« السابقةمتابعة »
ness of physical, luxurious, and literary civilization. If all this shall appear to be strongly stated, if it they think it as strange a question as if you should Morally, the Romans, and not less the Greeks, were shall excite, as it will no doubt do, angry feelings, in ask them why they go to church? Custom serves for uncivilized, and as the course of the selfish faculties those attached to the classics by habit and by fame, reason, and has, to those that take it for reason, so which swayed them is downwards, they gradually and angrier still in those linked to them by interest, consecrated this method that it is almost religiously, sank and ultimately perished.
the writer has two grounds of deprecation : First, he observed by them; and they stick to it as if their The talent bestowed on classical pursuits is some abjures all personal feeling in his strictures on a sys- children had searce an orthodox education unless times such as would master the sciences and extend tem of centuries. He knows the talent and the they learned • Lilly's Grammar.'” A passage follows their range. The prize list of a great grammar-school worth of many of his advocates and retainers; to on the subject of the special oblivion of Greek : “ How often presents wonderful productions of difficulty and some of them he is closely bound by the ties of friend many are there of a hundred, even amongst scholars labour. The efforts at College are still more hercu- ship and affection. He remembers, with almost themselves, who retain the Greek they carried from lean, and health and life are not seldom sacrificed in filial respect, the venerable men, now no more, who school, or ever improve it to a familiar reading and making them.
were his kind and sincere instructors; respects the perfect understanding of Greek authors ?"* The grammar-school finished about fifteen, the existing generation of classical teachers; and so far Gibbon observes that “a finished scholar may acquisition of useful practical knowledge may even is he from wishing to affect their patrimonial status, emerge from the head of Eton or Westminster, in yet be made, though under great disadvantages. But that he would be the first to compensate them for the total ignorance of the business and conversation of the feast which Nature spreads is especially withheld loss occasioned to them by the adoption of a system gentlemen, in the latter end of the eighteenth from the devoted youth destined to the classical of education more in harmony with the age, and century.” glories of College. Special, laborious, and expensive more consistent with the nature and faculties of
Adam Smith makes the remark,“ That it seldom care is taken to exclude the chance of his picking up
happens that a man, in any part of his life, derives even stray knowledge, by engaging him engrossingly
Secondly, the author claims the shelter from their any conveniency or advantage from some of the most in pursuits which lead away from it. When finished displeasure of names, which they will certainly join laborious and troublesome parts of his education.” at school, he is said to be “ prepared for College," bim in venerating. Milton has these words : “ Hence Byron, on the authority of his biographer, Moore, and it is the greatest boast of a grammar-school, appear the many mistakes which have made learning was a bad Greek and Latin scholar at Harrow; hated that its pupils are well fitted for this advance- generally so unpleasant and so unsuccessful. First, the drudgery they imposed upon him, and acquired ment, and become renowned for bearing away the we do amiss to spend seven or eight years merely in his copious, flexible, and splendid style by extensive University honours. Now “ College,” in the sense scraping together so much miserable Latin and English reading. alluded to, does not mean the attainment of physical Greek, as might be learned otherwise easily and deand moral science, the knowledge of Creation as lightfully in one year* ; and that which casts our
It is necessary to repeat the qualification of the
whole argument,--for nothing is more apt to be revealed in the works of God; it means more yet of proficiency so much behind is, our time lost in too
forgotten by the advocates of classical studies that the dead languages, more yet of these standards of oft idle vacancies given both to schools and universi
not a word which has been said can be perverted even science and morality, the Greeks and Romans; it ties, partly in preposterous exaction from the empty
to mean absolute hostility to Latin and Greek, to the means advancement in the “higher classics;" a wits of children, to compose themes, verses, and ora
length of banishing them utterly from education as greater elevation still above all vulgar studies which tions, which are the acts of ripest judgment.” In
a pursuit. The study of them (but at a more are to be of practical use in the attainment of good another place, Milton says, Though a linguist advanced stage of education, and for a moderate time, and the avoidance of evil in after life. * The school should pride himself have all the tongues that as advised by Milton) is necessary for the divinekeeps an eye upon its former alumni, and glories in Babel cleft this world into, yet, if he has not studied who must add Hebrew,--the lawyer, and the phytheir triumphs in the dead languages, in the rank the solid things in them, as well as the words and
sician. Nay, more, even the higher classics afford an they take at College, the scholarships, the fellowships lexicons, he were nothing so much to be esteemed a
object which will well reward the kind of genius which they achieve. Nay, this is not all, the school pre- learned man, as any yeoman or tradesman compe- is fitted for the pursuit. What is contended for, is the posterously claims to itself the credit of the whole fu- tently wise in his mother-dialect only.”
rescue of our intire youth from the dead languages -ture fame and fortune of its quondam pupil, the whole
Locke, On Education,' says, “Would not a Chinese,
from the engrossing exclusiveness of that one object, fruits of that education which he subsequently gave
who had notice of our way of breeding, be apt to ima- during all the period when real knowledge is most himself, and which the time he wasted within its gine, that all our young gentlemen were designed to be
naturally and beneficially attainable. It will at once walls only postponed; while his Greek and Latin teachers and professors of the dead languages of foreign occur to the reader that this qualification is precisely have not only contributed nothing to his advance- countries, and not to be men of business in their own ?"
that which is likely to be most unwelcome to the ment, but have been most probably almost intirely Again, the same author says (for he reprobates the
teachers of the dead languages, whose emoluments forgotten by him. There is no part of this solemn practice in several passages), “But though the qualifi- depend upon the number of their pupils ; but this mockery of intellectual cultivation more tantalizing cations requisite to trade and commerce, and the
eannot affect the truth of the distinction. than the fact, that classical honours are borne away business of the world, are seldom or never to be got
Our scientific studies are unexceptionably provided by efforts, not in the direct, but the inverse ratio of at grammar-schools, yet thither not only gentlemen for at College. In all the branches of natural history, the value of the attainments rewarded. Ambition persend their younger sons intended for trades, but even
chemistry, and mechanical philosophy, we have the forms feats almost incredible; it furnishes an imtradesmen and farmers fail not to send their children,
means offered us of the highest attainments. Suppose pulse which makes light and pleasurable tasks which, though they have neither intention nor ability to make
us to have completely mastered all these branches of without it, would be an intolerable grievance. The them scholars. If you ask them why they do this ?
