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The former, she said, was showy and spacious, and delicately-turned ivory markers (work of Chinese and what possible principle of our nature, except likely to allure young persons. The uncertainty and artist unconscious of their symbol, or as profanesy stupid wonderment, could it gratify to gain that quick shifting of partners—a thing which the con- slighting their true application as the arrantest number as many times successively, without a prize? stancy of whist abhors;—the dazzling supremacy and Ephesian journeyman that turned out those little - Therefore she disliked the mixture of chance in regal investiture of Spadille—absurd, as she justly shrines for the goddess)-exchange them for little backgammon, where it was not played for inoney. observed, in the pure aristoeracy of whist, where his bits of leather (our ancestors' money) or chalk and a She called it foolish, and those people idiots who crown and garter gave him no proper power above slate !_”

were taken with a lucky hit, under such circumhis brother-nobility of the Aces;—the giddy vanity, The old lady, with a smile confessed the soundness stances. Games of pure skill were as little to her so taking to the inexperienced, of playing alone ;- of my logic; and to her approbation of my arguments fancy. Played for a stake, they were a mere system above all the overpowering attractions of a Sans on her favourite topic that evening, I have always fan- of over-reaching. Played for glory, they were Prendre Vole,—to the triumph of which there is cer- cied myself indebted for the legacy of a curious crib. mere setting of one man's wit,—his memory, or comtainly nothing parallel or approaching, in the con- bage-board, made of the finest Sienna marble, which bination-faculty rather—against another's; like a tingencies of whist;—all these, she would say, make her maternal uncle (old Walter Plumer, whom I mock engagement at a review, bloodless and profitquadrille a game of captivation to the young and have elsewhere celebrated) brought with him from less.—She could not conceive a game wanting the enthusiastic. But whist was the solider game: that Florence—this, and a trifle of five hundred pounds sprightly infusion of chance,--the handsome was her word. It was a long meal, not, like qua- came to me at her death.

cuses of good fortune. Two people playing at chess drille, a feast of snatches. One or two rubbers

The former bequest (which I do not least value) in a corner of a room, whilst whist was stirring in might co-extend in duration with an evening. They I have kept with religious care; though she herself,

the centre, would inspire her with insufferable horror gave time to form 'rooted friendships, to cultivate to confess a truth, was

and ennui. never greatly taken with

Those well-cut similitudes of castles steady enmities. She despised the chance-started, cribbage. It was an essentially vulgar game, I have

and knights, the imagery of the board, she would capricious and ever-fluctuating alliances of the heard her say,—disputing with her uncle, who was

argue (and I think in this case justly), were intirely other. The skirmishes of quadrille, she would say,

very partial to it.

She could never bring her mouth misplaced and senseless. Their hard head-contests reminded her of the petty ephemeral embroilments heartily to pronounce “ go "- -or that's a go.” She

can in no instance ally with the fancy. They reject of the little Indian states, depicted by Machiavel; called it an ungrammatical game. The pegging teazed

form and colour. A pencil and dry slate, she used perpetually changing 'postures and connexions; bither. I once knew her to forfeit a rubber: (a five dollar

to say, were the proper arena for such combatants. ter foes to-day, sugared darlings to-morrow; kissing stake) because she would not take advantage of the To those puny objectors against cards, as nurturand scratching in a breath; but the wars of whist turn-up knave, which would have given it her, but ing the bad passions, she would retort, that man is were comparable to the long, steady, deep-rooted, which she must have claimed by the disgraceful te- a gaming animal. He must be always trying to get rational antipathies of the great French and English nure of declaring “two for his heels.” There is some

the better in something or other :-that this passion nations. thing extremely genteel in this sort of self-denial.

can scarcely be more safely expended than upon A grave simplicity was what she chiefly admired Sarah Battle was a gentlewoman born.

a game at cards: that cards are a temporary illuin her favourite game. There was nothing silly in

sion; in truth, a mere drama; for we do but play

Piquet she held the best game at the cards for two it, like the nob in cribbage—nothing superfluous.

at being mightily concerned, where a few idle shilpersons, though she would ridicule the pedantry of No flushes--that most irrational of all lpleas that a the terms—such as pique-repique—the capot

lings are at stake, yet, during the illusion, we are as reasonable being can set up:—that anyone should they savoured (she thought) of affectation. But mightily concerned as those whose stake is crowns claim four by virtue of holding cards of the same

and kingdoms. They are a sort of dream-fighting; games for two, or even three, she never greatly cared mark and colour, without reference to the playing of for. She loved the quadrate, or square. She would

much ado; great battling, and little bloodshed; the game," or the individual worth or pretensions argue thus :-Cards are warfare: the ends are gain, mighty means for disproportioned ends ; quite as of the cards themselves ! She held this to be with glory. But cards are war, in disguise of a sport;

diverting, and a great deal more innoxious, than a solecism; as pitiful an ambition at cards as

when single adversaries encounter, the ends proposed many of those more serious games of life, which men alliteration is in authorship. She despised super- are too palpable. By themselves, it is too close a

play, without esteeming them to be such.

