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No. 10.







earthly clothing in addition to the mundane nature of this spiritual attendant to be a kind of soul in addition. KNOWLEDGE AS HAVE NOT RECEIVED their spirits.*

The soul, or real man, governed the animal part of us; A CLASSICAL EDUCATION.

The chiefs among these spiritual beings were very and the Dæmon governed the soul. He was a tutor LETTER IV.

like the gods, and often mistaken for them; which is accompanying the pupil. If the pupil did amiss it was

said to have given them great satisfaction! It is upon not the tutors fault. He lamented, and tried to mend it, THE GREEKS AND ROMANS, AND

the strength of this fancy that attempts were made to perhaps by subjecting it to some misery or even vice. THE SPIRIT THAT WAS SAID TO HAVE WAITED ON

account for the stories of the gods, and their freaks The process in this case is not very clear. Good

upon earth; for Dæmons, any more than Angels, were Dæmons appear sometimes to be distinct from bad The angelical or middle beings of the Greeks and

not incapable of a little aberration. The supposed ones, sometimes to be confounded with them. The Romans are called by the common name of Genii, visits, for instance, of Jupiter down to earth, when he vulgar supposed, with the Jesuit who wrote the “ Panthough the term is not correct; for the Greeks were

theon," that every person had two Dæmons assigned unacquainted with the word Genius. Their spirit was

Now, like a ram. fair Helle to pervart,

to him, one a good dæmon who incited him to virtue, called a Dæmon; and we suspect that a further dis

Now, like a bull, Europa to withdraw,"

the other a bad one who prompted him to all manner tinction is to be drawn between the two words, for a were the work of those spirits about him, who may

of vice and wickedness.”* But the benign logic of reason which will be seen by and by. The ill sense in truly be called the Jovial, and who delighted in bearing Plato rejected a useless malignity. Evil when it came, which Dæmon is now taken, originated with the fathers his name, as a Scottish clan does that of its chieftain.

was supposed to be for a good purpose; or rather not of the Church; who assuming that a Pagan Intelligence We have already mentioned the pious indignation of being of a nature to be immediately got rid of, it was must be a bad one, caused the word to become synoni. Plutarch at the indiscreet tales of the poets.

It is re

turned to good account; and man was ultimately the mous with Devil. But there are few things more markable, that, according to Plato, these satellites en

better for it. The dæmon did everything he could to remarkable than the abundant use which the Church circled their master precisely in the manner of the an- exalt the intellect of his change, to regulate his passions, made of the speculations of the Greek philosophers, gelical hierarchies. “ But how different,” it may be

and perfect his nature throughout; in short, to teach and the contempt with which indiscreet members of it said, “were their natures !” Not, perhaps, quite so

his soul, as the soul aspired to teach the body; and have treated them. Take away the subtleties of the much so as may be fancied. We have already hinted

what is remarkable, though he could not supply fate platonic theology from certain sects of Christians, and a resemblance in one point; and in others, the ad

itself, he is said to have supplied things fortuitous; their very orthodoxy would tumble to pieces.

vantage has not always been kept on the proper side. that is to say, “ to give us a chance," as we phrase it, Dæmon, if it be derived, as most of the learned think, Milton's angels, when they let down the unascendable, and put us in the way of shaping what we were to from a word signifying to know by inquiry, and the heavenly staircase to embitter the agonies of Satan, did

suppose was rough hewn. This was reversing the root of which signifies a torch, may be translated the a worse thing than any recorded of the Jupiters and Shakspearian order of Providence, or rather, perhaps, Enlightened; or, simply, a light or intelligence. A Apollos. We must be cautious how, in attributing one

giving it a new meaning; for we, or the untaught part blessed spirit, eternally increasing in knowledge or illu- or two virtues to a set of beings, we think we endow

of us, and fate, might be supposed to go blindly to the mination (which some think will be one of its beatitudes) them with all the rest.

same end, did not our intelligence keep on the alert. gives an enlarged sense of the word Dæmon. Dæmons were not, as some thought them, the souls

There's a divinity that shapes onr ends,
Plato certainly had no ill opinion of his Dæmon, even

of men.
The latter had the honour of assisting Dæ-

Rough bew thein how we will.. when the intelligence was acting in a manner which mons, but were a separate class. Indeed, according to If all this is not much clearer than attempts to exthe vulgar pronounced to be evil, and upon which the Plato, the word Soul might as well have been put for plain such matters are apt to be, and if the parts of philosopher has delivered a sentiment equally profound Man, in opposition to Spirit; for he held that the hu- „Plato's theology (which were derived from the naand humane. The following may be regarded as a man being was properly a soul, using the body only as tional creed) do little honour sometimes to the general summary of his notions about the spiritual world. an instrument. Nor was this soul the guardian angel spirit of it, which was his own, there is something Taking up the religion of his country, as proclaimed by or dæmon, though sometimes called a dæmon by reason at all times extremely elevating in his aspirations Hesiod and others, and endeavouring to harmonize it of its superiority, but man himself. It was immortal, after the good and beautiful. St. Augustin complained with reason, he conceived, that agreeably to the ranks pre-existent; and the object of virtue was to restore it that the reading of Plato made him proud. We do and gradations which we fancy in nature, there must to its former state of beatitude in certain regions of believe that it is impossible for readers of any enthube intermediate beings between men and gods, the gods light, from which it had fallen. This, among other thiasm to sit long over some of his writings, (the Banquet themselves being far from the top of spirituality. We doctrines of Plato, has been a favourite one with the for instance) and not feel an unusual exaltation of have already stated his opinions on that subject. Next poets; and would appear to have been seriously enter- spirit,--a love of the good and beautiful, for their own to the Gods came the Dæmons, who partook of their tained by one of the present day. What difficulty it sakes, and in honour of human nature. But there is divinity mixed with what he called the soul of the clears, or what trouble it takes away, we cannot see. no danger, we conceive, provided we correct this poetworld, and ministered round about them as well as on Progression is surely a better doctrine than recovery; ical state of self-aspiration with a remembrance of the carth : in fact, were the angels of the Christian system especially if we look upon evil as partial, fugitive, and admonitions of Christianity,—the sympathy with our but a little more allied to their superiors. “What convertible, like a hard substance to good. Besides, fellow-creatures. The more hope we have of ourselves other philosophers called Dæmons,” says the devout we should take the whole of our species with us, and under that correction, the more we shall have of others. platonical Jew Philo, “Moses usually called Angels." not always be looking after our own lost perfections. The great point is to elevate ourselves by elevating Next to Dæmons, but farther apart from them than The Guardian Dæmons assigned to man, came out of humanity at large. Dæmons were from the Gods, and yet partaking of the the whole of these orders indiscriminately. Their It is difficult to know what to make of the Dæmon angelical office, were Heroes, or spirits clothed in a rank was proportioned to the virtue ann intelligence of Socrates. It is clear that he laid claim to a special light etherial body and partaking still more of the soul of the individual. Plotinus and others had guardian consciousness of this attendant spirit-a sort of reye. of the world; perhaps the souls of men who had been Dæmons of a very high order. The Dæmon of Socrates lation, that, we believe, had never before been vouchheroical on earth, or sent down to embody them to that is said to have been called a God, because it was of the

