria and Carniola. People from Kosovo and Prizren moved northwards and settled in the plains and valleys of eastern Shumadya. The M aceticnians moved along the Vardar and Morava valleys and, with the Serbians of the old districts, crossed the Sava and Danube and settled in Styria, southern Carniola and Croatia. Among the Bulgarians, the Balkanyi alone left their mountains for the lower Danubian or the fertile Thracian plains. The Albanians often changed place. Pushed back from the Black Drin by the Slavs in the 6th and 7th centuries, most of them adopted the creed of the Turks in the Middle Ages, and travelled freely through the whole peninsula; the half-Serbian, half-Albanian Malissores settled at Novibazar; a few Mirdites pushed up to Kosovo; the central Albanians to near Skoplye and Tetovo; the southern Albanians to the Peloponnesus. Along the main roads are Greek commercial colonies and Turkish military posts. The gradual clearing of the peninsula caused metanastasic movements of the Turks back towards Constantinople and Asia, and of the Christians back to the homes of their ancestors. The Turkish domination was responsible for many migrations: after revolts, and every fourth year as one-fifth of the young Christians entered the Sultan’s service as Yenilsheri, entire families took refuge in the high massifs. During the wars between the Turks and the Austrians in the 18th century, the Serbian insurgents, to avoid reprisals, had to follow the retreating Austrians. During the liberation wars led by the Kara Georgevitch in 1804 and by Milosh Obrenovitch in 1815 many Serbians migrated from Novibazar and Nish into Shumadya. Economic conditions also played their part in those movements: entire families left overcrowded cultivated areas for rich but less inhabited areas. Scarcity of food pushed 10,000 Montenegrins eastward int: Serbia in 1890. Many kmets, trying to escape bad conditions of tenure, obtained land in the newly liberated territories. Those metanastasic movements brought about the redistribution of ethnic and religious groups, and extended the Orthodox Church into the domain of the Roman Catholic, north of the Sava and Danube. In the same way, the Dinaric dialect pushed back the Croatian, and the Kosovo dialect was spoken farther and farther northward. Everywhere the immigrants adapted themselves to the life of the inhabitants among whom they had to live, but also brought new customs and a new mentality.
Races.—Owing to the continual movement of the population, the ethnological boundaries do not coincide with those of the great natural regions. The Greeks came from Asia Minor in early historic times and settled in the coastal area, including the islands between Varna and Corfu. They assimilated the Romans in Byzantine times, the Slavs in and after the Middle Ages, the Aramuni from the 12th to the 15th century, and the Albanians after the 14th century. But even now their range does not extend far from the sea, its northern boundaries being the southern border of Albania, the river Bistritsa and Lake Beshik. Farther east, mixed up with Turks and Bulgars, and with many Greeks in such commercial centres as Constantinople, Adrianople and Salonika, they occupy Thrace equally with the Turks. In the peninsula and adjacent islands they probably number 4,500,000.
Declining since the 17th century, the Turkish population has disappeared from the northern towns and from the Rhodope and Balkan mountains, where names given by Yuruk shepherds are, however, still retained. The Turkish element is nowhere found in compact masses except in the east Balkanic regions, where the dry climate is similar to that of Asia Minor. Elsewhere, it exists only in isolated districts —in eastern Bulgaria, in Thrace, on the left bank of the Vardar and in the Bujak Kajlar basin. The total Turkish population of the peninsula scarcely exceeds 1,800,000.
The Albanians or Shkiipetar, representatives of the primitive Illyrian tribes, were not Slavized like the Dalmats or Liburns. They live in the mountainous Pindus and Prokletye, encompassed by Yugoslavia and Greece, while, among them, the Slave
g i n o R 38 /38 R A C E S ‘i Suh‘jmeb, Md Slmnu Turk: % Macedon/an SI”: Nagy”, M I”: German: I . .g‘lwm' -(neho>:loralcr Q ° ’ 36 [mm] 6m“ [I] "“”“"’ A’lmde: dill". an fiumankmr and Annual - Russian! 8 A Natural Scale I ‘ 7,000,000 M English Miles 0 so I00 100 f Kilometre: O 50 I00 200 l6 I8 20 Long. East. 22 of Gre‘nvnch 24 26 28
often occupy the valleys and littoral plains. They have lost ground in the north-east since 1878 and the withdrawal of the Sultan's authority.
