« السابقةمتابعة »
disconnect the day of worship with works of necessity and mercy; and what so necessary for the poor, the especial objects of his regard, as a knowledge of what can be done for them? what so merciful as to help them to supply their wants both of body and mind? Leaving this more serious part of the subject (which, however, is not inharmoniously mixed up with our lighter matter, for the greatest gravity and the most willing cheerfulness have but one object), we pass by the other open or peeping shops (such as the pastry-cooks' who keep up the supply of indigestion, and the apothecary's who is conveniently ready against the consequences), and stop a moment at our friend the barber's, who provides a newspaper for his waiting customers, as men of his trade formerly provided a lute or a guitar. The solace is not so elegant. There must have been something very peculiar and superior, to the occasion, in the sound of a guitar in a barber's shop-of " Beauty retire," gracefully played into the face of a long-visaged old gentleman under the soap-suds; or,
The Catholic countries' bells are ringing at all seasons, not always to the comfort of those who hear them; but the custom has associated them in our minds with sunshine and good-nature. We also like them on account of their frequency in colleges. Finally, they remind us of weddings and other holidays; and there is one particular little jingle in some of them, which brings to our memory the walking to church by the side of a parent, and is very dear to us.
"Since first I saw your face I resolved To honour and renown you;"
"In this pleasant place retired;"
"Come if you dare;"
just as the operator's fingers were approaching the patient's nose. The newspaper, however, though not so choice, or furnishing opportunities to the poor polite to show the selectness and segregation of their accomplishments, shows a higher refinement on the part of the poor in general, or the many; not to men. tion, that the more knowing reader may find ample occasion of showing what he knows, and may sing, in another strain, the song of "Beauty, retire," to some fair partisan on the pension-list, or "Come, if you dare," to the tax-gatherer or the tithesman. But we must be moving onward.
There is the bell going for church. Forth come Mrs and Miss A; then the Mr B's, in their new brown coats and staid gloves; then Mr, Mrs, and the Miss C's, in a world of new bonnets and ribbons. Oh, ho! young Mr D, from over the way, joins them, and is permitted to walk with Miss C by herself; so the thing is certain. See! she explains to him that she has forgotten her prayer-book - by accident; and he joyfully shows her his own; which means, that he means to read the Collect with her out of the same book; which makes her blush and smile, and attempt to look gratefully indifferent, which is impossible; so she does not much endeavour it, and they are both as happy as if the church were made of tarts and cheesecakes. We are passing the church now, so we see no more of them. But there is the beadle, in his laced hat, taking the apple from the charity boy, and looking very angry, for it is not a good one; and there come the E's, quarrelling up to the church-door about which walks the heaviest; and F, making his sisters laugh beforehand, at the way in which the clerk opens his mouth; and G, who hates the parson; and the parson, who hates G; and H, I, J, K, and L, who are indifferent about the matter, and are thinking of their dinner, boots, neckcloths, and next day; and, not to go through the whole alphabet, here is M, dashing up in his carriage, which the coachman is to keep for him, till he has "walked humbly with his God," and is ready to strut forth again.
[To be concluded in the body of our JOURNAL next week, not as the leading article.]
OF THE BALLAD 'EDWIN AND EMMA.' To the Editor of the London Journal. February 19, 1835. SIR,-In addition to the account given in this week's LONDON JOURNAL, I beg to inclose you a copy of the register of the burials of the true lovers, celebrated under the names of Edwin and Emma. I am sorry for several reasons that there is no date to the letter from the curate of Bowes to Mr C. at Marrick. The following copy of the register was extracted by myself from the parish book of registers. The story as detailed in the letter I have heard often; and many a time and oft have I, in boyhood's happy time, played on the tomb under which lie the remains of that fond pair. They were buried at the west-end of the church, near the wall. Deeply is it to be regretted that no memorial has been raised to mark the spot, and perpetuate an instance of true yet fatal love. Such a project was entertained some years ago, but has now, I fear, been quite lost sight of.
THE CONCERT TICKET.
"How fortunate this is! We never should have gone to pay. Now pray don't forget your kind promise;” and rising, the lady hastened to her daughters to communicate the glad tidings. George Eldridge had evidently risen in her estimation; and in due time the young ladies were as forward as "mamma in evincing their respect for an amiable young man, who could get "orders."
sible should be paid for what are considered amusements: and, perhaps, the cause of this apparent meanness lies in supposing that intellectual or other [external] gratification is mere amusement. But you will not listen to my prosing over causes! It is very rare to meet with any who expend their money as a principle of public acknowledgment to private endeavour to attain perfection either in art or science. If an exhibition is advertised of the striving talent of our artists, or a book, the produce of the research of half a life,-what is the dominant feeling in society? Is it by the sacrifice of a trifling amount by all who choose to avail themselves of the exertions of others to repay the toil expended in the one or the other case? Do we find galleries crowded by something like a generous feeling towards the abilities there displayed, or, on the other hand, do we ever hear of an elaborate work on science being purchased from motives of respect to its author-or rather, to the merits of the book? That society does here and there boast such feeling, there is no doubt; but it is an exception to a rule. I am sorry to believe that our first propensity is to avail ourselves of every good thing, without reference to those to whom we are indebted; and to deem that we repay them amply with our praise. The modest thought! How horrified these people would be were they offered the 'gift' of the King's bounty at Easter, or free admission' to a feast at the Freemanson's Tavern, or proffered tickets' for coals and potatoes, as a charitable donation, at Christmas! But, it may be fairly asked, where lies the difference between accepting these free gifts, and crawling for gratis admissions. Do talents demand less culture than a potato, or does fuel lie deeper in the bowels of the earth than genius in its 'hidden cells?' But, perhaps, this is trifling. In plain language, does the public suppose that the gratification they receive so readily, is equally cheap to others as to themselves? They who have seen talent devoting youth, rest, recreation,-nay, even the necessaries of life, and I may almost add, the affections of the heart, to the creation of those powers, whose apparent ease is the effect of the toil of years, can never deal so niggard-like by their possessors.