physical science, the question remains, What is our literary performances are often of great merit, and it was thought desirable to obtain some of the recent reports
access to the science of mind, or, more extensively, were they not all, were they an elegant surplusage to and prize lists which are statedly published by the more the science of Man? To physical man there exist practical wisdom and useful knowledge, they would important of these seminaries, and all that I have seen
ample means of being introduced ; but anatomy and be so much gained, an additional grace well worth
indicate as yet paramount the old subjects of study and possessing, But when they are all the hard earnings
competition. It is worthy of remark, too, that the improve physiology are never dreamed of by any one not desments claimed are neither more nor less than partial
tined to the medical profession; the most highly of the noonday and the midnight,—when the same introductions of the very useful knowledge now advocated ; educated gentleman knows as little about his own time, talent, and labour, properly directed, would in other words, partial displacements of Greek and Latin. bodily frame, or its relations to external nature, as the have rewarded the young student evith an extent of In the two great seminaries of Edinburgh, the High School
most uninformed of the manual-labour class, and is knowledge, accomplishment, and resource, which
and Academy, there is considerable improvement in this
nearly as ignorant of the conditions of health, though few by their own efforts subsequently attain,-we can
most in their appeal to the public. We find prizes for practically, and by habit more than principle, cleaner only account for the dead languages continuing for “ best Grecian, best Greek prose, best Greek verses, best in his person and dwelling. But it is in the philosophy another day to occupy so long exclusively the seat of Latin verses ;” and themes written by boys of fourteen, of mind that our universities present the grand education, by reflecting that the men who suffer its when the faculties are unfit for the subjects, which it blank.t Yet truth in this science must be arrived at continuance were once boys, whom it at one and the would task the powers of the ablest tacticians, politicians,
before human affairs can be placed on a sound moral and philosophers to deal with, such as “ Was the attack of same time cheated of sound knowledge, and en
Saguntum by Hannibal, and the invasion of Italy, justifiable foundation. If it be undeniable, that the true guiding trenched in impregnable prejudice.f
on the reasons which he alleges ?-Which was the ablest principle of human affairs can only be accordance of
general, Cæsar or Hannibal?--On the progress and decline human affairs with human faculties, what must not The term higher classics recalls a mode of reasoning
of commercial nations-Whether was Liry or Herodotus adopted by scholars to silence the gainsayer on the score
be the extent of the evils which humanity suffers, the most correct historian ?-On the progress of mankind of his incompetency. They tell him be is out of his depth from barbarism to civilization and refinement.-Whether
when yet in ignorance or uncertainty as to the nature when he questions the supremacy of classical literature, is aristocracy or democracy ultimately more dangerous to
of these faculties? Can we wonder at the confliction it being the privilege of few to attain to a knowledge of its
public liberty ?-On the manners of the heroic ages," &c. in speculation and the confusion in action, which exquisite beauties and perfections. The first answer to It will astonish a more rationally educated age than our prevail around us? Above all, what title have we this is, that there could not be a stronger reason for forthown, that the most enlightened men of the second quarter
to expect that education—which is essentially the with abandoning the custom of wasting, on such a pursuit, of the nineteenth century were satisfied with this as the the time of the many; while the second is a challenge to fruit of seven years' labours in their sons; well aware, at * A singularly confirmatory letter from Dr Christison, point out any passage in any author, Greek or Latin, which, the same time, from their own experience, that the self-edu
present professor of Materia Medica in the University of saving always a certain felicity of expression, may not be cation, which is to fit for active life, has yet to begin after all
Edinburgh, who obtained the highest honours for Greek, given in English, to all the effect it possesses of delighting the prizes for long and laborious scholastic trifling have both at school and at college, and nevertheless has nearly or improving the thinking or feeling faculties of man. been awarded, and all the applauses bestowed.
forgotten that tongue, was lately published in Mr Combe's + As these strictures will very probably be objected to, as
*Lectures on Education.'
* On saving time, and other matters, see Letter from referring to grammar-schools as they were, and written in Mr Cunningham, head master of the Edinburgh Institution + Professor Dugald Stewart's confession on this head has gnorance of the improvements now introduced into them, for Languages, &c. App. No. IV. :
been already referred to.
THE THREE RACANS,
improvement of the human faculties, the guide in the apparent quality of the same kinds of But after all, the most important point is achieved in to their right use, and the guard against that mi- food, when prepared in dissimilar ways, is very the carefulness and accuracy with which the drawings serable abuse which far and wide embitters life— striking. It is found, that the richness of a soup are made; and in these respects there appears to be can be either theoretically or practically understood, depends more upon a proper choice of the ingredi- nothing wanting. when no two philosophers are agreed as to what the ents, than upon the quantity of solid nutritious matter We take this opportunity of noticing another of faculties are, and few writers on education have employed; much more upon the skill of the preparer Mr Brayley's works, called the · Graphical and Histhought of appealing to them, or considered it neces- in concocting the whole, than upon the amount of torical Illustrator.' We took in several of the numsary to take them into account at all in their specula- money laid out in the purchase of materials; while bers, and tried to complete our set, but were unable. tions. But this branch of the subject will be treated its nutritive qualities are apparently in proportion to Since the completion of the volume, the work was more at large in the next chapter ; the utmost object its agreeable flavour ; thus affording an example of sent to us, and we regretted extremely to hear that it of this and the preceding will have been attained, the old proverb that “whatever pleases the palate, had been found advisable to discontinue it, for it was if they shall tend to open our eyes not only to the nourishes.” Since a very small quantity of solid food, a favourite of ours. Our neglect of it has been on desolate state of seven-eighths of our countrymen for when prepared properly, will satisfy hunger, and our conscience some time. It is a pleasant traveller lack of that knowlege which alone will enable them support life and health, men employed in the most
among the old buildings and legends of England, and to co-operate in their own elevation, physical, mo- laborious works may, by the art of cookery, be deserves the regret of the lovers of literature and ral, and intellectual, but not less to the imperfections nourished on a comfortable and varied diet, at a very romance as well as of the mere antiquary. of our own education, our ignorance of that imper- trifling expence. It is supposed, that by a proper fection, and, the natural result, our unfortunate apathy attention to the culinary preparation of food, and on the important subject. to the economy of fuel during the process, the ex
MUSIC. pences for the subsistence of a family, especially that
The Honey-suckle, Rondo, for the Piano-forte. By of a labouring man, might be diminished nearly one
• The Honey-suckle,' addressed to Mrs Honey.
