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LONDON JOURNAL.

TO ASSIST THE INQUIRING, ANIMATE THE STRUGGLING, AND SYMPATHIZE WITH ALL.

WEDNESDAY, FEB. 11, 1835.

No. 46.

PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.

BY EGERTON WEBBE.

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HORATIANA,

who penned that admirable definition could hardly any slight to longs and shorts, his dear Tibullus'

have been ignorant, without which there is no furor, chosen measure : neither can he mean “small" in [The Editor of this Journal believes he may say, that no epic glory, without which the buskin is but a its relative sense, since he cannot intend to speak here

with any exception as regards large elegies! To in the various periodicals which he has conducted,

I believe Horace to have been always in love with suppose that he meant to convey some reference to it has been his good fortune to introduce more talent

his art, but it was a divided attachment.

We see

the comparative humbleness of the subjects usually and genius to the public than any other; he means

many a town-bred lover so imposed upon by the embraced by that style of poetry, seems to be going such as have made out a lasting case with their

allurements of artificial beauty as sometimes to con- too far about for a meaning. I may be wrong, but names, or where they have not yet done so, are in the way to do it, and have had their pretensions that devotion to his mistress which is due to the man

found adventitious with personal charms, and pay I can never help fancying there is a sly affectation admitted by the few who make fame. Not only are

lurking in the word, as if he used it in a caressing tua maker. In the same manner Horace, I think, was the splendid names of SHELLEY and Keats in his list,

way-a loving diminutive, “little elegies," as we say so much devoted to the outward attractions of the “ little dears." Then let us see what he has to say but the reader would be surprised if he knew how

of his own dearly beloved iambus. It is impossible many eminent ones in learning, in criticism, and in poetical art as sometimes to overlook matter of more politics, now flourishing, and therefore not abruptly Pyrrha, “simplex munditiis,” is not unfrequently

vital concern, and to forget that poetry, like his own to imagine a more matter-of-fact, business-like, comto be mentioned, began their career in the pages of

mercial way of writing than that with which he the · Examiner' and the · Reflector.' Nor will the

“when unadorned adorned the most.” He does not begins his account of the iambus. “Syllaba longa • Tatler' want its names; nor the London JOURNAL.

appear to have had any ideas of poetry apart from brevi," &c. might be a bit picked at hazard out of the It has ever been his boast that he has been a sort of numbers, and, if so, all that ridicule of classical

Eton Grammar, yet only observe what a whimsical literary Robin Hood, and got companions to act

association and classical influence in which he in- strain of conceit he immediately gets into. He under him who have beaten him at his own weapons,

dulges, must, I think, be considered in some measure wants to tell you that, whereas formerly the verse and he now, in introducing his young friend, Mr

as recoiling upon himself, since it would appear from consisted of six feet, all of them iambuses, it had been Webbe (whose name, for very good reasons, he has

this that he drew his notions of the art, not from his common of late to mix spondees up with them, except prevailed upon him to let be known), takes the liberty inevitably have led him to a higher conception of its

own undirected inquiries concerning it, which would only in the second and fourth feet of the line; a with him of saying, that he is a far better scholar

plain piece of information one would think. The than himself, a writer as well as reader of elegant

spiritual nature, but rather from a too passive regard latter part of it he delivers in the following fashion : Latin verse; and that he joins to this accomplish- manifold excellencies of the living art was so profound,

to what had been done. His admiration of the -“ Recently however, in order that it (the iambus) ment others which, being greater, it might disconcert

might be enabled to come upon the ear with more of him too much to predicate thus openly, and when he belonged to false taste, and he was besides so admi

so lively on the other hand his perception of all that deliberation and force, it consented in the most handis about to speak for himself. The Editor, indeed,

some and accommodating manner to receive certain rable a practical critic, that he was very naturally stout spondees into its paternal charge; not however need not have said anything at all; but liberties of a similar kind are taken with friends at election meet

withdrawn from a more philosophical view of the that it would carry its familiarity with them so far

nature of poetry, to treat of poetry as it was. It is as to yield either the second or fourth seat to them." ings and dinner parties, in the overflow of party zeal and port wine ; and he does not see why the privilege professional diligence he has applied himself, in that astonishing with what closeness, and, as I may say, Nothing surely so plainly bespeaks that a may is

doating on bis art, as this same fondling, spoilt-child of uttering cordial truths should be denied to mo

way of speaking of it—these affectionate personificaments less equivocal. The indulgence is at all incomparable monument of common sense the · Art

of Poetry,' to an explanation of all the tools of the tions! events in agreement with the doctrines inculcated in

trade and their several uses. Never for a moment the LONDON Journal, and he trusts that there is no

In treating of the Drama, Horace betrays, no less hearty reader but will feel obliged to him for giving Observe how he introduces Homer to us. does he lɔse sight of the grand business of verse-making. clearly, how large a share he held in those classical

prepossessions which he had so ridiculed in others, way to it.]

pect to singing of wars and heroes," says he, * “ Homer always paying the same obsequious and unhesitating

has shown us in what metre that can be done." He did devotion to everything emanating from the Greek “ 'Outos de rws ivácuosoy the Qúsin oxen, not say“Homer has shown us that these are themes only school ; and this without seeming to be aware of it ώςτ' εν απασι τοις είρημενοις τελειότατος to be grasped by the very highest reach of genius himself—at least, so it appears to me.