It is not necessary for me to name to you the class in life which is the more obnoxious to the reproach of thoughtless indifference on this point; for want of reflection is the great cause of the evil, and this I am happy to think; for there can be no greater meanness on the face of the earth than that which
grudges to intellect, feeling, and industry, their due reward.
My opinion on this subject took its rise from rather a melancholy incident, which I will relate." "Will he never cease?" thought George; "and a dance commencing, too!" So, drinking in at one ear the blandishments of the waltz, he lent an ungracious moiety of the other to the old man.
Now this is extremely odd, thought George. If Mrs Dynevor was not glad of my offer, she would not have expressed so much satisfaction; and if so anxious for the theatre, why not pay ?-that is curious, for she is very generous! This was indeed a mystery to a young man recently involved in London. George had been bred in the country, and trained in thorough gentlemanly ideas of independence and liberality, and his first impulse was to afford support to the arts through which he sought entertainment. “This is not like her, to evade a payment the loss of
which must fall on some one!"
These last words, George, in the heat of his reflection, seems to have uttered aloud, and they attracted the attention of an old gentleman who had been sitting, as elderly men are wont to do, very from the remote regions of the whole world out of quiet and attentive, in the back ground. George saw he was preparing to speak, and out he did speak, sure enough.
In childhood the church bells used to make us melancholy. They have not that effect now. The reason we take to be, that they sounded to us then
doors, and of all the untried hopes and fears and destinies which they contained. We have since known them more familiarly, and our regard is greater and even more serious, though mixed with cheerfulness, and is not at all melancholy, except when the bell tolls for a funeral; which custom by the way is a nuisance, and ought to be abolished, if only out of consideration for the sick and sorrowful. One of the reasons why church bells have become cheerful to us, is the having been accustomed to hear them among the cheerful people of Tuscany.
"Am I not right (he said) in believing that you are surprised at finding Mrs Dynevor anxious to avoid the expense of an intellectual gratification?"
George assented; and the speaker continued. "It does seem strange that a lady, whom we all know to be hospitable, kind-hearted, and beneficent, should act in a manner that could only be expected from the poor, or the poorly-minded. But yet, I fear you will find it too universal an idea, that as little as pos
"Some years ago, when I, as you may be now, was a zealous knight in the service of the ladies, un petit courier des dames, I was intimately acquainted with a professional man a leader in his art, music. Many years he had laboured, to my knowledge, for proficiency, before he appeared before the public, and then expecting only a modest requital for his toil. His was the labour we delight in,' therefore he was not exorbitant in his wishes; but, for the pleasure he found himself capable of inspiring, he
was intitled at least to some return. How he succeeded, however, I never knew till the following His event took place. He announced a concert. abilities were well known, though his name was not fashionable; and my friends, aware that I was acquainted with him, importuned me to procure free tickets. I wrote for them; they were forwarded, and on the appointed day we attended. Never did the talents of my friend shine to greater advantage than on that day, and seldom have I seen a more numerous or more gratified audience. Well, sir!— in the course of a few days, glad in heart at his success, I hastened to the house of —, to congratulate him. A sad revulsion, however, came over me, when I observed an unwonted gloom over that cheerful dwelling. All-wife, children, and servants, were downcast, the musician excepted: his genius,
BIRTH-DAYS AND OTHER ANNIVERSARIES.
I suppose, upheld him. The cause was this, as I dis.
stinct of inferiority in intellectual and moral grandeur, covered, when he checked with a smile the gratula
could not help ekeing out the power of his with sometions I was offering him on his supposed gains :-He
thing of a convulsive strength,—an ostentation of mus. had been struggling, he said, for years to keep March 4. Ash-Wednesday, the first day of Lent,, cles and attitudes. His Jupiter was a Mars intellectualhis footing in England, but the struggle went a season so called from the Saxon Lenten or Lengthen- ized. Raphael's was always Jupiter himself, needing against him. It was not that it was toilsome- tide ; that is the lengthening of day-light. The ob- nothing more, and including the strength of beauty toil he did not fear; but the fight was not fair,—the servance of abstinence at this season is a memorial of with that of majesty; as true moral grandeur does labour was not clean. This concert he had given the fasting of Jesus. It is little retained except
in nature. Michael Angelo was great in sculpture as a last trial — And you succeeded ?' I cried. The
among Catholics, and it is very much qualified with as well as painting, and was the chief builder of the room was full--but it was with free admissions,' he them. Brand quotes an amusing clause concerning magnificent church of St Peter. He also wrote a quietly replied. You may believe, sir, I wished
it from one
of the Roman Casuists; namely, number of sonnets, partaking of the austere character myself anywhere else than where I was, sitting opthat “beggars which are ready to affamish for want,
of his genius. He was short in stature, but of ene posite the man whom I felt that I had been a party may eat what they can get.”
getic and venerable aspect; though Torrigiano, the in injuring; though no such thought, I do believe,
Ash-Wednesday is so called from the custom for. sculptor, in a fit of passion, wlien they were at school entered his mind. He continued, “I am now on
merly prevailing of blessing ashes on this day, and together, broke the bridge of his nose with a blow of the eve of departure for another country--where, an signing the people's foreheads with them at church,
his little violent fist, and left it flattened for life; as inward voice tells me, better fortune will be my in token of the “ dust and ashes” nature of man.
may be seen in the busts of him. mead.' And it was true: everything was preparing The ashes were those of the palm-branches conse
Same day, 1482. At Florence, of a noble family, for removal. Those walls, witnesses of so much crated on Palm-Sunday.