Good names both, and very fit for a bowery and On the death of Montaigne, his adopted daughter, The mode of propagation of the 'misseltoe was
flowery composition. It is occasionally pretty, perMalle. de Gournai, turned her attention to Racan, long a subject of controversy. It was formerly fectly easy, and lying well for the hands. A pleasant whom she only knew by his works. The desire
considered to be an excrescence from the tree cxercise for young performers. of being acquainted with a poet so eminent, and
on which it grew, and consequently produced without so capable of judging of the merits of others, seed. In these days, however, we are in no danger
We regret, for the sake of their graceful and genuine made her neglect no means of procuring a visit of being led astray by the idea that it is a spontan
feeling, that we cannot insert the · Lines by an Abfrom him; and after some time she succeeded, eous production. The fact of its propagation from
sent Husband on a Wife's Birth-day. But if we and the day and hour were appointed. Two of the seed has been long established by conclusive experipoet's friends, on being informed of it, seized the ments. Seeds inserted in the bark
of the white poplar did,
we should have no excuse for the non-insertion
of many contributions in verse, equally good and opportunity of playing a trick on the lady, and, about have germinated, and produced the plant: and in
long. an hour previous to the appointed time, one of them some experiments made in a garden at Knares
• Hints for Table Talk,' No. V., next week.': appeared at her door, and introduced himself as M. borough, by Mr Collins, large plants were obtained,
Both of the articles of W. H. M. shall be inserted, de Racan. Who can do justice to his reception? He upon dwarf apple-trees by rubbing the full ripe if we can find room; but we fear his patience is not talked, and talked, and praised the works she had berries upon the smooth bark of the shoots. By this
so abundant as his flow of remark; and matter presses written, and thanked her for the knowledge they had process, which may be performed upon the smooth
on us so much since the new year, that we know given him; in short, used all his eloquence to flatter bark of almost any tree, the seeds adhere closely by
not what to say to a great many Correspondents her into the belief that she was a prodigy. After means of the glutinous pulp in which they are im
whom we respect.
Even J. M. C. must make the about half an hour's conversation, he made his bow bedded, and will produce plants the following winter.
best of this answer, for the present. And R. D., and departed, leaving his hostess very well pleased We are informed by Mr Lees, that he has attempted, and A. M. P. with M. de Racan. Scarcely had he left the house, without success, to plant the Misseltoe on the oak in
The paper of a fair Correspondent on Holly when another M. de Racan was announced: and this country; but he attributes his failure, and pro
came too late. she, conceiving that her late visitor had forgotten bably with justice, to having selected a tree, the
The Christmas Ball-room Announcements of our something, to receive him the more bark of which was rugged, for his experiments. Mr
most rhythmical indefatigable friend, Mr Wilson, graciously, when the second friend entered, and Dovaston has lately succeeded in producing it upon
come somewhat late in the season ; but he is in made himself known as her appointed visitor. Mdlle. the oak, in a neighbouring country, under more
advance with • Saint Valentine,' and we cannot help de Gournai was astonished; and, aster cross examin. favourable circumstances.— The Analyst. · 1
hoping that a due attendance will encourage his ing the pretended poet, informed him of the guest
- The most insupportable company are those who dance, in honour of that lively saint, in which the she had just dismissed. The counterfeit Racan of are witty all day long.-- Sevigné.
letters forming his name to be developed course seemed greatly chagrined at the imposture,
'successively by fourteen young ladies.” and vowed vengeance on the author of it, at the same
J. A. M. next week. time convincing the lady that he could be no other
S. H. E. (18 years of age) is in a fair way to than the person he represented, by praising her and Edwards's Botanical Register, or Ornamental Flower- become a sound thinker; and will by-and-by be glad her works more outrageously than his predecessor. Garden and Shrubbery. Continued by John Lind- that we agree with his modest doubt, as to the pub. This second Racan at length quitted her, perfectly ley, Ph. D. F. R. S., &c. James Ridgway and lic value of his writings at present. satisfied that he was the object of her invitation, and Sons.
We must again postpone the sequel to Specu. the former one an impostor. The door had scarcely Very tidily got up, and very cheap. * The defects lations of my Grandfather,' till next week. closed upon him, when a third Racan, that is to say in this publication, as we had occasion to observe We thank S. A. B. for his offer, but we know the real one, made his appearance, and then the in our notice last week of Curtis's Botanical not what to do with the press of matter already in lady lost all patience : “What, more Racans !" she Magazine, are in 'the colouring. This we must our possession. The book he speaks of is quite screamed out. She then ordered him to be shown
at present put up with. We believe some en- worthy its price. This Correspondent says," I up stairs; and, on his entering her presence, de- deavours are being made by certain spirited wood- was much pleased with your article to Put up manded, in the greatest passion, how he dared to
engravers, to discover some method of printing a Picture in your Room,' and would observe, that insult her so grossly. Racan, who was never very colours at one pressing, and that they have realized the lawyer might have a portrait of Shakspeare in voluble of his tongue, was so astonished at this re
some substantial promises of perfecting their attempts. his room, as I think, from internal evidence, it canception, that he could only answer by stuttering and if they ultimately succeed, they will find their not be doubted but that he was a lawyer. If you stammering; and the lady, in the mightiness of her services in great request.
should be inclined to doubt this, I will send you a wrath, becoming at once persuaded, by his confusion,
few extracts from his plays in support of my opi. that he was an accomplice of her first visitor, took A History and Description of the late Houses of Paroff her slipper, and made such good use of it on the
liament and Ancient Palatial Edifices of Westminster.