With great deference to the old lady's judgment ficiality, and looked deeper than the colours of fight; with spectators it is not much bettered. No

on these matters, I think I have experienced some things.--Suits were soldiers, she would say, and looker on can be interested, except for a bet, and then

moments in my life, when playing at cards for nothing must have a uniformity of array to distinguish them : it is a mere affair of money; he cares not for your

has even been agreeable. When I am in sickness, but what should we say of a foolish squire, who luck sympathetically, or for your play. Three are still

or not in the best spirits, I sometimes call for the should claim a merit from dressing up his tenantry in

worse; a mere naked war of every man against every
red jackets, that never were to be marshalled-never
man, as in cribbage, without league or alliance; or a

cards, and play a game at piquet for love with my
to take the field ?--She even wished that whist were
rotation of petty and contradictory interests, a suc-

cousin Bridget-Bridget Elia.
more simple than it is; and, in my mind, would
cession of heartless leagues, and not much more

I grant there is something sneaking in it; but

with a tooth-ache, or a sprained ancle,—when you have stript it of some appendages, which, in the state hearty infractions of them, as in tradrille.-But in

are subdued and humble,--you are glad to put up of human frailty, may be venially, and even com

square games (she meant whist) all that is possible to mendably allowed of. She saw no reason for the

with an inferior spring of action. be attained in card-playing is accomplished. There

There is such a thing in nature, I am convinced, deciding of the trump by the turn of the card. Why are the incentives of profit with honour, common to

as sick whist. not one suit always trumps ?-_Why two colours,

to every species—though the latter can be but very when the marks of the suits would have sufficiently imperfectly enjoyed in those other games, where the

I grant it is not the highest style of man- I de distinguished them without it?--spectator is only feebly a participator. But the

precate the manes of Sarah Battle-she lives not,

alas ! to whom I should apologise. “But the eye, my dear madam, is agreeably parties in whist are spectators and principals too.

At such times, those terms which my old friend refreshed with the variety. Man is not a creature of They are a theatre to themselves, and a looker-on is pure reason—he must have his senses delightfully not wanted. He is rather worse than nothing, and objected to, come in as something admissible. I appealed to.

love to get a tierce or a quatorze, though they mean We see it in Roman Catholic coun. an impertinence. Whist abhors neutrality or intries, where the music and the paintings draw in terests beyond its sphere. You glory in some sur.

nothing. I am subdued to an inferior_interest.

Those shadows of winning amuse me. many to worship, whom your quaker spirit of un

prising stroke of skill or fortune, not because a coldsensualizing would have kept out.

You yourself

or even an interested-by-stander witnesses it, but That last game I had with my sweet cousin (I have a pretty collection of paintings—but confess to

because your partner sympathises in the contingency. capotted her)——(dare I tell thee, how foolish I am?) me whether, walking in your gallery at Sandham, You win for two, You triumph for two. Two are

-I wished it might have lasted for ever, though among those clear Vandykes, or among the Paul exalted. Two again are mortified; which divides we gained nothing, and lost nothing, though it was Potters in the ante-room, you ever felt your bosom their disgrace, as the conjunction doubles (by taking a mere shade of play: I would be content to go on glow with an elegant delight, at all comparable to off the invidiousness) your glories. Two losing to

in that idle folly for ever. The pipkin should be that you have it in your power to experience most two are better reconciled, than one to one in that ever boiling, that was to prepare the gentle lenitive evenings over a well-arranged assortment of the close butchery. The hostile feeling is weakened by

to my foot, which Bridget was doomed to apply court cards ?—the pretty antic habits, like heralds multiplying the channels. War becomes a civil

after the game was over : and, as I do not much in a procession—the gay triumph-assuring scarlets

relish appliances, there it should ever bubble. game.—By such reasonings as these the old lady was the contrasting deadly-killing sables—the “hoary accustomed to defend her favourite pastime.

Bridget and I should be ever playing. majesty of spades '-Pam in all his glory

No inducement could ever prevail upon her to “ All these might be dispensed with; and, with play at any game where chance entered into the their naked names upon the drab paste-board, the composition, for nothing. Chance, she would argue

IMPORTANCE OF INDIVIDUALS TO ONE ANOTHER.' game might go on very well pictureless. But the and here again admire the subtlety of her conclu. Widely separated as they may be, there is no case beauty of cards would be extinguished for ever. sion !-chance is notbing but where something else where the influence possessed by any individual, Stripped of all that is imaginative in them, they depends upon it.

It is obvious that cannot be however mean, over any other individual, however must degenerate into mere gambling. Imagine a glory. What rational cause of exultation could it mighty, is really null, and unworthy of all regard. dull deal board, a drum head, to spread them on, give to a man to turn up size ace a hundred times The mouse in the fable, releasing the lion from instead of that nice verdant carpet (next to Nature's), together by himself? or before spectators, where no

bondage, is an exemplification of the possible dependfittest arena for those courtly combatants to play stake was depending? Make a lottery of a hundred ence of the strong upon the weak.- Bentham's Deon i their gallant jousts and tourneys in! Exchange those thousand tickets with but one fortunate number- tology.



have the freedom of etchings, and the sharpness of prowess, Dante attached himself to painting not less

proof impressions. His poem is well worth all the than to music, and practised it with the pencil (not PERSONAL PORTRAITS OF EMINENT MEN.

pains which the most indolent reader may take to indeed so triumphantly as with the pen, his picture master it.

poetry being unrivalled), with sufficient facility and [From "Lives of Eminent Italians. This summary Boccaccio, the earliest of his biographers, though grace to make it a favourite amusement in private ; account of the great Italian is one of the best fitted not the most authentic, says, that in person Dante

and none can believe that he could amuse himself to give a popular and true idea of him, that we have was of middle stature; that he stooped a little from with what was worthless. His four celebrated conseen. ]

the shoulders, and was remarkable for his firm and temporaries, Cimabue, Odorigi, Franco Bolognese, DANTE's poem is certainly neither the greatest nor

graceful gait. He always dressed in a manner pecu- and Giotto, are all honourably mentioned by him in the best in the world; but it is, perlaps, the most

liarly becoming his rank and years.