His first είναι.” Isock. Epist. IV.

that they demand a comprehension and a power observation on the subject of the drama (I still Perhaps there is no one amongst the old poets which no rules of mine nor of any other critic can confine myself to the didactic poem) informs us how whom it is so possible to feel a love for as Horace. define, much less impart—he has shown us with admirable a measure the iambic trimeter is for walking There is a sociality in wit and pleasantry inadmissible what a more than mortal gratideur such subjects may the stage on all sixes. “ Both sock and buskin,' in any other departments of poetry, and when these be invested, and what a godlike majesty of utterance he

says, appropriated this foot; it is such a capital are joined to a warm feeling of humanity, and a must belong to the man who aspires to succeed to

one for dialogue, and so good for drowning the noise mind furnished at once with everything that is such a throne as his." Horace does not say anything in the pit,t-besides, it seems as if it was made on delightful in invention and exquisite in taste, they of this sort ; but, says he, “ Homer has shown us in purpose to be acted to." The next remark on this cause our affections to bound from the writings to what metre that can be done."" Then what an exquisite subject comes in, I am afraid, for the anbiguous the man, and endear him to us personally in a

spirit of affectation there is in all he tells us about praise of being an unimpeachable truth :-"A comic manner which more exalted merits fail to do. But the different species of poetical measures in use or subject,” he observes, “ don't love to be set forth in though few have ever more incontestably established out of use. Of the elegiac-meaning to say that it tragic verses !” And then, on a little reconsideration a title to the rank of poet than Horace, it is not was formerly only used for plaintive subjects but was of the matter, he makes this remarkable addition :the bard of « empyreal conceit,” it is not the bard afterwards adopted for those of a cheerful kind also, “ soaring in the high regions of his fancy, with his he delivers himself thus:-“ At first only lamentation • Or rather op all threes, for though six-footed it had garland and singing-robes about him," that we meet was admitted, but subsequently a happier strain pre

properly only three positive accepts; whence (Sat. lib. i. 10.)

of Pollio who wrote historical plays, “ Pollio celebrates the with in him. With all his great and varied powers vailed; the wish fulfilled was received into the verse.”

exploits of kings, thrice striking the soot” (pede ter he never evinces that strength of wing that could Then, in the next line, I confess I am doubtful of

percusso). have sustained him in the more elevated parts of the the exact meaning intended by the word eriguos as

+A ~ noise in the pit” does not seem a very close transpoetical element. His feelings indeed were warm applied to elegos. We find that word not unfre

lation of populares strepitus, certainly; yet I am inclined enough—his polished imagination would have ensured quently employed in a sense of disparagement, but it tu think it tolerably correct, for as that portion of the Ro

man theatre which answers to our “ Pit” was called a grace to whatever he had attempted_his judgment is by no means to be supposed that Horace meant

popularia, in contradistinction to orchestra-the “ Stage would have secured it from all great defects, but he

• I believe it is always considered justifiable, and it is boxes," as we should say-populares here will not signity, wanted that depth of sentiment and grandeur of

assuredly very desirable, todepart from the order or even the in its usual wide sepse, belonging to the people, but beconception—the “mens divinior atque os," &c. (the terms of the original, when the spirit may be more truly longing to the Pit people in particular, those occupying diviner mind and the large-coming utterance) as he preserved by a deviation.

the popularia. From the Steam-Press of C. & W. REYNELI., Citt'e Pulteney-street.

“ With res

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“ Also, the supper of Thyesta (to wit, a tragic subject) genuine connoisseur it might seem only the glad den- but it must be owned that a considerable obscurity is very indignant at being related in verses of a comicing bee's wing of a good old vintage, was to the pervades the passage in question—a fault with which,

Here at kind ”It may be observed, that in the exceptions spoilt critic of Tibur' a worthless rust.

as his biographer, Suetonius, has justly remarked, he which he makes to this rule—as where he alludes, least he was not swayed by the witching influence of is in general by no means chargeable (quo vitio minimé very properly, to the fact, that the characters in tra- time, nor by the force of opinion. The plays of tenebatur); and, taking all things into account, it is gedy are often thrown into situations in which the Plautus were in especial good esteem in the Augus- impossible not to suspect that this passage has suflofty accents of the Tragic Muse are no longer con- tan age, and it is well known that they maintained fered damage or mutilation in some stage of its sistent with nature, and ordinary and even common- their footing on the stage with undiminished honour journey down to posterity, probably over the danplace words may be much more suitably and charac- to a very much later period. No one can suspect gerous cross-roads of transcription.* If not, then teristically employed in these exceptions, while you Horace of quarrelling with Plautus on the score of we must understand the following animadversion as think he is tending to some original and independent indelicacy. We are not informed that he himself applying as well to Plautus as to the person of whom views of his own, he is all the time only reducing to ever became a very eminent convert to modesty. it is more immediately spoken. “ All he thought precept the examples of those masters of the drama, His unfavourable opinion of Plautus, then, confess- about was, how to fill his pocket; and whether his whose works and whose passages he has in his eye edly rests on no other ground than his style. We piece succeeded, or whether it was damned, it was all the whole way through-those “exemplaria Græcamay take the style, as well as the matter, of Plautus one to him, when that object was secured !” This which he so eloquently recommends to us all.

and of Nævius to have had much about the same is very shocking, if true, as they say. However, I After this, and sundry receipts given for making relation to the style and matter of the Augustan age have no heart to quarrel with the old fellow for anycharacters such as Achilles to be impetuous, Medea that Ben Jonson's and Shakspeare's have to those of thing he says in the above-cited epistle, in considerato be cruel, &c.- he takes occasion to glance at the the present day. The style rough, quaint, and in tion of the admirable, and no doubt richly-merited, possibility of original genius; but it is with an evident part obsolete; the matter frequently coarse, sometimes castigation he administers to the play-going idiots of uneasiness, and a sort of nervous impatience of the gross-a comparison from which, of course, the ques- his time; a time at which, it would appear, that prospect he himself has opened. By way of providing tion of merit or genius is altogether excluded. As common sense and common understanding were as against this alarming contingency, be proposes certain to indelicacy, we have only to go as far back as to our religiously abjured by the theatrical public as they rules to be observed by those who “ dare to form a own Congreve to be satisfied that, in that respect at are in England at this moment; indeed, with the new character ;” but soon perceiving the unpro- least, the English stage has undergone, within a slightest imaginable change in the wording, there fitableness of prescribing for such wrongheaded people, century, a much greater reformation than the Roman is not a line of what he says on the subject that he desists from furth counsel, leaving them to shift stage could boast of in the whole period from the might not just as well have been written yesterday ; for themselves. He then again exclaims against the

time of Plautus to that of Horace. The allusion there could not be a more natural series of reflecdangers of novelty, recommends poaching on other made to the comic poet in the Ars Poetica affords, I tions for any newspaper critique on our present exhimen's grounds, suggests the expediency of turning think, no bad illustration of the general strain of bitions. In “ Sæpe etiam audacem, &c.," I diseover Homer's Iliad' into a five-act piece, and finally Horace's critical reflections. * “ But your ancestors," a decided allusion to Sheridan Knowles; who, with delivers the prettiest defence of stealing extant in any

praised the versification of Plautus as well all his confidence and courage, both as an author language; for what he says amounts to this—that as his wit ; indeed, they used to admire both one and and actor, was obliged to retreat from the major any man may make free with public property (publica the other with a readiness quite unaccountable, not theatres at last, no longer caring to share the