nion."Our Correspondent's opinion has been before poet's head, that he was glad to make a precipitate
By John Britton, and Edward W. Brayley. John
maintained, and with much plausibility; at least so Weale. No. I.
far as goes to show that Shakspeare must have had retreat.-[A Correspondent has favoured us with this anecdote from the Dictionnaire des Portraits A work which promises to be of minute and accurate
some initiation in a lawyer's office. There was a Historiques.' A similar story, if our memory does research. The illustrations are elaborate and pains good article in particular upon it, in an early number not deceive us, is told of Rousseau,—probably a fact taking. It is perhaps hypercritical to remark that (if we are not mistaken) of the · Law Magazine.' suggested by the former one.] they are somewhat mechanical in the execution,
The First Volume of the London JOURNAL may now rather meagre in the effect. We see the bricks and
be had of the Publisher, ånd, by order, of all other IMPORTANCE OF COOKERT.
mortar that remain of the Houses of Parliament, the Booksellers, price 78. in cloth boards. EXPERIENCE has proved that cooking renders food damage they have suffered, but the grandeur of the Teally more nutritious; but to produce all the buildings is hardly done justice to; we miss the
LONDON : Published by H. HOOPER, Pall Mall East, and
supplied to Country Agents by C. Knight, Ludgate-street. beneficial effects which it is capable of yielding, expression of desolation, of dreariness and silence, skill is required in its exercise. The difference which the glaring and roaring fire leaves behind it. From the Steam-Press of C. & W. REYNELL, Little Pulteney-strecke
LONDON JOURNAL .
TO ASSIST THE INQUIRING, ANIMATE THB STRUGGLING, AND SYMPATHIZE WITH ALL.
WEDNESDAY, FEB. 4, 1835.
PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.
word is included, we claim for it, as we have ex- on two conditions; one, that it should not preclude A GENTLEMAN-SAINT
plained, the very largest and truest sense. One of his residing in his diocese; the other, that whenever BEAUTIES OF ST. FRANCIS DE SALES.'
our brave old English dramatists, brave because his he did not execute his office, he should not receive Looking over the catalogue, the other day, of Mr humanity misgave him in nothing, dared to call the the profits of it. These unusual terms the princess Cawthorn's excellent circulating library (which has divinest of beings that have trod the earth
was obliged to consent to; and immediately, as if by the books it professes to have,-a rare virtue in such
way of investing him with his office, presented him establishments) our curiosity was raised by a volume
“ The first true gentleman that ever breathed."
with a very valuable diamond, saying, “On condition intitled • Beauties of St. Francis de Sales.'
that you will keep it for my sake.” To which he sent for it, and found we had started so delicious a heraldry, his shield
replied, “ I promise to do so, madam, unless the poor saint, that we vowed we must make him known to our readers. He is a true god-send, a man of men,
“heart-shaped, and vermeil dyed."
stand in need of it.” Returning to Annecy, he con
tinued to visit the sick, relieve those in want, ina real quintessence of Christian charity and shrewd Fenelon was another, but not so active or per
struct the people, and discharge all the duties of a sense withal (things not only far from incompatible, suasive as De Sales. St Vincent de Paul, if we
pious bishop, till 1622, when he died of an apoplexy but thoroughly amalgamable); in short, a man as sen- mistake not, the founder of the Sisters of Charity,
at Lyons, December 28, aged fifty-six, leaving sible as Dr Johnson, with all the piety and patience was a fourth. So, we believe, was St Thomas Aqui- several religious works, collected in 2 vols. folio. which the Doctor desired to have, all the lowliness So, perhaps, was Jeremy Taylor, and certainly The most known are, the • Introduction to a Devout and kind fellowship which it would have puzzled him Berkeley—the latter, the more unquestionably of Life,' and · Philo, or a treatise on the Love of God.' to behold in a prelate, and all the delicacy and true the two, because he was the more active in doing Marsoilier has written his life, (2 vols. 12mo,) which breeding which would have transported him. Like good, and manifestly did not care twopence for
was translated into English by Mr Crathorne. He Fenelon, he was a sort of angel of a gentleman, a honours and profits, compared with the chance of
was canonized in 1665. (Moreri. - Dict. Hist.species of phenix which, we really must say, the benefiting his fellow-creatures. At one time, for
Butler.) French Church seems to have produced beyond any this purpose, he petitioned to give up his prefer
The writers of this notice do not seem to have been other. Not that we undervalue the Hookers and ments ! Swift has a pleasant passage in furtherance Jewels, and other primitive excellences of our own. of this object, in which he tells the Lord Lieutenant
aware, that Camus, Bishop of Bellay, the disciple and Deeply do we love and venerate them. But we like of Ireland, that Dr Berkeley will be miserable in
friend of St Francis, wrote a large account of him,
“ the Beauties” which the work before us professes to see a human being develope all the humanities of case he is not allowed to give up some hundreds a which he is capable, those of outward as well as in
to give the public. This English volume is itself a year. ward elegance not excepted ; not indeed in the We will first give the "General Biographical curiosity. It is printed at Barnet, and emanates inconsistent and foppish shape of a Sir Charles Gran- Dictionary' account of St Francis de Sales, and
most likely from some public-spirited enthusiast of dison (who comes hushing upon us with insinuations follow it with a notice of the book before us.
the Roman Catholic persuasion, who has thought, not without reason, to sow a go
seed in these strange of equal perfection in dancing and the decalogue, with
“St Francis de Sales was born at the Castle of Sales, soft deprecations of our astonishment, and all sorts of in the diocese of Geneva, August 21, 1567. He de opinion-conflicting, yet truth-desiring times, when a
little genuine Christianity stands a chance of being well equivocal wordly accomplishments, which the author scended from one of the most ancient and noble has furnished him with, on purpose to keep his piety families of Savoy. Having taken a doctor of law's de
received, from whatever quarter it comes.