His visage was the eleventh Canto of the • Purgatorio.' extraordinary one which resolute intellect ever

long, with an aquiline nose, and eyes rather full than There is an interesting allusion to the employment planned, or persevering talents successfully executed. small, his cheek-bones large, and his upper-lip pro- which he loved in the " Vita Nuova':—“On the day It stands alone ; and must be read and judged ac

jecting beyond the under ; his complexion was dark; that completed the year after this lady (Beatrice) cording to rules and immunities adapted to its pecu

his beard and hair black, thick and curled ; and his had been received among the denizens of eternal life, liar structure, plot, and purpose, formed upon prin

countenance exhibited a confirmed expression of while I was sitting alone, and recalling her form to ciples affording scope to the exercise of the highest melancholy and thoughtfulness. Hence, one day, at my remembrance, I drew an angel on a certain powers, with little regard to precedent. If these

Verona, as he passed a gateway, where several ladies tablet,” &c. It may be incidentally observed, that principles, then, have intrinsic excellence, and the

were seated, one of them exclaimed, “ There goes Dante's angels are often painted with unsurpassable work be found uniformly consistent with them, ful

the man who can take a walk to hell, and back again, beauty, as well as inexhaustible variety of delineation filling to the utmost the aims of the author, the

whenever he pleases, and bring us news of everything throughout his poems, especially in Canto ix of the • Divina Commedia' must be allowed to stand among

that is doing there.” On which another, with equal "Inferno,' and Cantos ii, viii, xii, xv, xviii, xxiv of the proudest trophies of original genius, challenging,

sagacity, added, “ That must be true; for don't you the • Purgatorio.' Take six lines of one of these porencountering, and overcoming unparalleled difficul.

see how his beard is frizzled, and his face browned, traits; though the inimitable original must consume ties. Though the fields of action, or rather of vision,

with the heat and the smoke below.” The words, the unequal version :are nominally Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, the whether spoken in sport or silliness, were overheard Paradise, Purgatory, and Hell of Dante, with all by the poet, who, as the fair slanderers meant no

66 A noi venia la creatura bella, their terrors, and splendours, and preternatural malice, was quite willing that they should please Bianco vestita, e ne la faccia quale fictions, are but representations of scenes transacted themselves with their own fancies. Towards the

Par, tremolando, mattutina stella : on earth, and characters that lived antecedently or opening of the • Purgatorio' there is an allusion to

Le braccia aperse, e indi aperse l' ale; contemporaneously with himself. Though altogether the soil which his face had contracted on his journey

Disse; Venite ; qui son presso i gradi, out of the world, the whole is of the world. Men with Virgil through the nether world :

E agevolmente omai si sale." and women seem fixed in eternal torments, passing

DELL' PURGATORIO, Canto XII. through purifying flames, or exalted to celestial beati

“ High Morn had triumph'd o'er the glimmering

dawn tude; yet in all these situations they are what they S Which fled before her, so that I discern'd

“ That being came, all beautiful, to meet us,

Clad in white raiment, and the morning star were ; and it is their former history, more than their The tremble of the ocean from afar :

Appear'd to tremble in his countenance ; present happiness, hope, or despair, which constitutes, through a hundred cantos, the interest awakened and We walk'd along the solitary plain,

His arms he spread, and then he spread his kept up by the successive exhibition of more than a Like men retracing their erratic steps,

wings thousand individuals, actors and sufferers. Of every Who think all lost till they regain the path.

And cried, Come on, the steps are near at hand, Arriving where the dew-drops with the sun

And here the ascent is easy.'” one of these something terrible or touching is intimated or told briefly at the utmost, but frequently

Contended, and lay thick beneath the shade,

Leonardo Aretino, who had seen Dante's hand.

Both hands my master delicately spread by mere hints of narrative, or gleams of allusion,

writing, mentions, with no small commendacion, that which excite curiosity in the breast of the reader,

Upon the grass : aware of his intent,

the letters were long, slender, and exceedingly dis

I turn'd to him my tearful countenance, who is surprised at the poet's forbearance, when, in

tinct,—the characteristics of what is called in orna

And thence he wiped away the dusky hue the notes of commentators, he finds complex, strange

mental writing a fine Italian hand. The circum

With which the infernal air had sullied it.” # and fearful circumstances, on which a modern versi

stance may seem small, but it is not insignificant as fier or novelist would extend pages, treated here as

In his studies, Dante was so eager, earnest, and a finishing stroke in the portraiture of one who, ordinary events on which it would be impertinent to

indefatigable, that his wife and family often com- though he was the first poet unquestionably, and not dwell

. These, in the author's own age, were gener- plained of his unsocial habits. Boccaccio mentions, the least philosopher, was also one of the most acally understood ; the bulk of the materials being found at a shop-window a book which he had not

that once when he was at Sienna, having unexpectedly complished gentlemen of his age. gathered up during a period of restlessness and confusion among the republican states of Italy.

seen, but had long coveted, he placed himself on a

bench before the door, at nine o'clock in the morning, CHARACTERS OF SHAESPEARE'S Hence, though the first appearance of the Divina and never lifted up his eyes till vespers, when he had

PLAYS. Commedia,' in any intelligible edition, is repulsive run through the whole contents with such intense from the multitude of notes, and the text is not sel application, as to have totally disregarded the festidom difficult and dark with the oracular words, yet

vities of processions and music which had been passwill the toil and patience of any reader be well re.

ing through the streets the greater part of the day; This is one of the most loose and desultory of our paid, who perseveringly proceeds but a little way,

and when questioned about what had happened in author's plays: it rambles on just at it happens, but quietly referring, as occasion may require, from the

his presence, he denied having had any knowledge of it overtakes, together with some indifferent matter, a obscurity of the original to the illustrations below; anything but what he was reading. As might be prodigious number of fine things in its way. Troilus for when he returns from the latter to the former (as expected from his other habits, he rarely spoke, ex- himself is no character: he is merely a common though his own eye had been refreshed with new

cept when personally addressed, or strongly moved, lover : but Cressida and her uncle Pandarus are bit light, the darkness having been in it, and not in the

and then his words were few, well chosen, weighty, off with proverbial truth. By the speeches given to verse), what was colourless as a cloud is radiant with

and expressed in tones of voice accommodated to the the leaders of the Grecian host, Nestor, Ulysses, beauty, and what before was undefined in form, be- subject. Yet, when it was required, his eloquence Agamemnon, Achilles, Shakspeare seems to have comes exquisitely precise and symmetrical from com

broke forth with spontaneous felicity, splendour, and known them as well as if he had been a spy sent by prehending in so small a compass so vast a variety of exuberance of diction, imagery, and thought.