Francesco Guicciardini, an excellent statesman and happiness—happiness which evidently had had its
Ash-Wednesday is no longer anything with us
historian, diffuse in his narratives, but sagacious, and source alone in the riches of the heart and mind of but a name; and Lent means little but a season in
a lover of truth. We regret we can only speak of their master-walls, which had resounded with so which people eat too much fish and egg-sauce, and
him from the judgments of others, never having read much that was kind, hospitable, brilliant, and hargo to the theatres in black to hear oratorios.
his history. Like most of the great men of Italy, he monious, we ,—were now being despoiled of their taste
also wrote verses.
Same day, 1650 (according to Chalmers :-Gorton
says, 1652). At Worcester, the son of an attorney,
TO THE FALSE ONE.
man, one of the leaders of the Revolution of 1688, « By Jove! that was well danced !” cried George and a man of great taste in literature,—the patron of
"Their perfume gone,
Take these again ; for to the noble mind
Rich gifts wax poor, when givers prove unkind." compliment the object of his admiration.
Milton. He appears to have been a genuine lover The old gentleman smiled to find he had been of freedom; but to have shown, in advancing its Taxe backe thy gyfte—'tis deare no more storying to unlistening ears. It was not the first interests, something of the superfluous subtlety of a Sithe false have prov'd the wordes I trusted, time.
legal breeding, which subjected him, among other Dimme are its gemmes, soe bryghte before, W. R.
charges, to that of currying too much favour with the Each lynke by Treach’rie's breathe is rusted.
Whigs in power.
Firme are those lynkes of purest golde
(Too firm to bee a trifler's tokenne)
Stille with unshakenne strengthe they holde of attraction, and if it cannot attract money out of considerations of what was best for all. His taste in
They are not like thy false vowe-brokenne! pockets, as well as a cheaper attention, we know literature would argue for the 'latter conclusion. Of
Thou should'st have given a rosie chaine
Of buddes that fade as ev'ning closes,
And even thenne too welle I weane,
Thy hearte had chang'd, before thy roses. remonstrances as the present may help to bring homely joviality, we here repeat it. The name of about by showing how worth of all acknowledg- the landlord gives it an additional zest in these days, Thenne as each perfumed leafe and flowre ment the labours of the accomplished are held to be by though the old gentleman would have hazarded no of its fraile linkes had dropt awaye, liberal minds. We confess we have never thought such brusqucrie to its present bearer.
It is curious,
I might have counted houre by houre
M, S. R.
ROMANCE OF REAL LIFE. furnished by a good actor or musician in no very frequent the taverns in London, and in his way from flourishing circumstances, and then go and lay out Worcester was wont to leave his horse at the George
'LX.--A HUMAN WILD BEAST APPARENTLY TAMED. the value of them in tarts, or a trinket, or any other at Acton, where he often made mention of the hope. [From a curious piece of German autobiography superfluity.
ful son he had at the Temple. Cobbet, who kept just published, intitled “Heinrich Stilling.' The the inn, hearing him enlarge so much in praise of author was a friend of Goethe's. We do not his son, to compliment the old gentleman, cried,
take for granted, as he does, the thorough conver“ Why wont you let us see him, sir?" The father, sion of the unhappy, and most probably wretchedly Thomas Learmouth, otherwise called the Rhymer, to oblige his merry landlord, desired the young gen
educated, subject of the present story; but the a native of Ercheldoune in the Merse, is reported to tleman to accompany him so far on his way home;
man, like other human beings, has a germ of goodhave lived during the reign of Alexander III. He and being come to the George, took his landlord
ness in him, and the contrast of his poor wife's was famous for his predictions of future events. On
aside, and said “ I have brought him, Cobbet, but patience and kindness is affecting.) the day of Alexander's deatli, the Earl of March
you must not talk to him as you do to me; he will asked him, whether anything extraordinary would not suffer such fellows as you in his company."
During supper, in the evening, Glöckner related happen next day? « To-morrow," answered Thomas,
a very remarkable tale regarding his brother-in-law,
- 6, 1474. At Arezzo, in Tuscany, of a noble Freymuth, which was to the following effect :“ will be heard the most vehement wind that was ever
family, Michael Angelo Buonarroti, whom the Madame Freymuth was Glöckner's wife's sister, known in Scotland.” When the news of the King's death
lovers of energy in its visible aspect think the and of one mind with her concerning religion; the arrived, “that, said Thomas, " was the wind of which
greatest artist that ever lived. Ariosto (in not one of two sisters therefore came frequently together, with I spake.” Fordun relates this story as a proof of
his happiest compliments) punning upon his name, other friends, on the Sunday afternoon; they then bis prophetic spirit. There is still a better story calls him
recapitulated the morning's sermon, read in the related of Apollonius Tyanaeus by Philostratus, Lib.
bible, and sang hymns. Michel, piú che mortal, Angiol divino,
Freymuth could not bear iv, c. 43. An eclipse happened at Rome in the days of the Emperor Nero,' at the same
this at all; he was an arch enemy to such things, time
Michael, the more than man, Angel divine; there was a violent thunder storm!