A friend safe-swordsmanship, for one) but in whatsover, being gree at Padua, he was first advocate at Chambery, for a copy at Messrs Longman's
, whose name is in
of ours, 'smitten with love of the book, has applied the true spirit of a gentleman, manifests itself outthen provost of the church of Geneva at Annecy.
the title page, but is told that they have not one left; wardly in consequence, shaping the movements of the
Claudius de Granier, his bishop, sent him as a missioncommonest and most superficial parts of life to the
so that if the 'Barnet press do not take Christian ary into the valleys of his diocese, to convert the unaffected elegance of the spirit within, and at the Zuinglians and Calvinists, which he is said to have pity upon the curious, we know not what is to be
done for them, apart from the following extracts ; same time refusing no fellowship with honesty of any performed in great numbers, and his sermons were
which, however, we take to be quite enough to set sort, nor ostentatiously claiming it, but feeling and attended with wonderful success. The bishop of
any handsome mind upon salutary reflections. having it, because of its true, natural, honest heart's Geneva chose him afterwards for his coadjutor, but blood, and a tendency to relish all things in common was obliged to use authority before he could be per- Camus, the Boswell of a saint, is himself a curiowith us, “passioned as we.”
suaded to accept the office. Religious affairs called sity. He was a man of wit and a satirist, and so far When a man exhibits this nature, as St Francis de him afterwards into France, where he was universally (in the latter respect) not very well fitted for ultra Sales did, and exhibits it too in the shape of a morti- esteemed; and Cardinal du Perron said, “There Christian aspiration. But he was also an enthusified saint of the Romish Church, a lone lodger, a were no heretics whom he could not convince, but astic lover of goodness, and of his great seraphical celibatory, entering into everybody else's wishes and M. de Geneva must be employed to convert them.' friend; whom he looked up to with all the congrefeelings, but denying himself some of the most pre- Henry IV, being informed of his merit, made him gated humilities of a younger age, a real self-knowcious to a being so constituted, we feel proud for the considerable offers, in hopes of detaining him in ledge, and an unaffected modesty. He was naturally sake of the capabilities of humanity-proud because France; but he chose rather to return to Savoy, as hasty in his temperament as St Francis was the we belong to a species which we are utterly unable where he arrived in 1602, and found Bishop Granier reverse; and was always for getting on too fast, and to illustrate so in our own persons-proud, and had died a few days before. St Francis then under- being angry that others would not be Christian happy, and hopeful that if one human being can do so took the reformation of his diocese, where piety and enough ; and it is quite delightful to see with what much, thousands, nay all, by like opportunities, and virtue soon flourished through his zeal : he restored
sense and good-humour his teacher reproves him, a like loving breeding, may ultimately do, not indeed regularity in the monasteries, and instituted the
and sets him in the right way; upon which the the same, but enough—enough for themselves, and order of the Visitation in 1610, which was confirmed young bishop begins orer-emulating the older one enough for the like exalted natures, too, who have by Paul V, 1618, and of which the Baronness de (for they were both prelates together), trying to imithe luck to live in such times. Chantal, whom 'he converted by his preaching at
tate his staid manners and deliberate style of preachEven if such times are not to come, but are Dijon, was the foundress. He also established a
ing; and then St Francis reproves him again, joking merely among the fancies or necessary activit of congregation of hermits in Chablais, restored cccle- as well as reasoning and showing how he was the human mind, then still we are grateful for the siastical discipline to its ancient vigour, and con
spoiling the style peculiar to himself (Camus), with vision by the way, and, above all, for the exquisite verted numerous heretics to the faith. At the latter
no possibility of getting at the style of another man, real fellowship. end of 1618, St Francis was obliged to go again to
-the result of his habits and particular turn of : We need not deprecate any ill construction of our Paris, with the Cardinal de Savoy, to conclude a
mind. use of the term “gentleman saint.” In some sort, marriage between the Prince of Piedmont and But let the reader see for himself what a nature we do confess, we use it with a delighted smile on Christina of France, second daughter of Henry IV. this man had,—what wisdom with simplicity, what our face, astonished to start such a phenomenon in This princess, herself, chose de Sales for her undeviating kindness, what shrewd worldly discernhigh life; but while the conversational sense of the chief almoner; but he would accept the place only ment with unworldly feelings, what capital Johnson[From the Steam-Press of C. & W. REYNELL. Little Pulteney-street. ]
So that you
LENT DISH BY COVERING IT WITH BAD SAUCE.
ian good sense, and wit too, and illustration, some- his ideas, in the depth of his arguments, in the in the lively
Bishop of Bellay. His candour hardly times as familiar as any table-talk could desire, at strength of his reasonings, in the excellence of his excuses it. Yet it increases our interest in his others, in the very depth of the heart of sentiment judgment, the mildness of his expressions, the order friend.] and poetical grace. Observe also what a proper saint and just connexion of his periods, or that incom- St Francis practised himself the lessons which he was for every-day, as well as for holidays, and parable sweetness which could soften the hardest he taught to others; and during fourteen years that how he could sit down at table and be an ordinary heart; no, that was quite beyond my powers. I was
I was under his direction, and made it my study to unaffected gentleman among gentlemen, and dine at like a fly, which, not being able to walk on the remark all his actions, and even his very gestures less elegant tables at inns, and say a true honest word, polished surface of a mirror, is contented to remain and words, I never observed in him the slightest with not a syllable of pretence in it, for your hard- on the frame which surrounds it. I amused my- affectation of singularity. I will confess one of my working innkeeper, “ publican,” and, perhaps, “ sin. self in copying his gesture, in conforming myself to contrivances when he visited me in my own house, ner,” as he was.
his slow and quiet manner of pronouncing and and remained, as his custom was, a week annually, « Beautiful are the ceremonies of the church !” said moving. My own manner was naturally the very I contrived to bore holes, by which I saw him when a Roman Catholic prelate, when a great wax-candle reverse of all this, the metamorphosis was therefore alone, engaged in study, prayer, or reading, mediwas brought before him, stuck full of pieces of gold so strange, that I was scarcely to be recognized. I tating, dressing, sitting, walking, or writing, when (his perquisite). “ Beautiful are the ceremonies of was no longer myself. I contrived to spoil my own usually persons are most off their guard; yet I could the church !" think we, also, though no Roman Ca- original manner, without acquiring the admirable not trace any difference in attitude or manner : his tholic, when we hear the organ roll, and the choir- one which I so idly copied.