The Aramuni, numbering approximately 160,000, are found in r 54 detached settlements of the southern peninsula. They are nomad shepherds migrating between the mountains and the littoral plains. Remnants of the primitive Latinized population, they have continued to decrease since the 18th century, when it is estimated they numbered 500,000. Some of them have settled in the mountains after having made money as shopkeepers in large towns.
The Yugoslavs, numbering about 15,000,000 south of the Danube and Sava, are the most numerous people in the peninsula. They are divided into Serbo-Croat-Slovenes (10,000,000) and BulgarS (4,700,000), all agriculturists. The majority of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes came from trans-Carpathian countries in the 7th century. The distinction between them does not arise from any linguistic, racial or even religious difference. The national spirit of the Serbs gained force after the battle of Kosovo in 1389. At the end of the r5th century, the Orthodox
religion, diffused through the Serbians after metanastasic movements, became national, and it helps to maintain unity. The Serbo-Croat-Slovene Kingdom, generally called Yugoslavia, does not include all the Serbians, Croats and Slovenes of the Balkan Peninsula—more than 400,000 were annexed to Italy by the Treaty of Rapallo. The Macedonian Slavs extend southward to Hellenic territory, almost to the river Bistritsa.
The Bulgars, who descend from a fusion of the Slavonic element with a later Ugro-Finnish immigration, inhabit the kingdom of Bulgaria, parts of Dobrudja and Thrace. On account of the proximity of Constantinople and of the general geographical conditions, they were more submissive to the Turks than any other part of the population, so that the word “ Bulgar” often meant a social state different from that of the Turkish conquerors. Its political meaning dates from the creation of the Exarehat in 1870 and the wars of liberation.
The remainder of the population is composed of Armenians. who live in trade centres like Constantinople; of Jews, immigrants from Spain who form half of the inhabitants at Salonika; and 0f gipsies, wandering, or in scattered settlements near large towns
Roligions.—-'I'he Turkish conquest was followed by numerous conversions to Islam, so that the Mahommedan population (3,000,000) exceeds the Turkish element. More than half of the Albanians and 32 % of the inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzegovina have adopted the creed of the conquering race. The great bulk of the Christian population belongs to the Orthodox Church, of which the oecumenical patriarch at Constantinople is the nominal head. The Serbian, Bulgarian and Greek Churches are in reality autocephalous. Most of the Serbians, Croats and
.Slovenes of Slovenia, Croatia and Dalmatia, some of the Gegh
tribes in Albania, and 22% of the population in Bosnia and Herzegovina belong to the Roman Catholic Church. Some Bulgars belong to the Uniate Church, which keeps Orthodox rite and discipline under Roman authority. The Gregorian and Uniate Armenian Churches each have a patriarch. Languages.—The Slavonic and Greek Nationalists succeeded in preserving their language. Early in the 17th century, the Serbo-Croats in Ragusa had a common literature, written in Herzegovinian dialect. In the 19th century, under the influence of Vuk Karadjitsh, that dialect prevailed as the literary language. In Bulgaria, the actual language is that of Sredna Gora, for centuries written only in a few monasteries. The conventional literary language of the Greeks is a compromise. Albanian, a remnant of the ancient Thraco-Illyrian speech, belongs to the Indo~European family, but lacks literary distinction.