• See the Pantheon attributed to Mr. Tooke. end. And lastly came the souls of men which were order that were taken for Gods. It was the business of Pantheon is a rifacimento of King's Pantheon, wbich was a the faintest emanation of the Deity, and clogged with

translation from a Jesuit of tbe name of Pomey. It contains properly must know as much, or they cannot. Henry Moore

in every page, an elaborate calumny," says Mr. Baldwin and others, who may be emphatically styled our Angelical Doc

upon the Gods of the Greeks, and that in the coarsest thoughts Oυς αλλοι φιλοσοφοι δαίμονες, ανγελους Μωσης ειωθεν tors, a vowedly undertook to unite the Platonic, Pythagorean,

and words that taverns could furnisb. The author stems conoxouation.-Philo Judæus Opera Omn. vol. i. page 263.- and Cabalistic opinion. (See Enfield's Abridgmert of Brucker.)

tinually haunted by the fear that his pupil might prefer the Tbere is good reason to believe that Dionysius, the pretended It is true they derived them all from the Hebrew; which is

religion of Jupiter to the religion of Christ.”- Baldwin's Pan. Areopagite, who is the great authority with writers upon the about as much as if they had said that the Egyptians were skilled

theon, preface, p. 5. This philosophical mythologist is of opi. angelical nature was a platonizing Christian of the school of in all the learning of Moses, instead of Moses in all the learning

nion that there was no ground for fear of that sort. We have Alexandria. If so, there is no saying how far we are not of tbe Egyptians.

observed elsewhere how little the young readers of Tooke think

of the abuse at all : but if they had any sense of it, undoubtedly indebted for our ordinary notions of angels themselves to Plato, • Dæmons and heroes were the angels and saints of the Catho. it goes in Jupiter's favour. We believe there is one thing wbich nor indeed how far the Christian and Jewisb angel and the lic hierarchy. They had their chapels, altars, feasts, and domesDæmon of the Greeks are not one and the same spirit : for it is

is not lost upon them; and that is, the affected horror and secret tic worship, precisely in the same spirit; and the souls of the impossible to say how much of the Jewish Cabbala is not Alex.

delight with which the Jesuit dwells upon certain vagaries of the departed were from time to time added to the list. (See the gayer deities. Besides, he paints sometimes in good, admiring andrian. On the other hand, the Platonists of tbat city mixed

Abbé Banier's Mythology and Fables of the Ancients, explained earnest; and then the boys attend to him as gravely. See for up their dogmas with the Oriental philosophy, so that the angel from History, vol. iii. p. 434.) The Heroines were the female instance the beginning of bis chapter on Venus ; whicbif we read comes round again to the East, and is traceable to Persia and saints. We make this remark in no ironical apirit, though the India. Nothing of all this deed shake him: for it is in the heart

once at school, we read a thousand times, comparing it with the Abbé would not thank us for it. and hopes of man that bis nest is found. Plato's angel, Pytha.

engraving. foras's, Philo's, Zoroaster's and Jeremy Taylor's, are all'he same

+ “Our life is but a dream and a forgetting."

+ See Taylor's and Sydenham's Translations of Plato, vol. 1, spirit onder different names; and those who would ove bim



*. 16. and vol 2. p. 308,


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did, that it was his Guardian Angel that told him not to go that way. Had it been Jeremy Taylor-Jeremy the amiable and the handsome, the Sir Charles Grandison of Christianity, who, with equal comfort to his security, pronounced a panegyric upon a wedding-ring, or a description of eternal torments (so much can superstition pervert a sweet nature)-he, if he had thought he had an intimation from within, would have infallibly laid it to the account of the prettiest angel of the skies. Was it something of a like vanity in Socrates, (too superior to his fellows, not to fall into some disadvantage of that sort)? or was it an unhealthy movement within him, happily turned? or was it a joke, which was to be taken for serious, by those who liked? or did it arise from one of those perplexities of not knowing what to conclude, to which the greatest minds may be subject when they attain to the end of their experience, and stand between the known world and the unknown? or lastly, was it owing (as we fear is most likely) partly to a superstition retained from his nurse, and partly to a determination to construe an occasional fancy, thus warranted, into a conscious certainty, and so turn his interest with heaven to the account of his effect among men? Such, we fear, is the most reasonable conjecture, and such we take to be the general impression; though with a delicacy, equally singular and creditable to them, mankind (with rare exceptions) seem to have agreed to say as little about the matter as possible, chusing rather to give so great a man the benefit of their ignorance, than lose any part of their reverence for his wisdom. One thing must not be forgotten; that this pretension to an unusual sense of his attendant spirit assisted in getting him into trouble. He was accused of introducing false gods,- -a singular charge, which shows how much the opinion of a guardian deity had gone out of use. On the other hand, he argued (with a true look of feeling, and which must afterwards have had great effect,) that it was not his fault if he beheld in omens and intimations the immediate influence of his guardian angel, and not merely the omens themselves. That he did believe in the latter somehow or other, is generally admitted.