the Trojans into the enemy's camp-to say nothing thought, feeling, or fact. Dante, in this respect,

Dante delighted in music. The most natural and of their being very lofty examples of didactic elomust be studied as an author in a dead language by touching incident in his 'Purgatorio' is the inter quence. The following is a very stately and a learner, or rather as one who employs a living view between himself and his friend Casella, an spirited declamation :language on forgotten themes; then will his style eminent singer in his day, who must, notwithstand

“Ulysses. Troy, yet upon her basis, had been grow easier and clearer as the reader grows more and

down, more acquainted with his subject, his manner, and his ing, have been forgotten within his century, but for materials. For whatever be the corruption of the him, to be celebrated by two of the greatest poets of the extraordinary good fortune which had befallen

And the great Hector's sword had lack'd a master,

But for these instances. text (which, perhaps, has never been sufficiently coltheir respective countries (Dante and Milton), from

The specialty of rule hath been neglected. lated) the remoteness of the allusions, of our country

whose pages his name cannot soon perish. men's want of that previous knowledge of almost

Choosing to excel in all the elegancies of life, as

1. The heavens themselves, the planets, and this centre, everything treated upon which best prepares the well as in gentlemanly exercises and intellectual

Observe degree, priority, and place, mind for the perception and highest enjoyment of

• L'alba vinceva l' ora mattutina

Insisture, course, proportion, season, form, poetical beauty and poetical pleasure, Dante will be

Che fuggia ’nnanzi, si che di lontano

Office, and custom, in all line of order: found, in reality, one of the most clear, minute, and

Conobbi il tremolar della marina.

And therefore is the glorious planet, Sol,

Noi andavam per lo solingo piano accurate writers in sentiment, as he is one of the

In noble eminence, enthron'd and spher'd

Com'uom, che torna alla smarri'a strada most perfectly natural and grapbic painters to the life

His draughts
Che 'pfino ad essa li pare ire in vano.

Amidst the other, whose med'cinable eye



of persons, characters, and actions.


Corrects the ill aspects of planets evil,

And leave you bindmost ;

practised jilt, who falls in love with Troilus, as she And posts, like the commandment of a king,

Or, like a gallant horse fall’n in first rank, afterwards deserts him, from mere levity and Sans check, to good and bad. But, when the O'er-run and trampled on: then what they do in thoughtlessness of temper. She may be wooed planets,


and won to anything, and from anything, at a In evil mixture to disorder wander, Tho' less than yours in past, must o'ertop yours :

moment's warning: the other knows very well What plagues and what portents! what mutinies! For Time is like a fashionable host,

what she would be at, and sticks to it, and What raging of the sea ! shaking of earth!

That slightly shakes his parting guest by th' hand, is more governed by substantial reasons than by Commotion in the winds ! frights, changes, horrors, And with his arms out-stretch'd, as he would fly, caprice or vanity. Pandarus again, in Chaucer's Divert and crack, rend and deracinate

Grasps in the corner: the Welcome ever smiles, story, is a friendly sort of go-between, tolerably busy, The unity and married calm of states

And Farewell goes out sighing. 0, let not vir- officious, and forward in bringing matters to bear : Quite from their fixture! 0, when degree is shaken,

tue seek

but in Shakspeare he has “a stamp exclusive and (Which is the ladder to all high designs)

Remuneration for the thing it was ; for beauty, wit, professional :" he wears the badge of his trade; he The enterprize is sick ! How could communities, High birth, vigour of bone, desert in service, is a regular knight of the game. The difference Degrees in schools, and brotherhoods in cities, Love, friendship, charity, are subjects all

of the manner in which the subject is treated arises Peaceful commerce from dividable shores,

To envious and calumniating time:

perhaps less from intention, than from the different The primogenitive and due of birth

One touch of nature makes the whole world kin. genius of the two poets. There is no double entendre Prerogative of age, crowns, sceptres, laurels, : That all, with one consent, praise new-born gauds, in the characters of Chaucer : they are either quite (But by degree) stand in authentic place?

Tho' they are made and moulded of things past, serious or quite comic. In Shakspeare the ludicrous Take but degree away, untune that string,

The present eye praises the present object. and ironical are constantly blended with the stately And hark what discord follows ! each thing meets Then marvel not, thou great and complete man, and the impassioned. We see Chaucer's characters In mere oppugnancy. The bounded waters

That all the Greeks begin to worship Ajax ; as they saw themselves, not as they appeared to Would lift their bosoms higher than the shores, Since things in motion sooner catch the eye, others or might have appeared to the poet. He is And make a sop of all this solid globe :

Than what not stirs. The cry went out on thee, as deeply implicated in the affairs of his personages Strength would be lord of imbecility,

And still it might, and yet it may again,

as they could be themselves. He had to go a long And the rude son would strike his father dead : If thou wouldst not entomb thyself alive,

journey with each of them, and became a kind of Force would be right; or, rather, right and wrong And case thy reputation in thy tent."

necessary confidant.

There is little relief, or light (Between whose endless jar Justice resides)

and shade in his pictures. The conscious smile is Would lose their names, and so would Justice too, The throng of images in the above lines is prodi

not seen lurking under the brow of grief or impaThen everything includes itself in power,

gious; and though they sometimes jostle against tience. Everything with him is intense and impaPower into will, will into appetite;

one another, they everywhere raise and carry on the tinuous—a working out of what went before.And appetite (an universal wolf,

feeling, which is metaphysically true and profound. Shakspeare never committed himself to his characSo doubly seconded with will and power) The debates between the Trojan chiefs on the res

He trifled, laughed, or wept with them as he Must make perforce an universal prey, toring of Helen are full of knowledge of human

chose. He has no prejudices for or against them; And last, eat up himself. Great Agamemnon, motives and character. Troilus enters well into the

and it seems a matter of perfect indifference whether This chaos, when degree is suffocate,

philosophy of war when he says in answer to some- he shall be in jest or earnest. According to him Follows the choking: thing that falls from Hector,

“the web of our lives is of a mingled yarn, good and And this neglection of degree it is, That by a pace goes backward, in a purpose

“Why there you touch'd the life of our design: ill together.” His genius was dramatic, as Chaucer's

was historical. He saw both sides of a question,

Were it not glory that we more affected, It hath to climb. The general's disdained

the different views taken of it according to the dif

Than the performance of our heaving spleens, By him one step below; he, by the next;

ferent interests of the parties concerned, and he was

I would not wish a drop of Trojan blood That next, by him beneath : so every step,

at once an actor and spectator in the scene.