Then what materies) if he chooses, with impunity, and that it is to say ridiculous—at least, if you or I know anything stage with devils and rarce-shows. his own fault if he is found out, for that it is always about the matter, if we can distinguish wit from a slap at the dress circle is that “Verum equitis possible to disguise a theft in such a manner as to buffoonery, or know how to prove proper verses with quoque, &c.”—and how lamentably true! elude detection and make the ideas of others pass for our fingers and our ears!" Now, really, Mr Horace,

[This article will be concluded in one more paper.] one's own; that all that is necessary to this end is, pardon me, but really this smells of the shop "on that he should take care to avoid too great a closeness our fingers !” I presume you are facetious, but still

* The three lines following “Adspice, Plautus" of imitation, not making it a word-for-word business -“on our fingers!” The secrets, Sir—pray respect surely intended in a favourable sense, both to Plautus and (non verbum verbo reddere), which might have an the secrets of the trade. What! are we to have our

Dorsennus; and if we then substitute Non tamen adstricto awkward appearance, but concealing the plagiary ceremonies exposed to the public gaze, our sacred percurrit in the place ofQuam non adstricto percurrat,

should we not obtain a general sense much more conformunder some judicious variation or reconstruction; rites revealed, our cherished institutions laid bare to

able to the natural course of reasoning, than by attempting andain this way a second-hand article may be got up the profane eyes of the vulgar? Sir, you touch us

to make the whole six lines convey a continuous censure ? to look as good as new !

nearly-w

-we fear you never heard of vested interests; Perhaps I have got into some cross-grained humour, let me say, such unseasonable blabbing is in the but I own I can perceive no extraordinary absurdity highest degree unconstitutional and dangerous, and in that opening line which our critic next cites as so such as might, for aught I know, bring into contempt

CHARACTERS OF SHAKSPEARE'S rare a specimen of bathosthe very fabric of our poetocracy!

PLAYS. Of Priam's fortune, and that noble war, What makes it so strange that Horace should I'll sing,” &c.

stigmatise the style of Plautus in this unqualified It appeared that Homer always preferred to open manner is, that he raises no such outcry against

Exo. V.—TEMPEST. with an appeal to the muse; whereupon Horace, others of the old school whose language was, at least,

There can be little doubt that Shakspeare was the with that unconditional surrender of himself to classic as far removed from the polished standard of the

“ Either for

most universal genius that ever lived. authority, with which he taxes others—and with Augustan age. In his critical doctrines, Horace which others may tax him,-immediately determines generally appears to do little more than echo the tragedy, comedy, history, pastoral-comical, historicalthat every other mode of beginning a poem must

opinions current amongst well-educated people ; pastoral, scene individable or poem unlimited, he is be and shall be, held unlawful and unpardonable. therein, however, as in many other features, strongly the only man. Seneca cannot be too heavy, nor “ Sing, Muse, the man may be a better commence. resembling our own Twickenham bard, who, seldom

Plautus too light for him.” He has not only the same ment, but surely no one can say he perceives that originating much himself, was yet able to give such mighty difference between the two examples which a lustre and beauty to objects of ordinary contem

absolute command over our laughter and our tears, Horace pretends to find.

plation, and to exhibit them in a light so novel and all the resources of passion, of wit, of thought, of Most of his rules relating to dramatic composi- brilliant as rather seemed a new creation than an observation, but he has the most unbounded range tion display the same tone of mind, the same rooted adadoption. Yet surely the admirers of Plautus formed

of fanciful invention, whether terrible or playful, the herence to custom and precedent. Every play is to con-'

no sect or schism in the literary world at any period. sist of precisely five acts “neither more nor less ” (neve Not to insist on the many strong and indisputable

same insight into the world of imagination that he minor neu sit productior ;)-only three people or, at the

evidences we have of the admiration in which his has into the world of reality : and over all there preutmost, four are to be engaged in conversation on

writings were held, it may be observed, that it was to sides the same truth of character and nature, and the the stage at one time ;-the chorus is just to say so his style especially that that admiration was directed.

same spirit of humanity. His ideal beings are as much and no more, to a certain effect and no other, It was said by Varro, that if the Muses spoke Latin

true and natural as his real characters; that is, as &c., in short “whatever was, was right,” whatever

it would be the Latin of Plautus ; yet Horace could had been, was to be ;-for all these rules and regunot make it go “on his fingers!” Besides this

consistent with themselves, or if we suppose such lations, what are they but a mere enumeration of general slighit, he seems to insinuate elsewhere (2 lib. beings to exist at all, they could not act, speak, or the actual principles of the Greek plays ?