It is not a little curious, that this is the only story of a good Dæmon that has come down to us in the records of antiquity. Some philosophers had theirs long afterwards; but these were evident imitations. Stories of Bad Dæmons, according to the vulgar notion, are more numerous. Two are to be found in the life of Apollonius of Tyana. Another is in Pausanus, and a third is the famous one of Brutus. These injurious persons were seldom however bad by nature. They become so from ill-usage, being, in fact, the souls of men who had been ill-treated when alive.

(To be concluded in a future paper.)

safed. The spirit gave him intimations rather what to avoid than to do; for the Platonists tell us, that Socrates was led by his own nature to do what was right; but out of the fervour of his desire to do it, was liable to be mistaken in the season. For instance, he had a tendency to give the benefit of his wisdom to all men indiscriminately; and here the Dæmon would sometimes warn him off, that he might not waste his philosophy upon a fool. This was at least an ingenious and mortifying satire. But the spirit interfered also on occasions that seem very trifling, though accordant with the office assigned to him by Plato of presiding over fortuitous events. Socrates was going one day to see a friend in company with some others, when he made a sudden halt, and told them that his Dæmon had advised him not to go down that street, but to chuse another. Some of them turned back, but others persisting in the path before them " on purpose, as 'twere, to confute Socrates his Dæmon," encountered a herd of muddy swine, and came home with their clothes all over dirt. Charillus, a musician, who had come to Athens to see the philosopher Cebes, got especially mudded, so that now and then, says Plutarch, "he and his friends would think in merriment on Socrates his Dæmon, wondering that it never forsook the man, and that heaven took such particular care of him." It was particular enough in heaven, to be sure, to hinder a philosopher from having his drapery damaged; but we suppose matters would have been worse, had he gone the way of the inferior flesh. He would have made it worth the pigs while to be more tragical.

This Dæmon is the only doubtful thing about the character of Socrates, for as to the common misconceptions of him, they are but the natural conclusions of vulgar minds; and Aristophanes, who became a traitor to the graces he had learned at his table, and condescended to encourage the misconceptions in order to please the instinctive jealousy of the men of wit and pleasure about town, was but a splendid buffoon. But when we reflect that the wisdom inculcated by Socrates was of a nature particularly strait-forward and practical, this supernatural twist in his pretensions appears the more extraordinary. To be sure, it has been well argued, that no men are more likely to be put out of their reckoning by a sudden incursion of fancy or demand upon their belief, than those who are the most mechanical and matter-of-fact on all other points.


They are not used to it; and have no grounds to go upon, the moment the hardest and driest ones are taken from under them. Plato has rendered it difficult to believe this of Socrates; but then we have the authority of Socrates for concluding, that Plato put a great deal in his head that he never uttered; and the Socrates of Xenophon, we think, the practical farmer and housekeeper, might not be supposed incapable of yielding to superstitious delusion out of a defect of imagination. Socrates sometimes reminds us of Dr. Johnson. He was a Johnson on a higher scale, healthier, with more self-command; and instead of being intemperate and repenting all his life, had conquered his passions, and turned them into graces becoming his reason. Johnson had a sturdy every-day good sense, and wit and words to impress it; but it was only persuasion in him in Socrates it was persuasion and practice. Now Johnson had a strong tendency to be moved by superstitious impressions, and perplexities from within. A sudden action of the bile, not well understood, or taken as a moral instead of a physical intimation, would give rise to some painful thoughts; and this (which is a weakness that many temperaments given to reflection and not in perfect health, have found it necessary to guard against), would lead him into some superstitious practice or avoidance. There is a circumstance related of him, very like this one of Socrates; only the sedentary, diseased, dinner-loving Englishman made a gloomy business of it; while the sturdy gymnastic Athenian, mastering the weakness of his stomach, turned the superstition on his side into an elegance and an exaltation. The fact we allude to is, that Johnson would never go down Cranbourne Alley, or some street thereabout. He always turned, and went round about. Had he been gay and confident, not overwhelmed with scrophula, and with the more gloomy parts of his creed, he might have sworn as Socrates

See the story as related by Plutarch, and translated by Creech, in the Morals by several Hands. Vol. II. p. 287. The street preferred by the philosopher was "Trunkmaker-street, and the fatal one "Gravers-row" says Creech, "near the Guildhall."


FIRST WEEK IN JUNE. SWARMING OF BEES. INTENSE INTEREST THEY TAKE IN THEIR QUEEN." JUNE, for reasons mentioned in the following article, is a favourite period with the bees, especially towards the middle of it. While the reader is perusing this article, he may imagine myriads of them gathering their swarms, and filling the lazy summer air with their burning notes. They are a strange, mysterious people, as singular to us as we should be to them if their faculties enabled them to investigate us. Their attachment to their queen, or rather mother (for she is literally the parent of the nation!) is evinced in a manner deeply interesting, and shows a love for her, or de pendance upon her, perhaps both, of a nature, the particular causes of which have yet but imperfectly been discerned. The application to her of the title of queen, and the use of the words princesses, royal family, &c., are founded on a very imperfect analogy. It would be less objectionable to call her queen-mother, and even then the resemblance of the bee queen-mother to the human one would be very partial. To make it complete, it would be necessary that the latter should be the absolute parent as well as mistress of the whole tribe,--that Queen Henrietta for instance, or Queen Catherine de Medici, should have been literally the mother and producer of all England or France! and produce from 12 to 20,000 children a season!!

However populous (says Dr. Bevan) a stock of bees may be in the autumn, its numbers are greatly reduced during winter, perhaps about six or seven

eighths. This loss is more than replaced in the spring, Hence arises by the amazing fecundity of the queen. a disposition to throw off swarms, which, of course, will issue more or less frequently, more or less early and in greater or less force, according to the temperature of the season, the fertility of the queen, he populousness of the stock, and the attention that has been paid to early feeding.