If anySpent more in her defence. But, worthy Hector, Exampled by the first pace that is sick

thing, he is too various and flexible; too full of

She is a theme of honour and renown, Of his superior, grows to an envious fever

transitions, of glancing lights, of salient points. If

A spur to valiant and magnanimous deeds.” Of pale and bloodless emulation;

Chaucer followed up his subject too doggedly, per

The And 'tis this fever that keeps Troy on foot,

The character of Hector, in the few slight indica- haps Shakspeare was too volatile and heedless. Not her own sinews. To end a tale of length, tions which appear of it, is made very amiable. His Muse's wing too often lifted him off his feet. He Troy in our weakness lives, not in her strength.” death is sublime, and shows in a striking light the made infinite excursions to the right and left. mixture of barbarity and heroism of the age. The

“ He hath done It cannot be said of Shakspeare, as was said of some threats of Achilles are fatal; they carry their own

Mad and fantastic execution, one, that he was “ without o'erflowing full.” He

means of execution with them :was full even to o'erflowing. He gave heaped mea

Engaging and redeeming of himself

With such a careless force and forceless care, sure, running over. This was his greatest fault. “ Come here about me, you my Myrmidons,

As if that luck in every spite of cunning He was only in danger “of losing distinction in his Mark what I say.-Attend me where I wheel :

Bad him win all.” thoughts” (to borrow his own expression)

Strike not a stroke, but keep yourselves in breath;
And when I have the bloody Hector found,

Chaucer attended chiefly to the real and natural, “ As doth a battle when they charge on heaps Empale him with your weapons round about :

that is, to the involuntary and inevitable impressions The enemy flying.”

In fellest manner execute your arms.

on the mind in given circumstances : Shakspeare

Follow me, sirs, and my proeeeding eye.” There is another passage, the speech of Ulysses to

exhibited also the possible and the fantastical,—not Achilles, showing him the thankless nature of popu

only what things are in themselves, but whatever

He then finds Hector and slays him, as if he had larity, which has a still greater depth of moral obser

they might seem to be, their different reflections, been hunting down a wild beast.

There is some

their endless combinations. He lent his fancy, wit, vation and richness of illustration than the former.

thing revolting as well as terrific in the ferocious It is long, but worth the quoting. The sometimes coolness with which he singles out his prey: nor

invention, to others, and borrowed their feelings in

Chaucer excelled in the force of habitual giving an intire extract from the unacted plays does the splendour of the achievement reconcile us of our author may with one class of readers have

sentiment; Shakspeare added to it every variety of to the cruelty of the means. almost the use of restoring a lost passage; and may

passion, every suggestion of thought or accident.

The characters of Cressida and Pandarus are very serve to convince another class of critics, that the

Chaucer described external objects with the eye of poet's genius was not confined to the production of amusing and instructive. The disinterested willing

a painter, or he might be said to have embodied ness of Pandarus to serve his friend in an affair stage effect by preternatural means :

them with the hand of a sculptor, every part is so which lies next his heart is immediately brought thoroughly made out, and tangible :—Shakspeare's “ Ulysses. Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his forward. “ Go thy way, Troilus, go thy way; had imagination threw over them a lustre back, I a sister were a grace, or a daughter were a goddess,

“ Prouder than when blue Iris bends." Wherein he puts alms for Oblivion ;

he should take his choice. O admirable man! Paris ! A great-siz'd monster of ingratitudes :

Paris is dirt to bim, and I warrant Helen, to change, Everything in Chaucer has a downright reality. Those scraps are good deeds past,

would give money to boot.” This is the language A simile or a sentiment is as if it were given in upon Which are devour'd as fast as they are made, he addresses to his niece: nor is she much behind evidence. In Shakspeare the commonest matter-ofForgot as soon as done: Persev'rance, dear my lord, hand in coming into the plot. Her head is as light fact has a romantic grace about it; or seems to float Keeps Honour bright: to have done, is to hang and fluttering as her heart.

“ It is the prettiest

with the breath of imagination in a freer element. Quite out of fashion, like a rusty mail

villian ; she fetches her breath so short as a new-ta'en No one could have more depth of feeling or observaIn monumental mockery. Take the instant way; sparrow.” Both characters are originals, and) quite tion than Chaucer, but he wanted resources of invenFor Honour travels in a strait so narrow,

different from what they are in Chaucer. In Chaucer, tion to lay open the stores of nature or the human Where one but goes abreast; keep then the path, Cressida is represented as a grave, sober, considerate heart with the same radiant light, that Shakspeare For Emulation hath a thousand sons,

personage (a widow—he cannot tell her age, nor has done. However fine or profound the thought, That one by one pursue; if you give way,

whether she has children or no) who has an alter- we know what was coming, whereas the effect of Or hedge aside from the direct forth-right, nate eye to her character, her interest, and her plea- reading Shakspeare is “like the eye of vassalage ; Like to an entered tide, they all rush by,

sure: Shakspeare's Cressida is a giddy girl, an un- encountering majesty." Chaucer's mind was con



secutive, rather than discursive. He arrived at truth

too great length. He reminds us of the letter

FINE ARTS. through a certain process ; Shakspeare saw every

writer, who said, “ Excuse my being so long, but I thing by intuition. Chaucer had great variety of