Au‘rrronrrrrzs—For a general description of the whole region see Jovan Cvijié, La Péninsule Balkanique (1918); Odysseus, Turkey in Europe (1900); Gaston Gravicr, Le: Fronliéres historiques de la Serlne (1918); H. C. Thomson, The Outgoing Turk (1897); Tjoanne, Etats du Danube at des Balkans (1895); R. Millet, Souvenirs des Balkans (1891); E. de Lavelaye, La Pe'ninsule dc: Balkans (1896); F. Toula, " Materialien zu einer Geologie der Balkan Halbinsel," Johr. K. K. ReichsansL, vol. xxxiii., pp. 61-114 (Vienna, 1883); A. Philippson, Der Prloponnes (1892); J. Cvijic, "Die Tektonic der Balkan Halbinsel," Comptes rmdus, Congrés géologique international (Vienna 1904): “ Grundlinien der Geographic und Geologic von Macedonien u. Alt-Serbien," Erg. HefL, Pet. Mitt. (Gotha, 1908); Mackenzie and Irby, Travels in the Slavonic Provinces of Turkey (1866); A. Boné, La Turquic d’Euroge (1840). “L Miller, The Balkans (1896), sketches the history of ul ar1a, Montenegro, Rumania and Serbia. See also Austrian, British, rench and Serbian staff maps, and the ethnographical maps of Cvijié and Marinelli in the Geographical Review, New York (1919). (j. C.; Y. C.)
BALKAN WARS (1912—3).—This article gives an account of the wars of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro as allies against Turkey in 1912 and 1913, and the short war which followed between the former allies, with Turkey and Rumania intervening, in the summer of 1913.
I. The Balkan League.—The formation of a military alliance between Bulgaria and Serbia, Greece and Montenegro in 1912 was the final step in an evolution which began in 1909, and in its last stages was hastened by the ltalo-Turkish War of 1 1 1. The immediate cause of war was the state of Macedonia un er Turkish rule. Ongune 19 19 12 a military agreement was made between the general sta s of Serbra and Bulgaria, in accordance with the previous political treaty of alliance signed on Feb. 29 1912. Greece followed suit with a political treaty in May and a military agreement on Sept. 22. Montenegro did the same in the course of the summer, and, while Turkey was still negotiating her peace with Italy at Ouchy, the four allies mobilized their armies (Sept. 30 and Oct. 1 NS). Turkey, since the Young Turk Revolution internally dislocated, was‘ in no condition to meet their onslaught. Although the prestige of the individual Turkish soldier as a fighting man stood hi h, and the biehginnings of many reforms in the education of staff an regimental o cers had been made in the last few years, the military capacity of the army as a whole proved to be far below the reputation which it enjoyed amongst the military experts of Europe. Turkey's opponents, on the contrary, had in recent years not only rearmed themselves and secured their financial and political sition, but also made those minute and careful preparations of etail which when the time comes translate themselves into smooth concentration, and regular, consistent operations.
Strategically no less than politically, Turkey was on the defensive. Her European possessions formed two separate theatres of war, Macedonia and Thrace, which were linked only by the coastal railway Dede Aghach—Seres—Salonika, and this line, open in its middle section to Bulgarian raids from the mountains on the N. and to Greek raids from the sea,‘ was of no high technical efiiciency in any
case. The dispersion of a large part of her army and notably of her reserves 1n Asia Minor, where rail communications were few, and roads 1ll-developed, made any reénforcement of the European theatres a matter of time and difficulty; in the case of Macedonia, such reénforcement_was practically impossible save by sea. After a new survey of the situation in 1909-10 b Marshal von der Goltz it was _dec1ded to treat Macedonia as a se f-contained theatre of war garrrsoned at all times by a large army with Shtip (Stip) as its area of war concentration, and to constitute in Thrace a covering army which would be reénforced by the troops from Asia as they successrvely_arnved, up to the stren th adequate for offensive operatrons agarnst Bulgaria. To assist e defense in the first, or waiting, Esrrod Adnanople was organized as a modern fortress, and Kirk
_rlrsse, an upland town on the edge of the Istranja Dagh, re-equipped with barrier-forts. The line of communication with Asia was secured agamst the Greek fleet by the Dardanelles fortifications, which enabled Rodosto to be used as an advanced base.