1 epist.) that Plautus only wrote for money—such, feel otherwise than as he makes them. - He has inI used to wonder why Horace spoke always so

at least, is the meaning to be gathered from the text; vented for them a language, manners, and sentiments sneeringly of Plautus, a writer of most uncommon

of their own, from the tremendous imprecations of merit, and who is surely to be ranked immeasurably lowing spirited passage from Camerarius, the learned Ger

• Since writing this article I have fallen in with the folhigher than his successor, Terence, whether we con

the Witches in Macbeth, when they do “a deed sider the claims of originality-which is only to say

man, (Dissert. de Comæd. Plauti) quoted in • Dunlop's without a name,” to the sylph-like expressions of

History of Roman Literature.' It refers to this very critigeniusmor of wit. But it happened unfortunately cism of Horace. “ Immo illi proavi merito, et recte, ac sapi

Ariel, who “ does his spiriting gently;" the misthat his Latin was a century and a half old in Ho

enler Plautum laudârunt et admirati fuerunt, tuque (sc. chievous tricks and gossipping of Robin Goodfellow, face's time, and exhibited on its surface that incrust

Horat.) ad Græcitatem,omnia, quasi regulam, poemata gentis ation of time, which, though in the eyes of the more tuæ exigens, immerito, et perperam, atque incogitanter

or the uncouth gabbling and emphatic gesticulations culpas."

of Caliban in this play.

BY WILLIAM HAZLITT.

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Caliban. I must eat my dinner.

half-forgotten music heard indistinctly and at interThe • Tempest'is one of the most original and

This island's mine by Sycorax my mother,

vals. There is this effect produced by Ariel's songs, perfect of Shakspeare's productions, and he has shown in it all the variety of his powers.

It is full Which thou tak'st from me. When thou camest first, which (as we are told) seem to sound in the air, and

Thou stroak’dst me, and mad'st much of me; as if the person playing them were invisible. We of grace and grandeur. The human and imaginary

would’st give me

shall give one instance out of many of this general characters, the dramatic and the grotesque, are

Water with berries in't; and teach me how

power. blended together with the greatest art, and without any appearance of it. Though he has here given To name the bigger light and how the less

Enter FERDINAND; and ARIEL invisible, playing “to airy nothing a local habitation and a name,” That burn by day and night; and then I lov'd thee,

and singing. yet that part which is only the fantastic creation And show'd thee all the qualities o' th' isle,

ARIEL'S SONG. of his mind, has the same palpable texture, and The fresh springs, brine-pits, barren place and

Come unto these yellow sands, coheres " semblably” with the rest.

As the pre-
fertile :

And then take hands : ternatural part has the air of reality, and almost Curs'd be I that did so! All the charms

Curt'sied when you have, and kiss'd, haunts the imagination with a sense of truth, the Of Sycorax, toads, beetles, bats, light on you!

(The wild waves whist;) real characters and events partake of the wildness of For I am all the subjects that you have,

Foot it featly here and there; a dream. The stately magician, Prospero, driven Who first was mine own king; and here you sty me

And sweet sprites the burden ear. from his dukedom, but around whom (so potent is In this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me

[Burden dispersedly. his art) airy spirits throng numberless to do his bid- The rest o'th' island.”

Hark, hark ! bowgh-wowgh: the watch-dogs ding; his daughter Miranda (“worthy of that name ") And again, he promises Trinculo his services thus,

Bowgh-wowgh.

[bark, to whom all the power of his art points, and who if he will free him from his drudgery.

Ariel. Hark, hark! I hear seems the goddess of the isle; the princely Ferdi

The strain of strutting chanticleer nand cast by fate upon the haven of his happiness in “ I'll show thee the best springs; I'll pluck thee

Cry cock-a-doodle-doo.

berries, this idol of his love; the delicate Ariel ; the savage Caliban, half brute, half demon; the drunken ship's I'll fish for thee, and get thee wood enough.

FERDINAND. Where should this music be? in air erew-are all connected parts of the story, and can I pr’ythee let me bring thee where crabs grow,

or earth hardly be spared from the place they fill. Even the

And I with my long nails will dig thee pig-nuts : It sounds no more: and sure it waits upon local scenery is of a piece and character with the Show thee a jay's nest, and instruct thee how Some god o' th' island. Sitting on a bank subject. Prospero's enchanted island seems to have

To snare the nimble marmozet : I'll bring thee Weeping against the king my father's wreck, risen up out of the sea ; the airy music, the tempest

To clust'ring filberds; and sometimes I'll get thee This music crept by me upon the waters, tost vessel, the turbulent waves, all have the effect of

Young scamels from the rock.”

Allaying both their fury and my passion the landscape back-ground of some fine picture. In conducting Stephano and Trinculo to Prospero's

With its sweet air; thence I have follow'd it Shakspeare's pencil is (to use an allusion of his own) cell, Caliban shows the superiority of natural capa

Or it hath drawn me rather :-but 'tis gone. “like the dyer's hand, subdued to what it works in.” city over greater knowledge and greater folly; and,

No, it begins again. Everything in bim, though it partakes of “the in a former scene, when Ariel frightens them with

ARIEL'S SONG. liberty of wit,” is also subjected to “the law " of the

his music, Caliban to encourage them accounts for it Full fathom five thy father lies, understanding. For instance, even the drunken in the eloquent poetry of the senses,

Of his bones are coral made: sailors, who are made reeling-ripe, share, in the dis

Those are pearls that were his eyes, order of their minds and bodies, in the tumult of the “ Be not afraid, the isle is full of noises,

Nothing of him that doth fade, elements, and seem on shore to be as much at the Sounds, and sweet airs, that give delight and hurt not.

But doth suffer a sea change, mercy of chance as they were before at the mercy of Sometimes a thousand twanging instruments

Into something rich and strange. the winds and waves.

Will hum about mine ears, and sometimes voices,
These fellows with their sea-

Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell-
wit are the least to our taste of any part of the play:
That if I then had waked after long sleep,

Hark! now I hear them, ding-dong bell. but they are as like drunken sailors as they can be, Would make me sleep again ; and then in dreaming,

[Burden ding-dong. and are an indirect foil to Caliban, whose figure acThe clouds methought would open, and show riches

FERDINAND.
Ready to drop upon me : when I wak'd

The ditty does remember my quires a classical dignity in the comparison. I cried to dream again.”

drown'd father. The character of Caliban is generally thought

This is no mortal business, nor no sound

This is not more beautiful than it is true. The (and justly so) to be one of the author's master

That the earth owns: I hear it now above me." pieces. It is not indeed pleasant to see this characpoet here shows us the savage with the simplicity of

The courtship between Ferdinand and Miranda is a child, and makes the strange monster amiable. ter on the stage any more than it is to see the god

one of the chief beauties of this play. It is the very Pan personated there. But in itself it is one of the Shakspeare had to paint the human animal rude aud

The pretended interference of Proswildest and most abstracted of all Shakspeare's without choice in its pleasures, but not without the purity of love.

pero with it heightens its interest, and is in characcharacters, whose deformity whether of body or mind sense of pleasure or some germ of the affections.

ter with the magician, whose sense of preternatural Master Barnardine in • Measure for Measure, the is redeemed by the power and truth of the imagination displayed in it. It is the essence of grossness, savage of civilized life, is an admirable philosophical power makes him arbitrary, tetchy, and impatient of

opposition. but there is not a particle of vulgarity in it. Shakcounterpart to Caliban.