Wanderings through North Wales, by Thomas Roscoe, have not time to be shorter.” Is this our friend's power, but he could do only one thing at once. He

embellished with highly finished Engravings, by Wm.

case ? At present he wants concentration ; and must set himself to work on a particular subject. His

Radcliffe, from Drawings made expressly for this

also study his versification a little more. He is in ideas were kept separate, labelled, ticketed and par

work, by Cattermole, Cor, and Creswick. Part I.

such haste to live in his pleasant bowers, that he must celled out in a set form, in pews and compartments

London. Tilt; Simpkin and Marshall.

needs inhabit them, before they are built ! by themselves. They did not play into one another's Mr Radcliffe's engravings in the Part before us

The writer of a letter in pencil, who notices the hands. They did not re-act upon one another, as

are a little hard, with a degree of coarseness and doctrine of Berkeley, is, we take it, not the same the blower's breath moulds the yielding glass. There

fatness in the fore-ground; but they are distinct, Correspondent who made the quotation alluded to. is something hard and dry in them. What is the and not unpleasing in the effect. · Caunant Mawr,' We have two Readers who seem to have objections most wonderful thing in Shakspeare's faculties is after Creswick, is a striking scene. * Langollen

to pen and ink. With regard to Berkeley's argu. their excessive sociability, and how they gossipped Valley' is a lovely scene, and makes one think

ments we would recommend him to read them for and compared notes together.

directly of its “Maid' and her "contented’ Shep- himself in the philosopher's works. He would find We must conclude this criticism ; and we will do

herd. Cattermole's Death of Llewellyn'is spirited; them very amusing at least, and, we suspect, very it with a quotation or two. One of the most beaubut not very carefully drawn.

startling. And we should be glad to hear from him tiful passages in Chaucer's tale is the description of

afterwards on the subject, for our own intance Poems, with Illustrations, by Louisa Anne Twamley. Cresseide's first avowal of her love :

with them was both partial and hasty. London. Tilt.

An Old English GENTLEMAN will probably have “ And as the new abashed nightingale, Miss Twamley urges that the illustrations to her

seen the announcement of Captain Sword and CapThat stinteth first when she beginneth sing, poems are her first attempt at etching on copper ;

tain Pen' before this answer appears.

At all events, When that she heareth any herde's tale, she need scarcely have done so, for they are executed

it will be speedily published by Mr Knight. His 0; in the hedges any wight stirring, with much feeling and talent, and bear no signs of


query we cannot notice, because it would trench And, after, sicker doth her voice outring; incapacity or immaturity. They consist of land

upon the forbidden ground of advertisement. We · Right so Cresseide, when that her dread stent, scapes and flower-pieces. Of the landscapes, we

are much flattered by his idea of the “ Series " he Opened her heart, and told him her intent.” prefer Tintern Abbey, which we never saw look

speaks of. better on paper; more venerable or picturesque ; and See also the two next stanzas, and particularly

Agreeably to our wish to avoid all possible themes a friend, who has visited the veritable edifice, praises it that divine one beginning

of controversy, we are sorry that the mention of the for its fidelity. The flower-piece immediately fol.

“ Clergyman” in Sunday in the Suburbs' was not “Her armes small, her back both straight and lowing it is still better in point of execution; it

omitted. F., who takes such a kindly interest in soft,” &c. is drawn with great freedom and feeling, and the

our pages, is informed that the article was written blending and variety of the tints is very happily

some time back, and the passage, on a hasty review Compare this with the following speech of Troilus caught. Something will be said of the poetry in

of it, overlooked. to Cressida in the play. another number.

What S. J. says upon · Love and Matrimony' is “O, that I thought it could be in a woman;

very true, and does him honour; but we fear to open And if it can, I will presume in you,

our columns to all that may be said on this subject.

TO F. M. W. To feed for aye her lamp and flame of love,

We agree with all the opinions expressed in the WITH A QUARTO EDITION OF LADY RACHEL BUSSELL's letter of X; but has he not made his "Gipsy's Song' To keep her constancy in plight and youth, Out-living beauties out-ward, with a mind

somewhat too intimate with the language and luxThat doth renew swifter than blood decays. Oh more than Russell in thy fortitude,

uries of high living ? Or, that persuasion could but thus convince me, And in thy love too, capable of more,

Thanks to GODFREY GRAFTON; who will hear That my integrity and truth to you Say, either may we bless or must deplore

further from us. Might be affronted with the match and weight The lot which makes thy evil and our good.

The printed articles on Mr Lamb reached us unOf such a winnow'd purity in love ; For, Lady, had the silken lap of ease

fortunately too late to be made use of in our present How were I then uplifted! But alas,

Nursed the charms thy friends so doat upon, number. Due attention shall be paid to them in I am as true as Truth's simplicity, Then hadst thou not from adverse fortune won

Meantime we must observe that the And simpler than the infancy of Truth." The triumph which a chastened heart decrees,

writer is under a great mistake respecting the abFor hadst thou known the subtle bands that knit

sence of some of Mr Hazlitt's friends, when his These passages may not seem very characteristic Into one web meek feeling and high thought, funeral took place. at first sight, though we think they are so. We will Making the soul a holy garment, wrought

We will not do venerable John Pacey the injusgive two, that cannot be mistaken. Patroclus says With nicest art, magnificently fit

tice of publishing the lines sent us by the gentleman to Achilles, Then unto us thy love had only brought

who gives us the following account of him, because The grace of manners and the charm of wit.

the homeliness of their attire may not allow everybody "Rouse yourself; and the weak wanton Cupid