yet, notwithstanding, he went diligently to church Appolonius,
and pursuing the allusion, it may be said that there and sacrament, but that was all; horrible oaths, lifting up his eyes to heaven, said, “E0T25 To jeya
is much of the same difference between him and drinking, gaming, licentious conversation, and Kat 8x ésta.;" i. e. “ something great or extra- Raphael, as there is between their namesakes, the fighting, were his most gratifying amusements, in ordinary will come to pass, and will not." No one varlike archangel Michael, in • Paradise Lost,' and which he passed his time, after his business was could understand the sense of this enigma; however, Raphael, “the affable archangel.” But we must
finished. When he came home in the evening, and it was soon explained; for a goblet in the hands of
own it appears to us, that Raphael, by a little ex- found his wife reading the bible, or some other Nero was struck with lightning, and yet he himself aggeration, could have done all that Michael Angelo edifying book, he began to swear in a dreadful escaped unhurt. This, according to the admirers of did; whereas Michael Angelo could not have com- manner, and to say to her, “ Thou canting pietistic Apollonius, was the remarkable thing which was to posed himself into the tranquil perfection of Ra- D-, knowest thou not, that I will not have thee happen and not to happen. Dalrymple's Annals of phael. Raphael's Gods and Sybils are as truly grand riad?” He then seized her by the hair, dragged Scotland
as those of Buonarroti; while the latter, out of an in- her about upon the ground, and beat her, till the
blood gushed from her nose and mouth; however, as meek as he had been previously wrathful and ther alone, or combined with other animal sub she did not say a word, but when he left off, she daring, and as heartily pious as he had before been stances,—then it is easily digested and assimilated. embraced his knees, and besought him with many impious.
Ozmazome is obtained by the washing in cold tears, to be converted and change his course of This man would have been a subject for my water of any brown flesh: an extract is made of it, life; he then kicked her away from him with his friend, Lavater. The expression of his countenance
which is not nutritive, but which acts on the vital feet, and said, “ That I will not, thou wretch! I was the maddest and wildest in the world; it (propriétés) properties in a manner eminently stimuwill be no hypocrite, like thee.” He treated her needed only a single passion, for instance, anger, lating, it penetrates the whole system of circulation in the same manner, when he knew that she had to be excited, and the animal spirits required only excites the power of assimilation, and determines the been in company with other pious people. In this to extend every muscle of his face, and he would chyliferous vessels to appropriate to themselves a way he had acted ever since his wife had been of
have appeared raging mad. But now he is like a greater proportion of the nutritious principles. different sentiments to himself. But now, only lion turned into a lamb.
Peace and serenity are Now, it will be readily conceived that, the flesh of within the last few days, Freymuth had become impressed upon every muscle of his countenance, adult animals, containing at once fibrine and gelatine, intirely changed, and that in the following man- and this gives him an aspect as pious as it was pre- the properties of which are advantageously modified viously brutal.
by ozmazome, would be the food best adapted for Freymuth took his departure for the fair at
lymphatic constitutions, where there is a disposition Frankfort. During this time, his wife was intirely
to scrophula, and in all cases where the organs at liberty to live as she pleased; she not only went
require stimulus; but, for the same reasons, it should to visit other friends, but also occasionally invited [The following article, translated from a local work
be taken very moderately by those who are inclined to a considerable number of them to her house ; this
on · Boulogne sur Mer,' applies particularly to the plethora, to active hæmorrhages, or other accute she did, also, last Easter fair. Once, when many edible productions of that place; but it bears a
affections." It would be particularly injurious to of them were assembled in Freymuth's house, on a general interest; for who is not interested in eating
nervous temperaments, and wherever there is any Sunday evening, and were reading, praying, and and drinking? And the French are considered to
irritation of the organs of sensibility, unless tem. singing together, it pleased the mob not to suffer
have advanced a step before us in the chymical analysis pered by a mixture of vegetable food. this; they came, and, first of all, broke all the of nutritive substances.]
What we have said of the flesh of animals applies windows within their reach, and, as the house door The animal productions that serve the purpose of equally well to poultry. Domestic fowl have white was fastened, they burst it open with a strong pole.
nutrition are the muscles, membranes, and all the flesh, similar in its effects to that of young quadrupeds ; The company in the parlour were alarmed and tissues of the ox, the sheep, the pig, the hare, the
whereas wild fowl and game in general have brown terrified, and everyone sought to hide himself as
rabbit, poultry, wild fowl, and a great variety of flesh, more resembling that of adult quadrupeds, well as he could. Madame Freymuth alone refish ; both sea and fresh-water fish; together with
Fish do not, like birds and quadrupeds, contain mained, and, on hearing the house door broken shell-fish and crustacea. In each of these substances
the principle which stimulates the digestion; they open, she stepped out with a light in her hand. reside certain principles which concur with remark
contain, however, a large proportion of nutriment, Several of the mob had already burst in, whom sheable energy in the formation of chyle, and the quick the absorption of which is more or less easy in differmet in the hall. She smiled at the people, and reparation of all the powers: - these are gelatine,
ent individuals. There are, indeed, persons who can said, good humouredly, “ Neighbours! what is it you fibrine, albumine, and ozmazome ; but these nutritive only eat particular kinds of fish; and others to want ?" immediately they were as though they had principles do not always exist in the same propor
whom it is altogether injurious, and in whom it exreceived a beating ; they looked at each other, were
tions. They vary according to the age and species cites an ardent thirst. The immediate action of fish ashamed, and went quietly home again. The next of the animal. Gelatine abounds in young animals;
on the animal economy, is not direct, like that morning Madame Freymuth sent for the glazier and in adult animals, fibrine predominates. Albumine is manifestly produced by any aliment in which osmacarpenter, in order to restore everything to its found, more or less, in all. Ozmazome is scarcely
zome predominates ; neither are the fluids and solids proper state; this was done, and scarcely was all present at all, in the calf and pullet; but in the ox,
renewed, as by gelatine or fibrine; but in a manner finished, when her husband returned from the fair. and other full-grown animals, it is very abundant. much more calm. To this property, may, in a great • He immediately observed the new windows, and It is to this substance that broth owes its colour, its
measure, be referred the constitution of our seamen ;. therefore asked his wife how that had happened? aromatic odour, and agreeable flavour.