The most advantageous time for a swarm to be thrown off is from the middle of May to the middle of June. This period comprehends the grand harvestseason of the honeyed race. After the scythe has cut down the flowers which adorn our meadows and yield the bees such a plentiful supply of honey and farina, there is a very manifest relaxation in their activity; their excursions are not only much less extensive, out less frequent, although the weather be in all respects propitious. Swarms that issue much earlier than the time I have specified, are apt to be small; and should bad weather succeed, feeding will be necessary, to pre

vent famine.


The following is the enumeration of the signs of swarming.

1st. Clustering or hanging out, if taken singly, may joined with other indications, it may be considered as a be regarded as a fallacious symptom, but when con sign of swarming.

2nd. The drones being visible in greater numbers than usual, and in great commotion, especially in the afternoon.

3rd. The inactivity of the working bees, who neither gather honey nor farina, though the morning be sunny and the weather altogether inviting. Reaumur regarded this as the most indubitable sign of preparation for swarming.

4th. A singular humming noise, for two or three nights previous, which has been variously described and accounted for. It cannot always be distinguished, unless the ear be placed near the mouth of the hive; the sounds, which are sharp and clear, seem to proceed from a single bee. Some suppose the noise to be made by the young queen, and to resemble the chip chip, peep peep, or the tool tool, of a child's penny trumpet, but not so loud; Mr. Hunter compares it to the lower a in the treble of the piano forte. It is readily distinguishable by those who have been accustomed to hear it. DR. EVANS inquires, is it the sound emitted by the perfect queens.on emerging from their cells, as described by M. Huber? The noise is sometimes in a shrill, at other times in a deeper key; this difference in the intensity of the tones may arise from the distance whence the sound proceeds, or may be intended to intimate to the bees the respective ripeness of their queens. BUTLER and WOOLRIDGE ascribe it to a parley between the old and young queens, the latter at the bottom of the hive requesting leave to emigrate, and the former answering in her bass note from the top. WILDMAN supposes it to arise from a contest betwixt the queens, about sallying forth; and endeavours to account for its less frequency before first swarms, from the young chiefs being then in their embryo state. This, however, is mere hypothesis, and not at all consonant with later discoveries, particularly those of Huber, and Dunbar.

5th. Unusual silence in the hive, during which the separatists are supposed to be taking in a cargo of honey before their flight, as a provision against bad weather. Mr. Hunter opened the crops of some bees that remained in the parent hive and the crops of some emigrating bees, when he found the latter quite full, whilst the former contained but a small quantity.


As many persons doubt the queen's importance to the harmonious union of a swarm, I shall give an instance or two, to show how essentially necessary her presence is to produce this effect. DR. WARDER being desirous of ascertaining the extent of the bees "loyalty to their sovereign, ran the hazard of destroying a swarm for this purpose." Having shaken on the grass all the bees from a hive which they had only tenanted the day before, he searched for the queen, by stirring amongst them with a stick. Having found and placed her, with a few attendants in a box, she was taken into his par lour; where the box being opened, she and her attendants immediately flew to the window, when he clipped off one of her wings, returned her to the box, and confined her there for above an hour. In less than a quarter of an hour, the swarm ascertained the loss of their queen, and instead of clustering together in one social mass, they diffused themselves over a space of several feet, were much agitated, and uttered a piteous sound. An hour afterwards they all took flight, and settled upon the hedge where they had first alighted, after leaving the parent stock; but instead of hanging together like a bunch of grapes, as when the queen was with them, and as swarms usually hang, they extended themselves thirty feet along the edge, in small bunches, of forty, fifty, or more. The queen was now presented to them, when all quickly gathered round her, with a joyful hum, and formed one harmonious cluster. At night the Doctor hived them again, and on the following morning repeated his experiment, to see whether the bees would rise; the queen being in a mutilated state, and unable to accompany them, they surrounded her for several hours, apparently will ing to die with her rather than desert her in distress. The queen was a second time removed, when they spread themselves out again, as though searching for


was laid."

售 *

ber: her repeated restoration to them at different Durer,” says Mr. D'Israeli, compelled that great ge- mences the Second Series of that work,-a portion with parts of their circle, produced one uniform result,

nius to the hourly drudgery of his profession, merely to which the public are less acquainted than the First, and these poor loyal and loving creatures, always gratify her own sordid profession. In despair, Albert but which, if our memory does not deceive us, is even marched and countermarched every way as the queen

The Doctor persevered in these experi- run away from his Tisiphone; she wheedled him back; more entertaining and curious than the former part. ments, till after five days and nights of fasting, they and not long afterwards this great artist fell a victim to Two volumes are yet to make their appearance. The All died of famine, except the queen, who lived a few

her furious disposition.” Curiosities of Literature, whole six will make an elegant and agreeable addition to hours longer, and then died. The attachment of the queen to the working bees, appeared to be equally as (new edition), vol. II. p. 122.

every library that can afford them, being in fact a little strong as their attachment to her; though offered

To-day (22nd of May, 1688, O. S., is the birth-day world, in themselves, of anecdote and miscellaneous honey on several occasions, during the period of her

literature. separation from them, she constantly refused it, “dis

of Popethe finest miniature-poe- of familiar life that daining a life that was no life to her, without the com- Europe has seen, whether for fancy pieces or port- D’Israeli,) she is usually noticed by her contemporaries,

“The Lady Arabella," for by that name (says Mr. pany of those which she could not have.”

raits. Alexander Pope was born in Lombard Street, rather than by her maiden name of Stuart, or by her

where his father was a linen-draper. The poet was married one of Seymour, as she latterly subscribed herIn confirmation of the evidence of the queen's importance to the well-being of the community, I will ad

small, sickly, and crooked; but had an eye and face of self, was, by her affinity with James the First, and our vert to some experiments of HUBER. He removed a great elegance ; and was a fine gentleman, as exquisite for her happiness and quiet! In their common descent

Elizabeth, placed near the throne ; too near, it seems, queen from one of his hives ; the bees were not imme, at a compliment as at a satire.