behaviour was ever as sincere and undisguised as his voices rising, and see the white wax-candles on the St Francis heard of this, and one day took an op
heart. He had, when alone, the same dignified altar, and the dark glowing paintings, full of hopeful portunity of saying to me--Speaking of sermons manners as when in society, when he prayed, you or sweet-suffering faces. But most truly beautiful, reminds me of a strange piece of news which has would have imagined that he saw himself surrounded certainly, must they have been, when they had such reached my ears. It is reported that you try, in by holy angels ; motionless, and with a countenance a man as this St Francis de Sales”ministering at the preaching, to adopt the Bishop of Geneva's pecu
of humble reverence. I never saw him indulge in altar, and making those seraphical visions true, in the liarities.' I warded off this reproof by saying • And any indolent attitude (!) neither crossing his legs, shape of an every-day human being. But, to our do you think I have chosen a bad example? What nor resting his head on his hand; at all times he extracts :
is your opinion of the Bishop of Geneva's preach- presented the same aspect of mingled gravity and # In speaking of brotherly correction (says the ing?' ' Ha!' said he, this grave question attacks repu- sweetness, which never failed to inspire love and good Bishop Camus), St Francis gave me a lesson tation. Why, he really does not preach badly; but the respect. He used to say, that our manners should which I have not forgotten. He repeated it often, fact is, that you are accused of being so bad a mimic, resemble water, best when clearest, most simple, and the better to impress it on my memory. • That sin that nothing is to be seen but an unsuccessful
without taste. However, though he had no peculia. cerity,' said he, “which is not charitable, proceeds from attempt, which spoils the Bishop of Bellay, without rities of behaviour, it appeared so singular that he a charity which is not sincere.' A worthy saying, representing the Bishop of Geneva.
should have no singularities, that he struck me worthy of being deeply considered and faithfully re- ought to do as a bad painter did; he wrote under his
therefore as very singular. membered.
picture the name of the objects which they misrepre-
WILLINGLY, NOT BY CONSTRAINT.'
that, by degrees, the apprentice will become master, This was my friend's favourite saying, and the secret TRUTH ILL-HUMOUREDLY, AND SO SPOIL AN EXCEL
and the copies be mistaken for originals.” “Joking of his government. He used to say that those who
apart,' rejoined my friend, 'you do yourself an injury. would force the human will, exercise a tyranny odious I asked St Francis, if there were no other way Why demolish a well-built edifice to erect one in its to God. He never could bear those haughty persons by which I might discern from what fountain re- stead in which no rules of nature or art are adhered who would be obeyed, whether willingly or not, proaches flowed. He, whose heart was wrapped up to? and at your age if you once take a wrong bias they cared not; “Those,' he said, “who love to be feared, in benevolence, replied, in the true spirit of the great it will be difficult to set you right again. If natures fear to be loved; they themselves are of all people apostle,—- When they are made with mildness could be exchanged, gladly would I exchange with you. the most abject; some fear them, but they fear mildness is the sister of love, and inseparable from her. I do all I can to rouse myself to animation. I try to
everyone. In the royal galley of Divine Love there With this idea, St Paul says, She beareth all be less tedious, but the more haste I make the more I im- is no force—the rowers are all volunteers.' On this things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endur- pede my course. I have difficulty in finding words, principle he always moulded his commands into the eth all things. God, who is charity, guides the meek and greater still in pronouncing them. I am as
softer form of intreaty. St Peter's words — Feed with his counsel, and teaches his ways to the simple. slow as a tortoise. I can neither raise emotion in the flock of God, not by constraint,' he was very His spirit is not in the hurricane, the foaming cataract, myself nor in my auditors. All my labour to do so fond of. I complained of the resistance I met with or the tempestuous winds; but in the soft breath of is inefficient. You advance with crowded sail, I
in my parochial visits.
• What a commanding spirit the gentle zephyr. Is mildness come ? said the make my way with rowing. You fly—I creep. you have !' he replied ; 'you want to walk on the prophet; then are we corrected.
I advise you to You have more fire in one finger than I have in my wings of the wind, and you let yourself be carried imitate the good Samaritan, who poured oil and wine whole body. Your readiness and promptitude are away with zeal. Like an ignis-fatuus, it leads to the into the wounds of the unhappy traveller. You know wonderful, your vivacity unequalled, and
edge of precipices. Do you seek to shackle the will of that in a good salad there should be more oil than vinegar people say you weigh each word, count every period,
man, when God has seen fit to have it free ?! Be always as mild as you can; a spoonful appear languid yourself, and weary your audience.'
St Francis did not approve of the sayingof honey attracts more flies than a barrel of vinegar.
You may well imagine how this well-timed reproof and If you must fall into any extreme, let it be on the side of commendation cured my folly. I returned immediately
• Never rely on a reconciled enemy.' He rather gentleness. The human mind is to constructed, that to my original manner.
preferred a contrary maxim ; and said, 'that a quar
rel between friends, when made up, added a new it resists rigour, and yields to softness. A mild word
The best fish are nourished in the unpalatable waters quenches anger, as water quenches the rage of fire; of the sea, and the best souls are improved by such
tie to friendship; as experience shows, that the caloand by benignity any soil may be rendered fruitful.
sity formed round a broken bone makes it stronger than opposition as does not extinguish charity. Truth, uttered with courtesy, is heaping coals of fire
before. Those who are reconciled, often renew their
I asked St Francis what disposition of mind was on the head; or, rather, THROWING ROSES IN THE FACE.
friendship with increased warmth : the offender is on the best with which to meet death ? How can we resist a foe whose weapons are pearls and
He coolly his guard against a relapse, and anxious to atone for
replied, ' A charitable disposition.' diamonds ? Some fruits, like nuts, are by nature
pust unkindness; and the offended glory in forgiving bitter, but rendered sweet by being candied with Do not overrate the blessings which God gives to and forgetting the wrongs that have been done to them. sugar; such is reproof, bitter till candied with others, and then underrate or despise what are given Princes are doubly careful of reconquered towns, and meekness, and preserved with the fire of charity.' to yourself. It is the property of a little mind to preserve them with more care than those the enemy never St Francis always discouraged professions of hu- say, Our neighbour's harvest is always more plen- gained.'
tiful than our own, and his flock more prosperous.' mility, if they were not very true and very sincere.