The • Tempest' is a finer play than the · Midsumspeare has described the brutal mind of Caliban in

Shakspeare has, as it were by design, drawn off

mer Night's Dream,' which has sometimes been comcontact with the pure and original forms of nature; from Caliban the elements of whatever is etherial

pared with it; but it is not so fine a poem. There are the character grows out of the soil where it is rooted and refined, to compound them in the unearthly uncontrolled, uncouth and wild, uncramped by any

a greater number of beautiful passages in the latter. mould of Ariel. Nothing was ever more finely con

Two of the most striking in the • Tempest'are spoken of the meannesses of custom. It is “ of the earth, ceived than this contrast between the material and by Prospero. The one is that admirable one when earthy.” It seems almost to have been dug out of the spiritual, the gross and delicate. Ariel is ima

the vision which he has conjured up disappears, the ground, with a soul instinctively superadded to ginary power, the swiftness of thought personified. it answering to its wants and origin. Vulgarity is

beginning The cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous When told to make good speed by Prospero, he says,

palaces,” &c., which have been so often quoted, that not natural coarseness, but conventional coarseness, “I drink the air before me.” This is something learnt from others, contrary to, or without an intire like Puck's boast on a similar occasion, “I'll put a

every school-boy knows it by heart; the other is

that which Prospero makes in abjuring his art, conformity of natural power and disposition; as girdle round about the earth in forty minutes.” But fashion is the common- - place affectation of what is Ariel differs from Puck in having a fellow feeling in

“ Ye elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes and elegant and refined without any feeling of the essence the interests of those he is employed about. How

groves, of it. Schlegel, the admirable German critic on exquisite is the following dialogue between him and And ye that on the sands with printless foot Shakspeare, observes that Caliban is a poetical cha- Prospero !

Do chase the ebbing Neptune, and do fly him racter, and “always speaks in blank verse." He

When he comes back; you demi-puppets, that

“ Ariel. Your charm so strongly works 'em, first comes in thus:

By moon-shine do the green sour ringlets make, That if you now beheld them, your affections

Whereof the ewe not bites; and you whose pastime CALIBAN. As wicked dew as e'er my mother Would become tender.

Is to make midnight mushrooms, that rejoice brush'd PROSPERO. Dost thou think so, spirit?

To hear the solemn curfew, by whose aid With raven's feather from unwholesome fen,

Ariel. Mine would, sir, were I human.

(Weak masters tho' ye be) I have be-dimm'd Drop on you both: a south-west blow on ye,

PROSPERO. And mine shall.

The noon-tide sun, callid forth the mutinous winds, And blister ye all o'er ! Hast thou, which art but air, a touch, a feeling

And 'twixt the green sea and the azur'd vault Of their afflictions, and shall not myself, PROSPERO. For this, be sure, to-night thou shalt

Set roaring war; to the dread rattling thunder One of their kind, that relish all as sharply,

Have I giv'n fire, and rifted Jove's stout oak Passion'd as they, be kindlier moved than thou art?” With his own bolt; the strong-bas'd promontary Side-stitches that shall pen thy breath

up;

urchins Shall for that vast of night that they may work, It has been observed that there is a peculiar charm

Have I made shake, and by the spurs pluck'd up All exercise on thee: thou shalt be pinch'd in the songs introduced in Shakspeare, which, with

The pine and cedar : graves at my command

Have wak'd their sleepers; op'd, and let 'em forth As thick as honey-combs, each pinch more stinging out conveying any distinct images, seem to recall all Than bees that made 'em.

the feelings connected with them, like snatches of By my so potent art. But this rough magic

have cramps,

THE LATE DON PEDRO.

BIRTH-DAYS AND OTHER ANNIVERSARIES.

my lord

ness.

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ADMIRAL NAPIER.

I here abjure; and when I have requir'd

schools for infants. The government is giving Some heavn'ly music, which ev'n now I do,";

An officer of the English squadron told me that

much attention to education, and it is to be hoped. (To work mine end upon their senses that

when these lines for the defence of Lisbon were first much good will be done. • This airy charm is for) I'll break my staff,

commenced, he walked out one day to see them; and | Bury it certain fadoms in the earth,

on looking about he came upon two Portuguese offiAnd deeper than did ever plummet sound,

cers, one of whom had three stripes of lace on the cuff I'll drown my book.”

THE WEEK. of his surtout. He was immediately sharply accosted We must not forget to mention among other things by the striped gentleman, and asked, (in French) in this play, that Shakspeare has anticipated nearly all “What he was about there?” The Englishman FEBRUARY 11, 1657. At Rouen, Bernard Le Bovier the arguments on the Utopian schemes of modern replied, “ that curiosity had prompted him to see what de Fontenelle, son of an advocate of parliament, and philosophy. was going on."

nephew of Corneille; a man of universal literature, “ Gonzalo. Had I the plantation of this isle,

Have you permission from the commandant?” chiefly known to prosperity as a popularizer of as“ None."

tronomy, and one who by a temperament at once Antonio. He'd sow't with nettle-seed. “Well, you can't remain here."

lively and tranquil succeeded in preserving a natuSEBASTIAN. Or docks or mallows.