from Margaret, the eldest daughter to Henry the diately aware of it, but continued their labours, watched

June 5th, (May 23rd, 1707, 0. S.) at Rashult in Seventh, she was cousin to the Scottish monarch, but over the young, and performed the whole of their ordidary occupations. In a few hours afterwards, agitation Sweden, Carl or Charles Von Linné, better known by born an Englishwoman, which gave her some advan

tage in a claim to the throne of England. “ Her commenced, and all appeared to be a scene of tumult; the Latinized name of Linnæus, the great naturalist

double relation to royalty,” says Mr. Lodge, “was a singular humming noise was heard, the bees deserted and botanist. His father was a clergyman, of a family equally obnoxious to the jealousy of Elizabeth and the their young, and rushed over the surface of the combs with delirious impetuosity. On replacing the queen,

of peasants. The customs of Sweden were so primi- timidity of James, and they secretly dreadedthe suptranquillity was instantly restored; and from what will tive at that time, that people under the rank of nobi- posed danger of her having a legitimate offspring.”

Yet James himself, then unmarried, proposed for the be said presently, it appeared that they knew her in-lity had no surnames; and by a sort of prophetic in

husband of the Lady Arabella one of her cousins, Lord dividual person. Huber varied this experiment with clination, the family of Linnæus had designated them- Esme Stuart, whom he had created Duke of Lenox, other hives, in different ways; instead of restoring their

selves from a favourite linden or lime-tree, which grew and designed for his heir. The first thing we hear of own queen, he tried to substitute a stranger queen; the manner of her reception depended upon the period at

“The Lady Arabella,” concerns a marriage : marriages near their abode; so that Carl von Linne meant

were the incidents of her life, and the fatal event which which she was introduced. If twenty-four hours had Charles of the Lime-tree. The lime was not unworthy terminated it was marriage. Such was the secret elapsed after the removal of the queen, the stranger was well received, and at once admitted to the sovereignty founded, requires more than an abrupt explanation of volved

of being his godfather. The system of botany which he spring on which her character and her misfortunes reof the hive. If not more than eighteen hours had

This proposed match was desirable to all parties ; elapsed, she was at first treated as a prisoner, but after it to do it justice; but Linnæus was one of those ori

but there was one greater than them all, who forbad a time permitted to reign. If the stranger was intro- ginal geniuses who saw nature in a new as well as true the bans. Elizabeth interfered; she imprisoned the duced within twelve hours, she was immediately sur

light; and like all men of that sort, whose pursuits are Lady Arabella, and would not deliver her up to the rounded by an impenetrable cluster of bees, and commonly died either from hunger or privation of air. It gentle, he was equally enthusiastic and good-hearted. king, of whom she spoke with asperity, and even with

contempt.* The greatest infirmity of Elizabeth was appeared, therefore, in the course of these experi. He would have left Sweden when young, in conse

her mysterious conduct respecting the succession to ments, that from twenty-four to thirty hours were re- quence of the greater encouragement he received else

the English throne ; her jealousy of power, her strange quired, for a colony to forget its sovereign, and that if, where, but he says he could not, for he was "in unhappiness in the dread of personal neglect, made her before the lapse of that period, no substitute were presented, they set about constructing royal cells, as love." His love, however, was more the reflection of

averse to see a successor in her court, or even to hear

of a distant one; in a successor she could only view a stated in page 22; and moreover, that if, during the his own amiable qualities than resulting from any real

competitor. Camden tells us that she frequently obtime they were so occupied, a princess was so brought merit in the object; for his wife turned out to be a served that “most men neglected the setting sun," to them, the fabrication of royal cells was instantly bad, unfeeling woman, and became the torment of him and this melancholy presentiment of personal neglect, abandoned, and the larvae selected to occupy them were destroyed.

this political coquette not only lived to experience, but On the admission of a welcome stranand his family.—His eldest daughter discovered, that

even this circumstance of keeping the succession unger queen, more regard is shewn her at first, than to a the nasturtium had the property of emitting sparks of settled, miserably disturbed the queen on her deathrestored natural queen,—at least there are more con- light in warm summer evenings.

bed. Her ministers, it appears, harassed her when she spicuous demonstrations of it: the nearest workers touch her with their antennae, and passing their pro

[We have just had a very apropos little manual sent was lying speechless ; a remarkable circumstance, boscis over every part of their body, give her honey. us called "Clavis Botanica-A Key to the Study of Bo

which has hitherto escaped the knowledge of her nu

merous historians, and which I shall take the opportuIn the cases above related, the bees all vibrated their tany on the system arranged by Linnæus,” printed and nity of disclosing in this work. wings at once, as if experiencing some agreeable sensa

published by Mr. Fry of Houndsditch: It is a delicate Elizabeth leaving a point so important always pro. tions, and ranged themselves in a circle round her. Others, in succession, broke through this circle, and pigmy book, printed on straw-coloured paper, and done blematical, raised up the very evil she so greatly

dreaded; it multiplied the aspirants, while every party having repeated the same process, of touching her up in rose-colour,-a flower in itself; and it has the

humoured itself by selecting its own claimant, and with their antennæ, giving her honey &c., formed true simplicity, brevity, and easiness of an elementary none more busily than the continental powers. One of themselves into a circle behind the others, vibrating book, so that a lover of flowers may take it at once in the most curious is the project of the Pope, who, intheir wings and keeping up a pleasurable hum. These demonstrations were continued for a quarter of an hand, and really learn from it what it professes to

tending to put aside James the First, on account of his hour, when the queen beginning to move towards one teach; which is far from being the case with all books

religion, formed a chimerical scheme of uniting Ara

bella with a prince of the house of Savoy; the pretext, part of the whole circle, an opening was made through of similar pretensions.]

for without a pretext no politician moves, was their which she passed, followed and surrounded by her cus

June 9th, (May 27th, 0. S. 1265) at Florence, descent from a bastard of our Edward the Fourth; the tomary guard. Dante Alighieri, the greatest poet of Italy. Dante is a