St Francis had particular delight in contemplating a • Such professions,' he said, are the very cream, the I complained of some great hardships which I had painting of the Penitent Magdalen at the foot of the very essence of pride; the real humble man wishes experienced ; it was obvious that St Francis agreed Cross; and sometimes called it his manual, and his to be, and not to appear so. Humility is timorous, in thinking that I had been ill-treated.
Finding library. Seeing a copy of this picture at Bellay, and starts at her shadow; and so delicate, that if she myself so well seconded, I was triumphant, and exag- • Oh,' said he, what a blessed and advantageous exhears her name pronounced, it endangers her existence. gerated the justice of my cause in a superfluity of change the penitent Mary made; she pours tears on He who blames himself, takes a by-road to praise; words. To stop the torrent of complaint St Francis the feet of Christ, and from those feet blood streams and, like the rower, turns his back to the place said, ' Certainly they are wrong in treating you in to wash away all her sins.' To this thought he added whither he desires to go. He would be irritated if this manner. It is beneath them to do so, especially another How carefully we should cherish the little what he said against himself were believed; but from a to a man in your condition ; but in the whole of the virtues which spring up at the foot of the cross, since principle of pride he desires to appear humble.' business I see only one thing to your disadvantage.' they are sprinkled with the blood of the son of God.'
I esteemed my friend (resumes excellent Camus) "What is that ? 'That you might have been wiser, • What virtues do you mean?' He replied, huso highly, that all his actions appeared to me perfect. and remained silent ! This answer came so imme- mility, patience, meekness, benignity, bearing one It came into my head that it would be a very good diately home to me, that I felt immediately silenced, another's burthen, condescension, softness of heart, thing to copy his manner of preaching. Do not sup- and found it impossible to make any reply.
cheerfulness, cordiality, compassion, forgiving injupose that I attempted to equal him in the loftiness of [The following was a strange bit of supererogation ries, simplicity, candour; all, in short, of that sort.
MORBID OR VIOLENT CONSCIENCES.
They, like unobtrusive violets, love the shade ; like poverty ; of his Bishoprick little remained to him, True devotion consists in performing the duties of them are sustained by dew; and though, like them, and his patrimony he let his brothers enjoy. But he life. St Francis was in the habit of blaming an inthey make little show, they shed a sweet odour on all never rejected tapestry, plate, nor fine furniture, consistency very common in persons more than ordi. around.
especially what might adorn the altar, for he loved to narily devout, who frequently turn their attention • To obey a ferocious, savage, ill-humoured, thank- adorn the house of God.
to the attainment of virtues of no use to them in their less master, is to draw clear water from a fountain
own sphere of action, and neglect the more needful. streaming from the jaws of a brazen lion. As Samson
This inconsistency he attributed to a distaste, which says. It is to find food in the devourer. It is to see We cannot deny that love is, of all mild emotions, people often experience for the station in which ProGod only.' (This is beautiful; and that is a fine bit the mildest the very sweetener of bitterness—yet vidence has placed them, and the duties they are of poetry about the lion; strength and sweetness
we find it compared to death and the grave; the obliged to perform. Great laxity of manner creeps meet in it. He is speaking of a master whom it hap
reason of which is, that nothing is so forcible as gen- into monasteries, when their inmates devote thempens to be incumbent on us to obey.]
tleness, and nothing so gentle and so amiable as selves to the practice of virtues fitted for secular life; St Francis highly esteemed those persons who firmness.
and errors are not less likely to make their way into kept inns, and entertained travellers, * provided they 'There was a society of holy men,' said St private families, who, from a mistaken and ill-judged were civil and obliging, saying, that no condition in Francis, 'who one day accosted me thus, Oh, zeal, introduce among themselves the austerities life, he thought, had greater means of serving God sir, what can we do this year? Last year we failed, and religious exercises of their secluded brethren. and man ; for it is a continual exercise of benevolence and did penance thrice a week; what shall we do Some persons think they pronounce the highest and mercy, though, like a physician, the fee is paid. now? Must we not do something more, both to eulogium in saying of a family who ought to per[How oddly the following sounds in a Protestant ear, testify our gratitude for the blessings we have re- form the active charities of life, 'il is quite a monassaid of a Saint Francis !']
ceived during the last year, and also that we may tery; they live in it like monks or nuns:' not reflectOne day, after dinner, my friend was amusing make some progress in the work of God?
ing that it is trying to find figs on thorns, or grapes us with his entertaining conversation, and the subject • Very right,' I replied, that you should always
on brambles. of innkeepers being accidentally started, the different be advancing; however, your progress will not be
Not that exercises of piety are not right and good, persons present very freely gave their opinions on the made by the methods you propose of increasing but then the time, the place, the persons, the situasubject, and one among them declared the whole set your religious exercises—but by the improved heart tion; in short, all circumstances must be duly conto be rogues.