“ That's very strange. In the time of Miguel I rally delicate constitution to the age of nearly a Gonzalo. And were the king on't, what would might have expected this; ”ut now I thought an

hundred, with no other infirmity than a little deafI do? English uniform was sufficient passport."

His equable temper subjected him to a charge Sebastian. 'Scape being drunk, for want of wine. “ Well, well! what do you think of the lines ?”

of want of feeling; and a ludicrous story has been Gonzalo. I'th' commonwealth I would by

told of his having a friend come to dine with him, Why, I am no great judge of these matters; but contraries as far as I can understand the nature of the defences, Fontenelle, who in consideration of his friend's taste

who expired as the meal was preparing; upon which Execute all things : for no kind of traffic they seem to be very well contrived.”

had ordered some fish to be fried partly in butter and : Would I admit; no name of magistrate;

On this the interrogator moved on, and his com- partly in oil, jumped up, and called out to the cook, Letters should not be known; wealth, poverty, panion (apparently an aide-de-camp) addressed the

“ The whole with oil! The whole with oil.” Madame And use of service, none; contract, succession, Englishman, and said, “ Do you know whom you d'Abrantes, on the authority of a personal friend of Bourn, bound of land, tilth, vineyard, none; have been talking to?"

Fontenelle's, treats this story as a jealous fabrication ; No use of metal, corn, or wine, or oil ;

« No."

and most probably it was nothing better. It is not No occupation, all men idle, all,

“ Why that is his Imperial Majesty."

like the conduct of a man, one of whose maxims And women too; but innocent and pure :

“ Well, I am sorry I did not know it was Don

was, that “we ought to be sparing of superfluities to No sov'reignty. Pedro, for I fear I spoke rather bluntly to him.”

ourselves, in order to be able to supply necessaries to SEBASTIAN. And yet he would be king on't.

Accordingly, he approached his Majesty, and others;" and whose whole character had the general ANTONIO. The latter end of his commonwealth made an apology; on which Don Pedro frankly reputation of corresponding with his professions. forgets the beginning.

cried out, “Oh! never mind apologies; go where Gonzalo. All things in common nature should you like, you're an Englishman ; I'm glad to see

Same day, 1732. In the parish of Washington, in

Virginia, of an ancient family of Cheshire, George produce

you,” and shook hands. Without sweat or endeavour. Treason, felony,

Washington, one of the founders, and First President,

of the United States ;-one of those rare characters for Sword, pike, knife, gun, or need of any engine Would I not have; but nature should bring forth, Viscount Cape St Vincent, the gallant Napier, prudence in the smallest things, and success in the Of its own kind, all foizon, all abundance having arrived from his successful expedition to the greatest, which keeps a man's fame with posterity sus. To feed my innocent people!

North (when Caminla, Valença, Viana, &c. had pended between doubt and admiration,-between Sebastian. No marrying 'mong his subjects ? fallen into his hands), I waited on his Excellency, doubt whether his success was not mainly owing to Antonio. None, man; (all idle; whores and having an introduction to him from his distinguished negative qualities and to the circumstances which ren. knaves.

cousin, the Right Honourable Sir Alexander dered them of sovereign benefit, and admiration ef Gonzalo. I would with such perfection govern, Johnstone.

the vigor, perseverance, and public disinterestedness sir,

I went to the naval arsenal, opposite to which is with which he secured and ennobled it. The greatest T'excel the golden age.

the curious stone pillar, where the nobles used to be suspicion of Washington's want of genius arises from Sebastian. Save his majesty!" executed ; and in the principal room, the walls of the dry formality of his manners, and the minute and

steward-like attention he paid to the smallest details which were covered with tapestry, representing marine subjects, I found clerks busy at long tables

, throughout his life, public and private. His claim

to grandeur of reputation consists in his public virLIVELY GLANCES AT MEN AND and on looking out at a window, I saw shipwrights and

tue, rather than his talents as a soldier, which how. THINGS IN PORTUGAL, other workmen busily engaged about a line-of-battle

ever suitable to the exigency, are thought not to have ship, and a corvette on the stocks.

There was no (From the · Sketches' of Captain Alexander.)

been severely put to the test by the generals sent sleeping over the work here; and there was evi.

against him. The most awkward thing in his disdently some master-spirit which kept all hands in

favour as a man of a very enlarged mind and an I waited a considerable time at the Duke de Teractive employ.

abstract lover of liberty, is his retention of his black ceira's (the distinguished Villa Flor), to present a

I was shown into a room where sat the admiral : slaves on his estate, and his inability, or disdain, to letter from Admiral Sartorious. His excellency was His excellency is five feet in height, spare made, say a word in defence of it, when he was asked the out riding; and while sitting in an ante-room, a with black hair and whiskers, straight nose, and

But in this also he might have sacrificed sleek-looking English groom put his head in at the sallow complexion ; his age about fifty.

He was

his real feelings to notions of existing necessity, and door, in order to be spoken to. He was the beau dressed in a blue surtout and trowsers, white vest, for the better security of liberty to all hereafter. edeal of the domestic of a captain of the guards; one socks and shoes, and had a frank off - hand and

Yet the positive contempt with which the majority of of the smooth-haired, long-vested, well-fed fellows, decided air about him.

his countrymen regard their black fellow-creatures to with little of work, and plenty of sauce for everyone The Minister of Marine (Marjochi) came in-a this day, is not an argument in favour of that hypobut their own master. I asked him why he left tall, respectable-looking gentleman.

The admiral thesis. We must add, that it is the greatest blot London ?

immediately attacked the minister, to give me in- upon their character, and quite unworthy the ad1. " Why, sir, since the Reform Bill, town has got formation about Africa; to see if in his bureau vances they have made in so many other respects. very dull; my last master got into the Bench, and

there were any documents which could be of use to 14. St Valentine's Day. See an admirable the nobility have all gone abroad; so I came over The minister promised, in a day or two, to article upon it, in our extracts this week from Mr here to the duke,” supply me with what was requisite.