Duke of Parma was, however, married; but the Pope, Christian name, a contraction of Durante. The Italians

in his infallibility, turned his brother, the Cardinal, into

the duke's substitute, by secularizing the churchman. We are sorry to have omitted in our last week's birth. have always been fond of calling people by their Chris- In that case the Cardinal would then become King of days the name of Edward Jenner, the discoverer of tian instead of surnames; and thus it is, that some of England in right of this lady! provided he obtained Vaccination, a benefactor to his species. He was the their famous countrymen have come down to us, known

the crown !t son of a clergyman, and was born at Berkley in Glou- almost entirely by the former; as Rafael, whose sur

We might conjecture from this circumstance, that

Arabella was a Catholic, and so Mr. Butler has recently cestershire, May 27th, (14th O. S.), 1749. We believe name was Sanzio; and Michael Angelo, who was a told us; but I know of no other authority than Dodd, he was an amiable man in private, and a successful cul- Buonarroti. The genius of Dante is admirable for a the Catholic historian, who has inscribed her name tivator of elegant literature; but we cannot recollect rare union of the austere and the tender. He is one

among his party. Parsons, the wily Jesuit, was so our authorities. Health and beauty are greatly in

doubtful how the lady, when young, stood disposed to of the great primitive poets who go to the heart of a

Catholicism, that he describes “her religion to be as debted to Jenner. “Sir," said Platoff, the Hetman of matter by dint of the strongest feelings and the tender, green, and flexible, as is her age and sex, and the Cossacks to hirn, when the Allied Foreign were in simplest words. He was in some respects however, to be wrought hereafter, and to be settled according to England, “you have extinguished the most pestilential not inferior to the violent passions of his time; and

future events and times." Yet, in 1611, when she was

finally sent into confinement, one well-informed o. disorder that ever appeared on the banks of the Don." his poem of Hell, Purgatory, and Hearen, is a singular

court affairs, writes, “that the Lady Arabella hath not But all the world are indehted to him. By the way, mixture of the noblest and most affecting genius, and been found inclinable to popery." I beauty itself began what science perfected; for inocu- the most partial and presumptuous bigotry.

Even Henry the Fourth of France was not unfriendly lation was introduced into Christendom by Lady Mary

to this papistical project of placing an Italian Cardinad Wortley Montagu, who brought it from Turkey.

on the English throne. had always been the state We also omitted the name of Albert Durer, the father

interest of the French cabinet to favour any scherne ROMANCE OF REAL LIFE.

which might preserve the realms of England and Scotof Art in Germany, who was born at Nuremberg, June

land as separate kingdoms. The manuscript corre

XVII.-LADY ARABELLA STUART. 2nd, (20th May, 0. S.), 1471, and was the son of a

spondence of Charles the Ninth with his ambassador at goldsmith. Durer was quaint, and deficient in keeping, Lady Arabella Stuart, a singular and affecting instance

A circumstance which we discover hy a Spanish memorial, yet earnest in detail, picturesque, and not without the of the sacrifice of a human being to state-policy, was when our James the First was negociating with the cabinet uf inspiration of true genius, as may be seen by his “Me- the great-great-grand-daughter of Henry the Seventh, by

Madrid. He complains of Elizabeth's treatment of him; that

the qneen refused to give him his father's estates in England lancholy the mother of Invention, where a solemn the marriage of his daughter Margaret with the Scot- nor would deliver op his upcie's daughter, Arabella, to be mar. female is looking out upon the mysteries of the uni- tish house of the Darnleys, Earl of Lennox.

ried to the Duke of Lenox, at which time the queen uso pala. By this

bras muy asperas y de mucho desprechia contra el dichó Rey verse. His genius was so truly German, that traces of descent, she stood next in blood royal and right of de Escocia; she used harsh words, expressing much couleinpl of

the king - Winwood's Mem, i. 4. the imitation of him are to be met with to this day, as inheritance, to her cousin James the First, son of Mary

+ See a very curions letter, CCXCIX. of Cardinal de Ossat, in the picturesque quaint beards and adjusted attitudes of Queen of Scots, wife of Lord Darnley, in case that

The Catholic interest expected to facilitate the conRetsch. Poor Albert had a wife who understood no- prince had no issue; and hence arose the misfortunes

quest of Eugland by joining their armies with those of "Arbelle, **

and the commentator writes that this English lady had a party. thing about "Melancholy the Mother of Invention,” so interestingly detailed by Mr. D’Israeli in the fourth consisting of all those English who had been ibé judges or the and thought she could not add enough trouble to the volume of his newly published Curiosities of Literature.

avowed enemies of Mary of Scotland, the mother of James the painter's existence. She was a shrew. “The wife of With the latter half of this volume, by the way, com- * Winwood's Memorials, iji. 281.


Vol. V.



who sighed for distinction, ambitioned the notice of the Lady Arabella; and she was so frequently contriving a marriage for herself, that a courtier of that day writing to another, observes, "these affectations of marriage in her do give some advantage to the world of impairing the reputation of her constant and virtuous disposition." The revels of Christmas had hardly closed, when the lady Arabella forgot that she had been forgiven, and She renewed a again relapsed into her old infirmity. connexion, which had commenced in childhood, with Mr. William Seymour, the second son of Lord Beauchamp, and grandson to the Earl of Hertford. His character has been finely described by Clarendon; he loved his studies and his repose; but when the civil wars broke out, he closed his volumes and drew his sword, and was both an active and a skilful general. Charles the First created him Marquis of Hertford, and governor of the prince; he lived to the Restoration, and Charles the Second restored him to the dukedom of Somerset.