it is also to the mild and tranquil digestion of this She told him the pure truth circumstantially, and
In examining their mode of action on the animal food that we may attribute the uniformity of their concealed nothing from him, but sighed, at the economy, it will not be difficult to distinguish the
actions and habits. same time, in her mind, to God for assistance ; for
cases in which one or the other of these substances Some authors have written that fish produce obstishe believed nothing else but that she would be should be perferably employed.
nate cutaneous affections, ulcers, adynamic fevers, dreadfully beaten. Freymuth, however, did not
Gelatine is obtained by a decoction in water of all
and scurvy. We think that there has not been suffithink of that, but was mad at the outrage of the
cient distinction made here between the salt and the soft parts of animals; but particularly the skin, mob. His intention was to take cruel revenge the tendons, membranes, and glands. The bones, also,
smoked fish, and the fresh. Sharp seasonings may upon the villains, as he called them; he, therefore, being pulverised, furnish a great quantity. It does
affect the skin and the vital fluids; we have often commanded his wife, with threats, to tell him who not digest as easily as is commonly believed. This
observed these effects; but scorbutic diseases, and they were that had committed the outrage, for she mistaken notion causes it to be lavished on the con
cutaneous affections, in general, are extremely rare had seen and recognized them.
valescent, and generally on
those whose failing among our seamen ; whence we conclude that fish “ Yes, dear husband !” said she, “ I will tell strength is the result of a bad state of the organs of
is a wholesome food, proper in all cases not requirthee; but I know a still greater sinner than they digestion.
It is very nourishing, but too relaxing. ing a stimulating diet. all together ; for there was one who, for the very When sit does digest, it speedily produces an em
The most common shell-fish in Boulogne, used as same reason, beat me most dreadfully.”
bonpoint, the character of which is, the paleness and food, are oysters, les peignes, and muscles. Oysters Freymuth did not understand this as it was softness of the flesh. Gelatine is never strictly pro
are easy of digestion, and may agree with weak stomeant; he flew into a passion, beat upon his per, unless all the animal functions are in a healthy machs; but they are rather relaxing. Robust persons breast, and roared out, “May the D- fetch
state, and in cases where a meagre state of body is eat considerable quantities of them without incon. him and thee too, if thou dost not this moment not the result of any derangement of the stomach. venience, their relaxing properties tending to correct tell me who it was.”_" Yes," answered Madame For temperaments in which the white fluids predo- the effects of too nourishing a diet. Les peignes, Freymuth, “I will tell thee; revenge thyself upon minate, its relaxing properties should be corrected by analogous to oysters in texture, are far from being as him as much as thou wilt; thou art the man that aromatics or some other stimulant, such as wine, easy cf digestion ; and, though boiled with aromatics did it, and art, therefore, worse than the people who spices, &c.--the mode of action is then totally differ- and other provocations, are proper only for persons only broke the windows." Freymuth was mute, and ent, and it becomes essentially tonic and strength- of very strong digestion. In all other cases, they are as if struck by lightning; he was silent awhile; at ening.
not only improper (contraire) but positively injurious. length he began, “ God in heaven, thou art in the
Fibrine constitutes more particularly the flesh of Muscles, from their abundance on the rocks bathed right! I have certainly been a real villain! I am
animals ; it is generally easy of digestion. It fur- by the sea on the coast of Boulogne furnish a comwishing to revenge myself on people who are better
nishes a large proportion of chyle, and leaves little or mon article of food, and are a most important resource than I! Yes, wife! I am the most wicked wretch no residuum; it enriches the constitution by increas
Mucous as oysters, they act in the upon earth! He jumped up, ran up stairs to his ing the size and strength of all the tissues, quickens same manner on the animal economy; but they are bed-room, lay there three days and three nights, the sensibility, and gives energy and activity to all the justly mistrusted, because it sometimes happens that flat upon the ground, ate nothing, and only occa- functions. But to obtain these results, it is necessary
they produce serious indigestions, attended with viosionally took something to drink. His wife kept that the fibrine should be united with osmazome ; lent pains in the head and stomach, difficulty of him company as much as she could, and helped otherwise, its effects will be nearly the same as those
breathing, puffing of the face, and a red, sharp, and him in prayer, that he might obtain favour with of all the white parts of animals.
stinging eruption over the whole body; momentary God, through the Redeemer.