T. F. T.

to pay honour enough to their spirit; but no one will Shall from your neck unloose his amorous fold,

misunderstand the reverend and living piece of poetry And like a dew-drop from the lion's mane,


here presented us in the person of a cheerful old man Be shook to air." The enlarged copy of Mr Landor's ode will appear

of eighty, rendered superior to his adversity by a Troilus, addressing the God of Day on the ap- in our next. Its insertion has been delayed by a good conscience and a mind willing to look around proach of the morning that parts him from Cressida, provoking accident, which has conspired, we fear, it for sources of comfort:says with much scorn,

with another hindrance, to make us seem very un- “ The author of the accompanying trifles, John

accountable and thankless in the eyes of the fair Cor. Pacey, now eighty years of age, was born in the • What! proffer'st thou thy light here for to sell ? Go, sell it them that smallé selés grave.” respondent by whom it was forwarded. Bat we have village of Charlton-Kings, Gloucestershire, of honest

and industrious parents. He was apprenticed at an been hoping, day by day, to be able to beg her accept- early age to a laborious trade, which he has, how, If nobody but Shakspeare could have written the ance of a little volume, which would have accom. ever, with commendable industry, pursued until former, nobody but Chaucer would have thought of panied our letter of explanation ; and in case this within these last few years, when age and infirmities the latter.—Chaucer was the most literal of poets, volume does not appear before the present Number prevented his further exertions, and drove him to

seek refuge from penury and distress in the cultivaas Richardson was of prose-writers. of our Journal, we hereby mention the circumstance

tion of a little vegetable-garden. His wants are few that she may see we are not quite so absurd as she

and easily supplied; a life of industry has rendered might otherwise reasonably imagine.

him frugal and abstinent, while honesty and goodWe shall be glad to hear again from H. F.

feeling have preserved him in the paths of sobriety

and rectitude. He married at the early age 0. We have much pleasure in inserting the following

We cordially thank the gentleman who has written

twenty-one, and has decently brought up seven literary notice which has been sent us.

In the press,

to us so kindly about the London JOURNAL, and children. His eldest son is an object of great com· Corn Law Rhymes.' The third volume of the whose letter inclosed some of the poems of Sir Rich- passion, being alike infirm in body and imbecile in works of Ebenezer Elliott will appear in the ensuing ard Fanshawe, &c. He will see that we are not for

mind; he is dependant upon the kindness of his

parents, not only for the necessities of life, but also month. Amongst its contents will be found some of getful.

for his actual support,- he is helpless. Notwiththe earliest productions of this talented writer, with- The MS. sent us by Mr J. will be attended to at standing this unusual clog, poor old Pacey bears up out any political allusions,-productions which were very

first leisure.

under the burdens of existence, is cheerful and conalmost unheeded at the time of their publication- We are much mistaken if we have not inserted tented, and even bestows his leisure hours to the

cultivation of an humble and amusing taste for Southey alone addressing him to this effect : “ There some article written by J. M. C. Will he favour us

poetry.” is power in the least serious of these tales, but the 'with copy or copies of some later communications, in higher you pitch your tone the better you succeed. case they have been mislaid? Thirty years ago they would have made your re- Our friend G. H. L. seems to be full of good feel. London: Published by H. Hooper, Pall Mall East, and putation; thirty years hence the world will wondering, and fancy too; but he is in too great a hurry

supplied to Country Agents by C, KNIGHT, Ludgate-street. that they did not do so.”

both with his verse and prose, and therefore writes at From the Steam-Press of C. & W. REYNELL, Little Pultency-street

our next.





No. 54.


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be gods by antiquity, neither have I happed upon small village in Ethiopia, where, whilst they were at THE POETS,

any creditable ancient who can inform me, nor can I supper, they amused themselves with a variety of

make it out myself.” He says he takes no heed of conversation, both grave and gay. On a sudden was We intended this week to present our poetry-loving the opinion of those who suppose them to have been heard a confused uproar, as if from the women of the Readers with a new and greatly improved edition of

the children of Saturn or Faunus. Pliny, he tells village exhorting one another to seize and pursue. Mr Landor's Ode to a Friend,' published in one of

us, speaks of Satyrs, as certain animals in the Indian They called to the men for assistance, who immediour December Numbers last year; but as we have

mountains, of great swiftness, going on all fours, but ately sallied forth, snatching up sticks and stones, just received some contributions from other friends, with a human aspect, and running upright. Fur- with whatever other weapons they chanced to find. which will harmonize with it, and expect one or two

thermore, Pausanias mentions one Euphemus of * All this hubbub arose from a Satyr having more, we delay introducing it till our next. Mean

Caria, who coming upon a cluster of “desert" islands, made his appearance, who for ten months past had while, we lay before them the portrait, if not of an in the extreme parts of the sea, and being forced by infested the village.

The moment Apoleminent man, of a very eminent half or four-fifths

a tempest to alight on one of them called Satyras, lonius perceived his friends were alarmed at this, he man, an old friend of the poets, particularly of the found it inhabited by people of a red colour, with said, · Don't be terrified.

There is but sequestered and descriptive order, and constantly al

tails not much inferior to those of horses. These one remedy to be used in cases of such kind of insoluded to in all modern as well as ancient quarters gentlemen invaded the ships of their new acquaint- lence, and is what Midas had recourse to. poetical. He is alive, not only in Virgil, and Theo

ance, and without saying a word, began helping himself of the race of the Satyrs, as appeared plainly critus, and Spenser, but in Wordsworth, in Keats,

themselves to what they liked. Finally, Pomponius by his ears. A Satyr once invited himself to his and Shelley, and in the pages of • Blackwood' and

Mela speaks of certain islands beyond Mount Atlas, house, on the ground of consanguinity, and whilst he the LONDON JOURNAL.

in which lights were seen at night, and a great sound was his guest, libelled his ears in a copy of verses, We keep the public in mind, from time to time,

was heard of drums, and cymbals, and pipes, though which he set to music, and played on his harp. that one of the objects of the London Journal is nobody was to be seen by day; and these islands Midas, who was instructed, I think, by his mother, to bring uneducated readers of taste and capacity

were said to be inhabited by Satyrs. To which bear- learnt from her, that if a Satyr was made drunk with acquainted with the pleasures of those who are edu

eth testimony the famous Hanno the Carthaginian. wine, and fell asleep, he recovered his senses, and becated; and we write articles of this description ac