This treaty of marriage was detected in February, 1809, and the parties summoned before the privy council. Seymour was particularly censured for daring to ally himself with the royal blood, although that blood was running in his own veins. In a manuscript letter which I have discovered, Seymour addressed the lords of the privy council. The style is humble; the plea to excuse his intended marriage is, that being but a younger brother, and sensible of mine own good, unknown to the world, of mean estate, not born to challenge anything by my birthright, and therefore my fortunes to be raised by mine own endeavour, and as she is a lady of great honour and virtue, and, as I thought, of great means, I did plainly and honestly endeavour lawfully to gain her in marriage." There is nothing romantic in this apology, in which Seymour describes himself as a fortune-hunter! which, however, was probably done to cover his undoubted affection for Arabella, whom he had early known. He says, that "he conceived that this noble lady might, without offence, make the choice of any subject within this kingdom; which conceit was begotten in me upon a general report, after her ladyship's last being called before your lordships;t-that it might be." He tells the story of this ancient wooing-"I boldly intruded myself into her ladyship's chamber in the court on Candlemass day last, at what time I imparted my desire unto her, which was entertained, but with this caution on either part, that both of us resolved not to proceed to any final conclusion, without his majesty's most gracious favour first obtained. And this was our first meeting! After that we had a second meeting at Mr. Brigg's house in Fleet-street, and then a third at Mr. Baynton's, at both which we had the like conference and resolution as before." He assures their lordships that both of them had never intended marriage without his majesty's approbation.

your body. You may see by me what inconveniences it will bring one to; and no fortune, I assure you, daunts me so much as that weakness of body I find in myself; for si nous vivons l'age d'un veau, as Marot says, we may, by God's grace be happier than we look for, in being suffered to enjoy ourself with his majesty's favour. But if we be not able to live to it, for my part, shall think myself a pattern of misfortune, in enjoying so great a blessing as you, so little awhile. No separation but that deprives me of the comfort of you. For wheresoever you be or in what state soever you are, it sufficeth me you are mine! Rachel wept and would not be comforted, because her children were no more. And that, indeed, is the remediless sorrow, and none else! And, therefore, God bless us from that, and I will hope well of the rest, though I see no apparent hope. But I am sure God's book mentioneth many of his children in as great distress, that have done well after, even in this world! I do assure you nothing the state can do with me can trouble me so much as this news of your being ill doth; and you see when I am troubled, I trouble you with tedious kindness; for so I think you will account so long a letter, yourself not having written to me this good while so much as how you do. But, sweet sir, I speak not this to trouble you with writing but when you please. Be well, and I shall account myself happy in being

"Your faithful loving wife, "ARB. S." #

In examining the manuscripts of this lady, the defect of dates must be supplied by our sagacity. The following "petition," as she calls it, addressed to the king in defence of her secret marriage, must have been written at this time. She remonstrates with the king for what she calls his neglect of her; and while she fears to be violently separated from her husband, she asserts her cause with a firm and noble spirit, which was afterwards too severely tried!


"May it please your most excellent Majesty, "I do most heartily lament my hard fortune that I should offend your Majesty the least, especially in that whereby I have long desired to merit of your Majesty, as appeared before your Majesty was my sovereign. And though your Majesty's neglect of me, my good liking of this gentleman that is my husband, and my fortune, drew me to a contract before I acquainted your Majesty, I humbly beseech your Majesty to consider how impossible it was for me to imagine it would be offensive to your Majesty, having few days before given me your royal consent to bestow myself on any subject of your Majesty's (which likewise your Majesty had done long since). Besides, never having been prohibited any, or spoken to for any, in this land, by your Majesty. these seven years that I have lived in your Majesty's house, I could not conceive that your Majesty regarded my marriage at all; whereas if your Majesty had vouchsafed to tell me your mind, and accept the freewill offering of my obedience, I would not have offended your Majesty, of whose gracious goodness I presume so much, that if it were now as convenient in a worldly respect, as malice make it seem to separate us, whom God hath joined, your Majesty would not do evil that good might come thereof, nor make me, that have the honour to be so near your Majesty in blood, the first precedent that ever was, though our princes may have left some as little imitable, for so good and gracious a king as your Majesty, as David's dealing with Uriah. But I assure myself, if it please your Majesty in your own wisdom to consider thoroughly of my cause, there will no solid reason appear to debar me of justice and your princely favour, which I will endeavour to deserve whilst I breathe."

It is indorsed, "A copy of my petition to the King's Majesty." In another she implores that “If the necessity of my state and fortune, together with my weakness, have caused me to do somewhat not pleasing to your Majesty, let it all be covered with the shadow of your royal benignity." Again, in another petition, she writes

'Touching the offence for which I am now punished, I most humbly beseech your Majesty, in your most princely wisdom and judgment, to consider in what a ' miserable state I had been, if I had taken any other course than I did; for my own conscience witnessing before God that I was then the wife of him that now I am, I could never have matched any other man, but to have lived all the days of my life as a harlot, which your Majesty would have abhorred in any (how otherwise unfortunate soever) to have any drop of your Majesty's blood in them."

I find a letter of Lady Jane Drummond, in reply to this or another petition, which Lady Drummond had given the queen to present to his Majesty. It was to learn the cause of Arabella's confinement. The pithy expression of James the First is characteristic of the monarch; and the solemn forebodings of Lady Drummond, who appears to have been a lady of excellent judgment, showed, by the fate of Arabella, how they were true."


Answering her prayer, to know the cause of her confinement. "This day her Majesty hath seen your ladyship's letter. Her Majesty says, that when she gave your

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the court of London, which I have seen, tends solely to this great purpose, and perhaps it was her French and Spanish allies which finally hastened the political martyrdom of the Scottish Mary.

Thus we have discovered two chimerical husbands of the Lady Arabella. The pretensions of this lady to the throne had evidently become an object with speculating politicians; and perhaps it was to withdraw herself from the embarrassments into which she was thrown, that, according to De Thou, she intended to marry a son of the Earl of Northumberland; but to the jealous terrors of Elizabeth, an English Earl was not an object of less magnitude than a Scotch Duke. This is the third shadowy husband.