The peace-time distribution of the Turkish forces in Europe gnher than garrison troops) was as follows: In Thrace were the I.
rdu (Constantmople), with the I. Corps (Constantinople , II. Corps (Rodosto), l I. Corps (Kirk Kilisse), and IV. Corps ZAdrialnople). These constituted 12 active divisions, plus, on mobilizatron, 11 first reserve divisions and 6 second reserve divisions. ln Macedonia were the II. Ordu (Salonika), with the V. Corps (Salo— nrka), VI. Corps (Monastn), VII. Corps (Uskub), and the independent 22nd Drv. Kozanr), 23rd Div. (Yannina), and 24th Div. (Scutari).
These constituted 12 active divisions, plus, on mobilization, 10 first reserve drvrsrons and 3 second reserve divisions. Administratrvely, the reserve formations of Smyrna, and both the active (VII . Cor s) and reserve formations of Damascus, belonged to this II. Ordu. nder favourable circumstances, and es cially if Greece were neutral, these forces, totalling 3 active an 1 first reserve divisions, would be available. In the alternative, t ey would be avarlable, with some delay in int of time, to reénforce the army in Thrace. The “I. and IV. Or us, with headquarters at Erzinjan and Bagdad respectively, could be grouped as an army of the Caucasus 1n case of a Russmn war, but were practically unavailable for Europe.’ So also were the forces in I-lejaz and Yemen, and Tripoli. Neglecting second reserve formations, therefore, the paper dispositions gave Thrace 2 and Macedonia 22 divisions, to either of which rmght be added a _urther 18. But, as usual in Turkish military hrstory, this 1mposrng paper total of 6 divisions represented far more than the real and available strengt . Internal difficulties, low transport capabilities, and the necessity of arrisoning almost all parts of Albania and Macedonia to prevent Iocal risings, added to the customary slaekness in administration and training and the customary drshonesty in su ply and equipment matters,resulted in the putting into the field 0 two armies which were numerically inferior, une ually trained, and poorly uipped—possessin indeed few assets yond the solid fighting-wort of the individual Iahommedan Turk.2
With all this, however, the prestige of a great Power facing a group of small states, whose mutual hatred and rivalries had only just been com sed, stood hi h, especially in Germany where the positive e ects of the Tur ish army reforms initiated by von der Goltz and others were overrated. In the Turkish army itself, confidence was unbounded: only a few had their misgivings.
The actual strengths of the two Turkish armies, owing to inexact and defective returns, cannot be stated. But it appears to be true that the Thracian army had no more than half of its nominal strength of 226,000 men, while the Macedonian army short of the VIII. Corps and the Damascus and Smyrna reserves and scattered as it was, can hardly be credited with more than 200,000 of its nominal 340,000, of whom no more than 50,000 combatants were in fact ever assembled on one battlefield.
On the side of the allies, administration being regular and sentiment uniform within each army, the paper strength and order of battle represent realities, and can be summed up thus:—
Bulgarian Army:—Nine divisions (1 Sofia, 2 Philippopolis, 3 Steven, 4 Shumla, 5 Ruschuk, 6 Vratsa, 7 Dupnitsa, 8 Stara Zagora, 9 Plevna) each of two brigades plus a reserve bri ade formed on mobilization. (The regiments being each of 4 batta ions, the infantry strength of a division was 24 battalions, Le. that of a normal European army corps, and 2} times that of a Turkish division.)' A 10th Div. and an 11th Div. were formed on mobilization out of surplus reservists and of such Macedonian volunteers as enlisted in the regular forces (these had two bri ades each instead of three). There was also a cavalry division. tion strength of the field armies, about 280,000.
Serbian Army—Five divisions of the I. Ban and five of the II. Ban, each designated by the regional name (Danube, Morava, Drina, Shumaja, Timok and the Ban numeral, e.g. Timok I., Timok lI., etc.). The infantry strength of a I. Ban division (four 4-battalion regiments) was two-thirds that of 3 Bulgarian division and
’ Even solidarity within the unit had been seriously shaken by the incorporation, under new conscription laws, of Christians allied in race and religion to the enemy peoples.
3 The 6th Div. had only two brigades.