Albumine, of which the white of an egg is wholly coryza, and sometimes convulsions. It is remarkable On the morning of the fourth day, he rose with formed, and the greater part of the yolk, is coagulated that these effects do not depend upon the quantity his mind at case, praised God, and said, “I am and hardened by heat to a degree that resists all
For example: several persons will make a now assured that my grievous sins are forgiven efforts of digestion. Its nutritive properties, ana- plentiful repast on muscles, and not be at all incom
From that moment he has been quite lagous to those of milk, are not to be relied on, un- moded ; one of the party will eat but two or three, another man, as humble as he was proud before, less when it is employed in a half-liquid state, whe- and, a short time after, will experience the effects we
for the poor.
have described; on another occasion, perhaps, all the viciated, as in scurvy; or where debility and poverty intirely animal diet. According to these principles, party will be affected, more or less, in a similar of blood announce a deficiency of the nourishing the more or less proportion of either should be deWhat can we conclude from this irregu- juices.
termined by the constitution of the individual. larity, but that muscles have sometimes poisonous
Farinaceous vegetables are valuable aliments,
Fruits are not generally considered as food, but properties, dependant upon the state of their fluids, gentle in their action; and a mixture of them with ani- rather as accessories en raison of the quantity of sacthe nature of the substances on which they feed, or mal productions, is, in some sort, the complement of charine, acidulous, or oily matter they may contain; the degree of purity of the waters in which they live? the nourishment of man : but their quantity should
the mucilage with which these principles are united, There may also be some predisposition of the sto. be proportioned to the constitution, and to the pre
however, gives them nutritive properties more or less mach, favourable to the action of these properties. dispositions which, according to sex or age,
The sweet fruits used in Boulogne are apricots, demonstrated, that the muscles taken on the rocks of
Bread made of pure wheat is the best and the plums, and the dried fruits, as figs, raisins, &c. The Equihen, which are uncovered only in very low
sugar makes them particularly desirable—it is of easy lightest ; all its principles are almost intirely abtides, are rarely unwholesome; whereas those taken
sorbed. That in which other flour is introduced digestion ; its assimilation is almost complete. Pers nearer to the coast are by no means so wholesome.
sons who use a great quantity soon become em-bonsuch as barley, rye, oats, or the fecula of potato, is This shows that their poisonous properties depend not only more compact, but also slower of digestion. point
, and even plethoric; but at the same time it partly upon the causes we have assigned. It seems,
seems that they are slower in their movements, and The former suits best for sedentary or inactive perhowever, that the brown tubercle in the centre, vul
deficient in activity, which always depends on the sons, because their digestive powers have less energy; garly called the tongue, is the most common cause
but the second is best for the working classes. It elasticity of the muscles. The sensibility also is of indigestion—for those persons who are careful to
somewhat diminished, and the brain appears to act makes them less sensible of the imperious calls of remove this are not incommoded. It is observed,
with more calmness and tranquillity. But when the hunger, during the hours devoted to labour. Hot also, that if the muscle be moistened in vinegar,
sugar contained in the fruit presents itself in the form bread is always heavier than stale; and in all cases, before it is eaten, its ill qualities are neutralized. It
of a mass of sweet mucus, then its mode of action crust digests more readily than crumb, because the is important, then, always to observe this rule, if one
differs, and this new substance becomes relaxing, oclatter, being much softer, requires little mastication; would avoid accidents, always accompanied with pain, while the former, being more masticated, absorbs more
casions flatulence, &c. and all the crgans are weakanxiety, &c. &c.
ened. These effects are especially remarkable in desaliva, and demands less effort on the part of the
licate persons, and persons of weak digestion. The crustacea are not rare in the country; but they stomach. Long mastication is absolutely necessary
Sweet fruits are a great resource for convalescents, eat only the crab, the lobster, and the shrimp. They to an easy digestion. Too little attention is paid to are difficult of digestion, especially the two first. this fact, and to this omission many evils are attribut
and in all cases where it is desirable to increase nu
trition ; but then two conditions are necessary :-the Though they all form a solid and very nourishing able. It cannot be too earnestly recommended to food, they ought not to be used without aromatics weak and delicate persons to divide and temper their first, that these fruits should contain as little mucus and spices sufficiently stimulating to prevent indi- food in the mouth, as completely as possible, before
as possible; the other, that the stomach be strong gestion ; even then, they are only fit for strong and it is entrusted to the stomach.
enough to overcome their laxative influence. In such
cases this nourislıment, judiciously mingled with subvigorous stomachs.
The Leguminous. In the number of aliments of
stances slightly stimulant, will give strength to the The lobster is liable to affections which sometimes
this kind, it is necessary to comprebiend the roots of constitution; but it will be readily conceived that it render it unwholesome. Its ill properties reside certain vegetables, their leaves, their stalks, their
must be injurious whenever there is the least predis-
position to plethora or inflammation.
The most common of the acid fruits are gooseber-
ries, currants, cherries, strawberries, apples, pears, the 1st of September 1824, five persons suffered from
Thus, carrots, lettuces, asparagus, gourds, peas, cauliindigestion, followed by prostration of strength, flowers, &c. are used only when the roots, leaves, peaches, raspberries, mulberries, oranges, and lemons.
Though the acetic, citric, malic, and moric acids conhiccough, violent colics, faintings, and other symptoms stalks, seeds, &c. respectively, abound with sap; and
tained in these fruits is always mingled with a conof the most alarming nature in consequence of each contains the nourishing and peculiar juices des
siderable quantity of sugary mucus, they are not nueating of a lobster, with the flesh of which was mixed tined to the full growth of the vegetable. In fine,
tritious, but rather exercise their influence in exciting the coral, cut in small pieces. An evident proof if the stalks were fully developed, the roots would
the appetite, and favouring the digestion of other become dry and woody, the leaves hard and cortacethat it was the coral that caused the evil was, that a
substances eaten at the same time. ous; they would no longer be susceptible of diges- however, that they be eaten in moderation, otherwise
It is necessary, sixth person, who was of the party, having had the
tion, and would even cease to be nutritious. precaution to put aside the morsels of that part which
they will occasion serious disorders. One of the had fallen to his share, suffered no inconvenience
Two parts necessarily exist in vegetables : the one
most sensible effects of acid fruits is their action on whatever. As it has not been ascertained at what
contains all that is alimentary—it is the mucilaginous the circulation. The pulse beats slower ; the animal precise period the lobster becomes unwholesome, and it extract; the other is the vegetable fibre, which will
heat is modified in a remarkable manner. The celis impossible exactly to describe any characters by not digest, and is constantly rejected. Now, it may
lular tissue is clogged, and this explains why the frewhich that state may be recognized, it is advisable be said, that the more mucilage any vegetable sub
quent use of acids often brings on a state of leanness; habitually to reject the coral. stance may contain, and the less of the fibrous part,
but a moderate use of them, especially when the the more it is susceptible of assimilation.