When James the First ascended the English throne, there existed an anti-Scottish party. Hardly had the northern monarch entered into the "Land of Promise," when his southern throne was shaken by a foolish plot, which one writer calls "a state riddle;" it involved Rawleigh, and unexpectedly the lady Arabella. The Scottish monarch was to be got rid of, and Arabella was to be crowned. Some of these silly conspirators having written to her, requesting letters to be addressed to the King of Spain, she laughed at the letter she received, and sent it to the King. Thus for a second time was Arabella to have been Queen of England. This occurred in 1603, but was followed by no harsh measures from James the First.

In the following year, 1604, I have discovered that for the third time the lady was offered a crown! "A great ambassador is coming from the King of Poland, whose chief errand is to demand my Lady Arabella in marriage for his master. So may your princess of the blood grow a great queen, and then we shall be safe from the danger of missuperscribing letters."* This last passage seems to allude to something. What is meant of the danger of superscribing letters?"

If this royal offer were made, it was certainly forbidden. Can we imagine the refusal to have come from the lady, who, we shall see, seven years afterwards, complained that the king had neglected her, in not providing her with a suitable match? It was this very time that one of those butterflies, who quiver on the fair flowers of a court, writes that "My Lady Arabella spends her time in lecture reading, &c., and she will not hear of marriage. Indirectly there were speeches used in the recommendation of Count Maurice, who pretended to be Duke of Guildres. I dare not attempt her." Here we find another princely match proposed. Thus far, to the Lady Arabella, crowns and husbands were like a fairy banquet seen at moonlight, opening on her sight, impalpable and vanishing at the moment of approach.

Arabella, from certain circumstances, was dependant on the king's bounty, which flowed very unequally; often reduced to great personal distress, we find by her letters, "that "she prayed for present money, though it should not be annually." I have discovered that James at length granted her a pension. The royal favours, however, were probably limited to her good behaviour.

From 1604 to 1608, is a period which forms a blank leaf in the story of Arabella. In this last year this unfortunate lady had again fallen out of favour, and, as usual, the cause was mysterious, and not known even to the writer. Chamberlain, in a letter to Sir Ralph Winwood, mentions, "The Lady Arabella's business, whatsoever it was, is ended, and she restored to her former places and graces. The king gave her a cupboard of plate, better than 2001., for a new year's gift, and 1000 marks to pay her debts, besides some yearly addition to her maintenance, want being thought the chiefest cause of her discontentment, though she be not altogether free from suspicion of being collapsed."§ Another mysterious expression which would seem to allude either to politics or religion; but the fact appears by another writer to have been a discovery of a new project of marriage without the king's consent. This person of her choice is not named; and it was to divert her mind from the too constant object of her thoughts, that James, after a severe reprimand, had invited her to partake of the festivities of the court, in that season of revelry and reconciliation.

We now approach that event of the Lady Arabella's life, which reads like a romantic fiction, the catastrophe, too, is formed by the Aristotelian canon; for its misery, its pathos, and its terror, even romantic fiction has not exceeded!

It is probable that the king, from some political motive, had decided that the Lady Arabella should lead a single life; but such wise purposes frequently meet with cross ones; and it happened that no woman was ever more solicited to the conjugal state, or seems to have been so little averse to it. Every noble youth,

This manuscript letter from William, Earl of Pembroke, to Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury, is dated from Hampton Court, Oct. 3, 1604. Sloane MSS. 4161.

+ Lodge's Illustrations of British History, iii. 286. It is curious to observe, that this letter, by W. Fowler, is dated on the same day as the manuscript letter I have just quoted, and is di rected to the same Earl of Shrewsbury; so that the Earl must have received, in one day, accounts of two different projects of marriage for his niece! This shows how much Arabella engaged the designs of foreigners and natives. Will Fowler was a rhyming and fantastical secretary to the queen of James the First.

Two letters of Arabella, on distress of money, are preserved by Ballard. The discovery of a pension I made in Sir Julius Caesar's manuscript, where one is mentioned of 1,6007. to the Lady Arabella. Sloane MSS., 4160.

Mr. Lodge has shown that the king once granted her the duty

on oats.

Vinwood's Memorials, vol. iii., 117-119.

But love laughs at privy-councils and the grave promises made by two frightened lovers. The parties were secretly married, which was discovered about July in the following year. They were then separately confined, the lady at the house of Sir Thomas Parry, at Lambeth, and Seymour in the Tower, for "his contempt in marrying a lady of the royal family without the king's leave."

This, their first confinement, was not rigorous; the lady walked in her garden, and the lover was prisoner at large in the Tower. The writer in the Biographia Britannica observes, "that some intercourse they had by letters, which, after a time was discovered." In this history of love there might be precious documents, and in the library at Long-leat, these loveepistles, or perhaps this volume, may yet lie unread in a corner.§ Arabella's epistolary talent was not vulgar: Dr. Montford, in a manuscript letter, describes one of those effusions which Arabella addressed to the king. "This letter was penned by her in the best terms, as she can do right well. It was often read without offence, nay it was even commended by his highness, with the applause of prince and council.” One of these amatory letters I have recovered. The circumstance is domestic, being nothing more at first than a very pretty letter on Mr. Seymour having taken cold, but, as every love-letter ought, it is not without a pathetic crescendo; the tearing away of hearts so firmly joined, while, in her solitary imprisonment, that he lived and was her own filled her spirit with that consciousness which triumphed even over that sickly frame so nearly subdued to death. The familiar style of James the First's age may bear comparison with our own. I shall give it entire.


"I am exceeding sorry to hear you have not been well. I pray you let me know truly how you do, and what was the cause of it. I am not satisfied with the reason Smith gives for it; but if it be a cold, I will impute it to some sympathy betwixt us, having myself gotten a swollen cheek at the same time with a cold. For God's sake, let not your grief of mind work upon

Ibid, vol. iii., 119.

This evidently alludes to the gentleman whose name appears not, which occasioned Arabella to incur the king's displeasure before Christmas; the Lady Arabella, it is quite clear, was resolvedly bent on marrying herself.

+ Harl. MSS. 7003.

It is on record that at Long-leat, the seat of the Marquis of Bath, certain papers of Arabella are preserved. I leave to the noble owner the pleasure of the research.

* Harl. M.5. 7003.

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