Boccaccio, in his treatise • De Montibus,' appears came quite a new creature. A fountain happening cordingly, in a spirit intended to be not unacceptable

to have transferred these islands to Mount Atlas to be near his palace, he mixed it with wine, to which to either. Enter, therefore, the Satyrı-as in one of

itself; of which he says (dwelling upon the subject he sent the Satyr, who drank it till he was quite the Prologues to an old play. By-and-by, we shall

with his usual romantic fondness) that, "such a depth overcome with it. Now to show you that this is not give a Triton, a Nymph, &c. &c. and so on through

of silence is reported to prevail there by day, that all mere fable, let us go to the governor of the vil. all the gentle populace of fiction,—the plebe degli dei,

none approach it without a certain horror, and a feel- lage, and if the inhabitants have any wine, let us as Tasso calls them,—the “common people of the

ing of some divine presence; but at night-time, like make the Satyr drink, and I will be answerable for gods.” Such, we hope, in future times, -or worthy heaven, it is lit up with many lights, and resounds what happened in the case of the Satyr of Midas.” rather of such appellation,—will be all the people of with the songs and cymbals, the pipes and whistling All were willing to try the experiment'; and immethe earth, their poetry in common, their education reeds, of Ægipans and Satyrs.”+

diately four Egyptian amphoras of wine were poured in common, knowledge and its divine pleasures being

The same writer, speaking of the opinion that into the pond, in which the cattle of the village were as cheap as daisies in the mead.

accustomed to drink. Apollonius invited the Satyr The Satyr (not always, but generally) is a goat Satyrs were goat-footed homunciones, or little men, tells the story of St Anthony: “who, searching

to drink, and added, along with the invitation, some below the waist, and a man above, with a head in

The Satyr did which the two beings are united. He has horns, through the deserts of the Thebais for the most holy private menaces, in case of refusal. eremite Paul, did behold one of them, and question

not appear; nevertheless the wine sank as if it was pointed ears, and a beard ; and there is just enough him : the which made answer, that he was mortal;

drank. When the pond was emptied, Apollonius humanity in his face to make the look of the inferior

and that he was one of the people, bordering there- said, 'Let us offer libations to the Satyr, who is now being more observable. The expression is drawn up abouts, whom the Gentiles, led away by a vain error,

fast asleep.' After saying this, he carried the men to the height of the salient and wilful. He is a

of the village to the cave of the Nymphs, which was merry brute of a demigod; and when not sleeping did worship as Fauns and Satyrs.” Other authors,

" esteemed them to be men of the woods,

not more than the distance of a plethron from the in the grass, is for ever in motion, dancing after his quaint fashion, and butting when he fights. He

and called them Incubi, or Ficarii (Fig-eaters).” hamlet, where, after showing them the Satyr asleep, We here see who had the merit of it when figs were

he ordered them to give him no ill-usage, either by goes in herds, though he is often found straying. stolen.

beating or abusing him: For,' said he, “I will His haunt is in the woods, where he makes love to

answer for his good behaviour for the time to come.' the Dryads and other nymphs, not always with their Chaucer takes the Satyr for an Incubus, probably

- This is the action of Apollonius, which, by Jupigood will.

from this passage of his favourite author. Speaking ter, I consider as what gave greatest lustre to his When he gets old, he takes to drinking, grows fat, of the friar, whose office it was to go about blessing travels

, and which was, in truth, their greatest feat. and is called a Silenus, after the most eminent gor. people's grounds and houses (which was the reason,

Anyone who has perused the letter which he wrote belly of his race: and then he becomes oracular in he says, why there were no longer any fairies) he his drink, and disburses the material philosophy adds, in his pleasant manner,

to a dissipated young man, wherein he tells him he

had tamed a Satyr in Ethiopia, must call to mind which his way of life has taught him. He is not immortal, but has a long life as well as a merry;

“ Women may now go safely up and down :- this story. Consequently, no doubt can now remain of

the existence of Satyrs. In every bush, and under every tree, :

When I was myself some say a thousand years; others, many thousand.

There is none other Incubus but he.”

in Lemnos, I remember one of my contemporaries, A thousand years, according to Aristotle, is the duration both of the Satyr and the Nymph.

Wife of Bath's Tale.

whose mother, they said, was visited by a Satyr,

formed according to the traditional accounts we have The Faun, though often confounded with the But the most “ particular fellow ” on this subject of that race of beings. He wore a deer-skin on his Satyr, and supposed by some to be nothing but a is Philostratus ; who, among the wild stories which shoulders, which eractly fitted him, the fore-feet of Latin version of him, is generally taken by the he relates with such gravity of Apollonius the Tya- which, encircling his neck, were fastened to his breast. moderns for a Satyr mitigated and more human.

næan, has this, the wildest of them all, and, in his Goat's feet are not necessary to him.

But of this I shall say no more, as I am sensible He can be opinion, the most weighty. As the account is credit is due to experience, as well as to me.” content with a tail, and two little budding horns, like amusing, we will extract nearly the whole of it:a kid.

It is clear, from all these authorities, that various After visiting," says he, “the cataracts (of the “How the Satyrs originated,” quoth the "serious” Nile), Apollonius and his companions stopped in a

circumstances might have given rise to the idea of but not very “sage” Natalis Comes, “or of what

Satyrs.- The Great Ape species alone, which like parents they were begotten, or where, or when they

• See all these authorities in Natalis Comes, Mytholom began to exist, or for what reason they were held to gia,' p. 304.

• Life of Apollonius of Tyana,' translated from the From the Steam-Press of C. & W. REYNELL, Little Pulteney-street.)

+ At the end of his 'Genealogia Deorum.'

Greek of Philostratus, by the Rev. Edward Berwick, p. 314

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