Lamb. We rejoice to see that the day is still noticed There was a loud talking and laughing of servants

The admiral kept me for a considerable time with in the new and improved almanacs. Such anniverin an adjoining apartment, with a clatter of knives him, talking occasionally and getting through a great saries must not be abolished, any more than youth and forks, and a little girl ran into the room.

deal of business; he seemed to be as ready with the and love itself. Besides, what would become of our “ That's the daughter of the lady's maid," said the pen as with his sword.

school-friend and playmate, the “ little god of love,” “ She's looked on as one of the family ;groom.

The admiral sometimes made a triumphal entry Cupid himself, if he were to go out of the “ Valen. very different with us at home, sir.”

to a place, seated on an ass or mule, cocked hat tines" with their bleeding hearts, all stuck through I inquired how he liked his place. athwart ships, and cutlass by his side. At one of the

with arrows? for he is now to be found nowhere else. “Oh! they use me very well, sir; I'm just the towns of the Algarve, where the Mayor and corpora

The very French poets have cut him. same as the duke,-same dishes, separate tables, and tion came off to pay him homage, and had prepared

15, 1674. At Dijon, where his father was chief so on; but if they dont treat me as they ought to do,

a laurel crown for his excellency, he impatiently registrar of the Chamber of Accounts, Prosper Jolyot I'll leave the establishment and set up for myself.”

called out, whilst waiting in the cabin to receive de Crebillon, one of the four celebrated French tragic “ As what?"

them, “ Come, bear a hand with the ceremony." writers, Corneille, Racine, and Voltaire, being the “ As a veterinary surgeon, sir ; I know something Talking of small fry, - improvement has taken others. We cannot speak of his writings from knowof the business

, and they are d-d ignorant about place in the education of children; schools on the ledge ; but their severe subjects, and the manner in horses in Portugal, sir."

Lancasterian principle are now common, as also which he handled them, procured bim the title of the

A PROPER VALET.

reason.

me.

LVII. HONEST ULTRA-DEVOTION.

SO

French Æschylus. He was a man of a high and trials, and forbearance of Jesus Christ. Our pious London, and finally adjusting every affair likely to independent spirit, and therefore a piece of playful traveller passed the greater part of the forty days require his presence in the metropolis, he prepared to Aattery came with the more grace from him. When during Lent in abstinence and devout meditation, on depart with his mother, his elder brother, his sister, he went in his old age to thank the king's mistress, a mountain almost covered with rosemary and wild ber husband, a Mr Colet, and their fifteen children, Madame de Pompadour, for a pension she had pro- thyme, descending regularly every evening to make of whom six sons and three daughters were married. cured him, he was introduced into her bed-room (a a moderate meal on fish. This temporary solitude This religious colony, consisting, with the servants, French custom), and was in the act of kissing her first gave Mr Ferrar a relish for mental abstraction of upwards of forty persons, quitted London, and by hand, when the monarch came in (Louis XV). “Alas, and contemplative devotion, imparted a peculiar tinc. easy journies repaired to Little Gedding. madame!" exclaimed the venerable poet, “ the King ture to his faith, his conduct, and his manners, and

The house, which had for many years been in the has surprised us ; I am undone.” Louis was diverted ultimately decided the singular manner in which he

occupation of a farmer, they found in a ruinous and with this sally, and ever afterwards befriended him. passed the after-part of his life. These impressions neglected state—the garden a wilderness—pigs had Crebillon died at the age of eighty-eight.

were also further confirmed by his narrowly escap- been kept in a pleasure house, and the church was 16, 1497. At Bretten upon the Rhine, Philip ing a sudden and violent death ; this mercy he never

converted into a barn. Provoked at what he conMelanethon, the most amiable of the Lutheran refor- forgot, but indelibly fixed it on his mind by an anni

sidered as profane misapplication, Mr Ferrar would mers. His real name was Schwartzerd (Black Earth), versary practice of fasting, prayer, and thanks

not sleep till he saw the house of God cleared of its which, agreeably to a custom of German literati in giving.

contents, and actually performed divine service in it those times, he translated into Greek,--Melancthon

Having sufficiently guarded against the dangers by candle-light before the family retired to rest. It having the same meaning in that language. His of pestilential affection to himself, or communicat

was afterwards completely repaired within and father was an armourer. His mother, being old at ing it to others, a precaution in many respects trou

without. the time of the Reformation, and having timid doubts blesome, tedious, and vexatious, but against which

To make a large roomy mansion, which had been of the propriety of quitting the ancient faith, the son, no man ought to object, Mr Ferrar passed on to

so long left to decay, a fit habitation for a large and with true Christian liberality, advised her to retain it. the once renowned, but decayed University of Padua.

respectable family, was a work of time, labour, and He here attended a course of medical lectures, which

expence; even to subsist them required some skill, qualified him to be useful afterwards to his country effort, and contrivance. For this purpose the land, ROMANCE OF REAL LIFE.

neighbours. After a stay of four months, he quitted which in those days produced an annual rent of five Padua precipitately, terrified by real or imaginary hundred pounds, was kept in hand, and agricultural

dangers, from certain Jesuits, who, with the Pope, superintendence was assigned to such individuals of Nicholas FERRAR, the son of a London merchant,

the devil, and the pretender, were once the bugbears, at the conclusion of the sixteenth century (says the

the family as were qualified for the task by knowthe raw-heud and bloody.bones of England, and pro- ledge, health, age, and inclination. Timber in the • Lounger'), inherited from his mother a delicate

bably not without reason. constitution, but a vigorous mind, and eagerly de

meantime was cut down, and other necessary matevoted his carly life to literary occupation.

Reli

He repaired without delay to Rome, and, after rials procured, capacious barns, &c. were erected, gious books being first put into his hand made an

seeing whatever was worthy of notice in the ecclesi- and the whole of the premises completely repaired; impression on his mind, which never was removed,

astical metropolis or its environs, made a retrograde additional household stuff was purchased, and a and when only six years old, he was able to repeat by

movement to the mercantile sea-port of Leghorn, sufficient stock of fuel and other stores laid in. But heart a considerable portion of the Old and New

and in a few days, embarking in a felucca, crossed no occupation was permitted to interfere with the Testaments, the English Chronicle,' and Fox's

tha part of the Mediterranean which is called the purpose of Mr Ferrar's retirement, The whole Book of Martyrs.' At the age of eight he was

Sea of Genoa, and landed at Marseilles.