weather is very warm, gives to the whole frame a senminous are by no means so nutritious as the farina
sation of refreshing coolness that is very
useful. The various vegetables used as food, differ as well ceous vegetables; and produce but a small proportion
The oily fruits gathered in this country are nuts in their action on the animal economy, as in the of chyle.
and walnuts; but almonds and cocoa-nuts also are quantity of nutriment they contain. As our limits The effects of a constant diet of this kind are not
used. Alone, they are hard of digestion, and will not allow us to examine each severally, we shall difficult to distinguish : the stomach, wearied by the although the oil they contain, united with the vegeseparate them into sections, comprehending all the sweet moist mucilage of leguminous substances, fur- table pulp, affords a sufficiency of nutriment, it is analogies. nishes to the assimilative agents but little nutrition,
necessary to their digestion that they should be masThe Farinaceous. Of these vegetables, wheat is and peculiarly relaxing ; thus, the contractibility of ticated until every particle be completely crushed. If undoubtedly the one most generally employed. The the heart is weakened, the skin loses its colour, and
not thus carefully divided, the stomach is wearied abundance of gluten and nutritious matter that enter
the vital properties of all the tissues become singu- with vain efforts to digest them. These fruits are into its composition, render it preferable for the larly relaxed; the blood itself becomes more liquid ;
never better assimilated than when fresh, and intirely making of bread; it digests with the greatest facility, and a full and swollen appearance often announces the triturated with the salivary juices, and never more and furnishes a large portion of chyle. The exclu. want of energy of the acquired constitution. Such
unwholesome than when they are stale, and their oily sive use of this kind of food, however, occasions a diet, then, is contra-indicated for persons of weak and particles have begun to lose their purity. Oily fruits superabundance of blood. Great bread-eaters have feeble habit, and especially for those in whom the
are in general softening, and their action on the the vascular system full; the pulse, though strong,
white fluids predominate. Neither are they proper several systems of organs tend to moderate their remarkably slow; and in general, a tendency to ple- for persons whose organs of locomotion have need of
functions. Thus, persons who make great use of thora. Their muscles become more strong and rovigour and activity ; nor those in whom an habitual
them are stout without being strong; their sensibust, but they have not the quickness of movement, state of indolence betrays the languor of the
bility is in some sort dulled, and the understanding and the elasticity of persons who live upon more functions, and the imminence of a leuco-phlegmatic
dormant. stimulating food. The functions of the mind also
and weak habit of body; but, on the contrary, a have less activity, and the sensibility seems blunted. vegetable diet may be employed to great advantage, This state of apparent calmness always conceals the where the thickening of the blood disposes to an inelements of inflammatory maladies, intense in pro- flammatory state. This regimen is no less proper
Ile that thinks best of man, thinks most worthily portion to the more or less superabundance of the when it is desirable to temper nervous susceptibility.
of God. Man, savage man,—and of civilised man sanguine fluid.
Such a diet is improper, therefore, Unless in such cases as we have mentioned, legu- the more ignorant and besotted classes, like the devils, for persons of a strong and stout constitution, or per
minous vegetables, mingled with different kinds of believe and tremble; not so he who keeps ever in his sons subject to hæmorrhage, to the impulsion of blood meat, compose the best and most wholesome dict, be- view the high destinies of humanity; he, whatever to the head, &c., but it would be useful in cases of cause this mixture of the two is more strengthening be his creed, believes and loves.- Outline of a system great nervous irritability, when the hematose is than vegetables alone, and less stimulating than an of Educalion,
CHARACTERS OF SHAKSPEARE'S
BY WILLIAM HAZLITT.
NO. VIII. THE MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM.