and dispositions with which you afford them, trusting sidered. Devotion misplaced ceases to be devoThis did not please St Francis ; but as it was in God more and more, and watching yourselves tion : it resembles a fish out of water, or a tree in a neither a fit time nor place for reproof, nor was the more and more. Last year you fasted three days in soil not congenial to its nature. sarcastic gentleman in a mood to receive it, he turned each week; if you double the number of fasts this
He compared this error of judgment, so unreasonthe discourse by telling the following anecdote :- year, every day will be a day of abstinence, and the
able and injudicious, to those lovers of luxury who • A Spanish pilgrim, little burdened with money, year following what will you do ?—you will be obliged feed on strawberries at Christmas, not contented with
Such heated brains arrived at an inn, where, after having served him very to make weeks of nine days long, or else to fast each day delicacies in their proper season. ill, they charged him so much for his bad fare, that twice over.' [Here follows a strong, and apparently require the physician's discipline rather than the cool he loudly exclaimed at the injustice. However, be- a dangerous meat; yet the essence of sweetness, and
voice of sober reason. ing the weaker one, he was forced to give way, and even of safety, is in it. But pray ever mark our AN ADMIRABLE RULE IN SELF-CORRECTION FOR be satisfied. He left the inn in anger, and observing bold and admirable, as well as amiable, saint.] that it was facing another inn, and that in the inter
• I do not know,' said St Francis, how that poor
Since the degree of affection which we are commediate space a cross had been erected, he soothed virtue, prudence, has offended me, but I cannot cor
manded by God to feel for our neighbours ought to his rage by exclaiming, Truly this place is a second dially like it, I care for it by necessity, as being the
be measured by the reasonable and Christian love Calvary, where the Holy Cross is stationed between salt and lamp of life. The beauty of simplicity which we bear towards ourselves; since charity, two thieves (meaning the two innkeepers). The charms me—I would give a hundred serpents for one
which is benign and patient, obliges us to correct our host of the opposite hotel, without appearing to notice
dove. Both together, they are useful, and scripture neighbours for their failings, with great gentleness ; his displeasure, coolly asked what injury he had re- enjoins us to unite them; but, as in medical com
it does not appear right to alter that temper in corceived from him, which he thus repaid with abuse ? pounds, many drugs must be put together to form a
recting ourselves, or to recover from a fault, with Hush, hush, said the pilgrim, my worthy friend,
salutary draught, so I would not place any reliance feelings of bitter and intemperate displeasure. be not offended, you are the good thief ; but what on an equal dose; for the serpent might devour the say you of your neighbour, who has flayed me alive? inoffensive dove. People say, that in a corrupt age like This civility,' pursued St Francis, soothed the the present, prudence is absolutely requisite to pre- ** Ist. Si Francis preferred the virtues most frequently pilgrim's wrath ; but we should be careful not to vent being deceived. I do not blame this maxim, but called into action—the commonest; and to exercise stigmatise whole nations or trades, by terming them
I believe it is more Christian to let ourselves be which, opportunities are oftenest found. rogues, impertinent, &c., for even if we have no indi. devoured, and our goods spoiled, knowing that a 2ndly. He did not judge of the greatness and vidual in view, each individual of the nation or trade better and more lasting inheritance awaits us. А
supernatural excellence of a virtue by an external is a sufferer by the sarcasm, and cannot like to be so
good Christian would rather be robbed than rob demonstration ; forasmuch as what appears a mere stigmatized.' others-rather be murdered than murderer
trifle may proceed from an exalted sentiment of To this I must add, that St Francis so highly tyred than tyrant ;-in word, it is far better to
charity and great assisting grace; while, on the esteemed innkeepers, that, in travelling, he forbade be good and simple, than shrewd and mischievous. contrary, great show may exist where the love of his servants to dispute about their charges, and or- • There is a strange inconsistency in the human God operates but slightly, though that is the critedered them rather to pay than to expostulate ; and mind, which leads men to scrutinize with severity rion by which we may judge whether or not a good when told that the bills were unreasonable, and that the secrets of their fellow-creatures' souls, which it work becomes acceptable to God. they asked more than they deserved, he would reply, is impossible they should ever clearly discover ; 3rdly. He preferred the virtues of more general • What ought we to reckon in the account for their while they neglect to examine and probe into the influence, rather than those more limited in their trouble, care, civility, and frequent disturbances at springs of their own conduct, which, if they do not, good effects (the love of God excepted). For exnight? Certainly they cannot be too well paid.' they certainly ought to know.
The first they are
ample, he preferred prayer as the star which gives This good-nature of my friend was so well known forbidden, and the second they are commanded light to every other excellence; piety, which sancthat the innkeepers were always anxious to present
|tifies all our actions to the glory of God; humility, their bills to him rather than to his servants; or else
• This reminds me of a woman remarkable for her from which we have a lowly opinion of ourselves to throw themselves on his liberality, well knowing
waywardness, and constant disobedience to the and our actions; meekness, which yields to the will that he would give more than they could have asked.
orders of her husband. She was drowned in a river. of others; and patience, which teaches us to suffer POORNESS IN SPIRIT, AND SPIRIT IN POVERTY. On hearing of it, her husband desired that the river all things: rather than magnanimity, munificence, Of these we have two opposite examples in St
should be dragged, in search of the body ; he bid his or liberality ; becuuse they embrace fewer objects, Charles Borromeo and St Francis de Sales. St
servants go against the current of the stream, observ- and their influence is less generally felt on the heart Charles was nephew to the Pope, and very wealthy: he ing, We have no reason to suppose that she should and temper. had an income of more than 100.000 crowns besides have lost her spirit of contradiction.'
4thly. He was often inclined to doubt the use of his considerable patrimony ; but, amidst this wealth, St Francis gave an excellent rule, which is, that dazzling qualities, because by their brilliancy they he was poor in spirit, he had neither tapestry, plate, • if an action may be considered in more lights than
gave an opening to vain glory, the bane of all innor magnificent furniture :---his table was so frugal, one, always to choos. The most favourable. If there
trinsic worth. as to be almost austere, and he himself lived chiefly is no apology to be found, soften the bad impression | 5tlily. He blamed those who never set any value on bread, water, and vegetables. The coffers, which it makes, by reflecting that the intention might not
on virtues till they gained the sanction of fashion, contained his treasures, were the hands of the poor ; have been equally blameable; remember that the
(a very bad judge of such merchandize); thus prethus in splendour was he humble. temptation might have been greater than you are
ferring ostensible to spiritual benevolence ; fasting, Our saint had a different spirit: he was rich in his
penances, corporeal austerities, to gentleness, molessness, or the infirmity of human nature, to dimi
desty, and self-government, which are of infinitely * The reader is to bear in mind, that these were foreign inns, nish the scandal.'
more value, and in old times, when a tavern-keeper's life was not so easy
6thly. He also reproved those who would not seek
SCALE OF VIRTUES.
as it is now.