After re

family were expected to attend public worship, every placed under the tuition of a worthy clergyman, near

maining in that city three weeks, he re-embarked in morning, Mr Ferrar officiating himself, and, to prevent Newbury in Berkshire, whose discipline was

an English vessel for the Spanish port of St Sebastian. this duty interfering with those of the house and farm, successful, or the aptness of his scholar so great, that,

Being disappointed in his expectation of a pecuniary the house rose at five during the winter, and at four being considered as qualified for an University, he

remittance at this place, he walked to Madrid, where o'clock in summer time. Part of the house was was sent, when thirteen years old, to Clare Hall in

he heard that his mother, now a widow, was involved appropriated to the purposes of a school, to which Cambridge, where Dr Linsell, afterwards Bishop of in trouble. In the eagerness of filial affection, he masters were assigned, and here the children of the Peterborough, became his tutor. To use the words took the earliest opportunity of sailing for England; family, and those of the neighbourhood who would of Mr Ferrar's right reverend biographer (for he and, after a five years' absence froin his native coun- conform to rule, were taught to read and write, was not only instructed, but his life has been written try, landed at Dover with a constitution considerably grammar and arithmetic, and the duties and prinby a bishop), it was soon observed that Ferrar's amended, and large additions of information, learning, ciples of religion. Occasional amusement was not candle was the first lighted, and the last extinguished and science.

prohibited them ; little prizes being sometimes given in that college. This sedentary drudgery was not Mr Ferrar could not restrain the pious gratitude

to those who excelled in learning; also to those who likely so improve a tender habit, and being undor the and patriotic rapture he felt. The instant he jumped could run, jump, swim, and drive an arrow nearest

to the mark. necessity of applying for medical advice, his physi. on shore, he fell on his knees on the bench, returned cian recommended travelling, in the hope of calling thanks to the Almighty for that protecting provi- The young women of the house were clothed off for a time his unceasing application to books. dence which had sheltered him from perilo by land alike in black stuff; and sueh time as was not em The Princess Elizabeth, one of the daughters of and perils by sea, and then kissed his native soil. ployed in church or domestic duty, was dedicated to King James the First, who had married the Count By the established goodness of his character, and a the infirm, aged, and diseased; for which purpose Palatine, being at that moment on her way to Ger- large share of natural sagacity, he was enabled to medicines and all conveniences for dispensing them many, Mr Ferrar was permitted to join the suite of extricate his family from their difficulties, which had were at hand, Mr Ferrar being qualified to give her highness, and accompanied them part of the been produced or augmented by a litigious attorney. advice and directions in administering the medicines way. They landed in Holland, and after accom- 1. 1624 he was chosen a member of the House of employed. The female part of the family employed panying his countrymen to the borders of Germany, Commons, and in this capacity took an active part themselves at the proper season in distilling cordial as he proposed going considerably to the north of against the treasurer, Sir Lionel Cranfield, who, waters and working carpets and cushions for the the Palatinate, he took his leave; visiting Munster, from the humble station of a Custom-house officer, church and parlours. As a hint to such as someHanover, and Cassel, leaving no place till all that had by his fiscal projects so ingratiated himself with

times visited Little Gedding, the following inscripwas to be seen or heard had been explored. At King James, that he gave him a lord treasurer's tion was placed in the hall at which everyone enLeipsic, finding his health better, he remained several staff, and created him a peer of the realm. Sir tered :-“ He, who by gentle reproof and kind months, again applied to his books, and, to qualify Lionel had been accused by his enemies, I know not remonstrance strives to make us better, is welcome; himself for making further progress as well as profit how justly, of corruptly conniving at certain injurious but he who goeth about so disturb us in that which in traveliing, improved himself in the modern lan- monopolies. But Mr Ferrar, in Parliament or on ought to be the chief business of every Christian, is guages.

his travels, in his closet or the world, never lost sight a burthen while he stays, and his own conscience He now resolved to see Italy, not indeed by the

of what appears to have been, at a very early period, shall witness against him when he departs.” direct road, but visiting such places as were likely to

the favourite wish and purpose of his heart—religious On another conspicuous pannel appeared these gratify his curiosity, or afford opportunities of im- retirement, and the devoting himself wholly to God words:-“ He, who is willing to be a cheerful parproving his mind, and adding to his knowledge. He forgetting, as too many of his predecessors in the ticipator with us in that which is good, confirms us continued a few days at Dresden, and made a consame path have done, that those exertions should

in the same, and acts as a friend, but he who bitterly siderable deviation for the purpose of visiting seem to be most pleasing to the Creator which

censures us when 'absent, and makes a show of apPrague, Ratisbon, Augsburg, Munich, Saltzbourg,

imitate his attributes and are productive of social probation when in our presence, incurs the double Inspruck, and Trent. At that period, Europe was

utility. In this plan of retirement he was powerfully guilt of flattery and slander, and violates the bond of under considerable dread of that awful scourge, the

aided by his mother, who felt and indulged similar Christian charity.” plague, and Mr Ferrar was obliged near the Italian propensities, and being possessed of the house and

The laws of hospitality were not forgotten by Mrs frontier to undergo the precautionary secession, somemanor of Little Gedding, in Huntingdonshire, had

Ferrar or her son, many of the nobility, clergy, and thing similar to quarantine. It was at the time, apt means in her hands of putting into execution

other travellers, calling on them; King Charles I, that season of the year, when the Christian church this favourite purpose.

on his march to the north, visited them, and the enjoins for a certain period fasting and prayer, as a As the first step Mr Ferrar procured himself to Bishop of Lincoln was sometimes their guest. salutary and impressive memorial of the patience, be ordained by Dr Laud ; then taking leave of Watching, a very ancient discipline in the Christ

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