BOTTOM the Weaver is a character that has not had justice done him. He is the most romantic of mechanics. And what a list of companions he has Quince the Carpenter, Snug the Joiner, Flute the Bellows-mender, Snout the Tinker, Starveling the Tailor; and then, again, what a group of fairy attendants, Puck, Peaseblossom, Cobweb, Moth, and Mustard-seed! It has been observed that Shakspeare's characters are constructed upon deep phisiological principles; and there is something in this play which looks very like it. Bottom the Weaver,
who takes the lead of
"This crew of patches, rude mechanicals, That work for bread upon Athenian stalls," follows a sedentary trade, and he is accordingly represented as conceited, serious, and fantastical. He is ready to undertake anything and everything, as if it was as much a matter of course as the motion of his loom and shuttle. He is for playing the tyrant, "He will roar that it the lover, the lady, the lion. shali do any man's heart good to hear him;" and this being objected to as improper, he still has a resource in his good opinion of himself, and "will roar you an 'twere any nightingale." Snug the Joiner is the moral man of the piece, who proceeds by measurement and discretion in all things. You see him "Have with his rule and compasses in his hand. you the lion's part written? Pray you, if it be, give it me, for I am slow of study."-" You may do it extempore," says Quince, "for it is nothing but roaring." Starveling the Tailor keeps the peace, and objects to the lion and the drawn sword. "I believe we must leave the killing out when all's done." Starveling, however, does not start the objections himself, but seconds them when made by others, as if he had not spirit to express his fears without encouragement. It is too much to suppose all this intentional but it very luckily falls out so. Nature includes all that is implied in the most subtle analytical distinctions; and the same distinctions will be found in Shakspeare. Bottom, who is not only chief actor, but stage-manager for the occasion, has a device to obviate the danger of frightening the ladies : "Write me a prologue, and let the prologue seem to say, we will do no harm with our swords, and that Pyramus is not killed indeed; and for better assurance, tell them that I, Pyramus, am not Pyramus, but Bottom the Weaver: this will put them out of fear." Bottom seems to have understood the subject of dramatic illusion at least as well as any modern essayist. If our holiday mechanic rules the roast among his fellows, he is no less at home in his new character of an ass, "with amiable cheeks, and fair large ears." He instinctively acquires a most learned taste, and grows fastidious in the choice of dried peas and bottled hay. He is quite familiar with his new attendants, and assigns them their parts with all due gravity. "Monsieur Cobweb, good Monsieur, get your weapon in your hand, and kill me a red-hipt humble-bee on the top of a thistle, and, good Monsieur, bring me the honey-bag." What an exact knowledge is here shown of natural history!
ron and his fairies we are launched at once into the
empire of the butterflies. How beautifully is this
from beds of flowers.
Titania's exhortation to the fairies to wait upon Bottom, which is remarkable for a certain cloying sweetness in the repetition of the rhymes, is as follows:
"Be kind and courteous to this gentleman;
The sounds of the lute and the trumpet are not more distinct than the poetry of the foregoing passage, and of the conversation between Theseus and Hippolita.
Puck, or Robin Goodfellow, is the leader of the fairy band. He is the Ariel of the Midsummer Night's Dream;' and yet as unlike as can be to the Ariel in The Tempest.' No other poet could have made two such different characters out of the same fanciful materials and situations. Ariel is a minister of retribution, who is touched with a sense of pity at he woes he inflicts. Puck is a mad-cap sprite, full of wantonness and mischief, who laughs at those whom he misleads" Lord, what fools these mortals Ariel cleaves the air, and executes his mission with the zeal of a winged messenger; Puck is borne along on his fairy errand like the light and glittering gossamer before the breeze. epicurean little gentleman, dealing in quaint devices, He, is indeed, a most and faring in dainty delights. world of spirits are a set of moralists: but with ObeProspero and his
It had been suggested to us, that the Midsummer Night's Dream would do admirably to get up as a Christmas after-piece; and our prompter proposed that Mr Kean should play the part of Bottom, as worthy of his great talents. He might, in the discharge of his duty, offer to play the lady like any of our actresses that he pleased, the lover or the tyrant like any of our actors that he pleased, and the lion like "the most fearful wildfowl living." The carpenter, the tailor, and joiner, it was thought, would hit the galleries. The young ladies in love would interest the side-boxes; and Robin Goodfellow and his companions excite a lively fellow-feeling in the children from school. There would be two courts, an empire within an empire, the Athenian and the Fairy King and Queen, with their attendants, and with all their finery. What an opportunity for processions, for the sound of trumpets and glittering of spears! What a fluttering of urchins' painted wings; what a delightful profusion of gauze clouds and airy spirits floating on them!
Alas, the experiment has been tried, and has failed; not through the fault of Mr Kean, who did not play the part of Bottom, nor of Mr Liston, who did, and who played it well, but from the nature of things. The Midsummer Night's Dream,' when acted, is converted from a delightful fiction into a dull pantomime. All that is finest in the play is lost in the representation. The spectacle was grand; but the spirit was evaporated, the genius was fled.Poetry and the stage do not agree well together. The attempt to reconcile them in this instance fails not only of effect, but of decorum. The ideal can have no place upon the stage, which is a picture without perspective: everything there is in the foreground. That which was merely an airy shape, a dream, a passing thought, immediately becomes an unmanageable reality. Where all is left to the imagination (as is the case in reading) every circumstance, near or remote, has an equal chance of being kept in mind, and tells according to the mixed impression of all that has been suggested. But the magination cannot sufficiently qualify the actual impressions of the senses. Any offence given to the eye is not to be got rid of by explanation. Thus Bottom's head in the play is a fantastic illusion, produced by magic spells: on the stage, it is an ass's head, and nothing more; certainly a very strange costume for a gentleman to appear in. Fancy cannot be embodied any more than a simile can be painted; and it is as idle to attempt it as to personate wall or moonshine. Fairies are not incredible, but fairies six feet high are so. Monsters are not shocking, if they are seen at a proper distance. When ghosts appear at mid-day, when apparitions stalk along Cheapside, then may the Midsummer Night's Dream' be represented without injury at Covent-garden or at Drury-lane. The boards of a theatre and the regions of fancy are not the same thing,
"THESEUS. Go, one of you, find out the forester,
A SAMPLE OF
Of hounds and echo in conjunction.
HIPPOLITA. I was with Hercules and Cadmus
When in a wood of Crete they bay'd the bear
THE SPELLING OF THE LADIES IN
From Eglesclif, Feb. 19. 1661.
Even Titian never made a hunting-piece of a gusto
So flew'd, so sanded, and their heads are hung
Crook-knee'd and dew-lap'd, like Thessalian bulls, delivering you from the Pope and fryars envie. I
Slow in pursuit, but matched in mouth like bells,
pray God to prosper you stil in the good successe of