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Blaxton in hear going to see Ser Willam her husband, wich is a presnor at Moretoke casel neare Coventry. My lady now is at London, waiting if she can get him relest, and for the present is put of with good words. Our dotter Mary is at hom with me, she is (I praise God) a relegos child, and servesable to me. Mr Hums hath tout her to rit. My lady had a great love and care of her. I found her all her close and paid Mr Broune for teching her on the verginalls. I shall have a care of all the rest as much as in me lais. I ret to my frend Busby according to your desire about Isache, but never had ansar from him. I very much desire if it ples God to settel you at Rome, that he may com to you. I do think he will be a gret comfort to you, and loves rising earlly to go to coul. When I tel him I have had letter from you, he axes if you have send for him.
"I most kindly thanke you for your deare, loving, and most constand care of me, and I do ernestlye desire to aprove myself what you thinke me in your cherrittabl good thots of me. All your delit is wall heare, and I shall pray and long to heare of your prospring in your besnes and good settelment agine; my vnkle ret to me that the marchands had agroeed to leon (lay on) every one so much for you to agment your stipend. I shall just now rit to my Lady Blaxton, and let her know you are wall. Mrs Man and Mrs Garnett, the Dauensons, and Dr Clarke are wall. My Lady Gercon, I think, is ded, for when I saw her, theare was no hops of lif. My Lady Huten was wall, and remembers her to you. Oure good frend, Mrs Hungton, and her husband, are both ded, and Mr John Kilinggoul. All the res of our neighbours and our neighbours are as yet wall. My deare respetes and seruies to your good frend Mr Tindal. "Yours as much as euer in the Lord,
"No more, thene euer,
Female education was strangely neglected in this humble particular, up to a late period. Nor, indeed, did gentlemen perhaps spell with uniform correctness till the middle of the last century. We think we recollect instances, even in the autographs of Pope. There is a letter to him from his venerable mother, preserved in some of his editions, almost as full of involuntary comedy as the above.
A LOVELY sisterhood of nuns ye seem,
This Correspondent (whose sonnet affords genuine proof that he has a right relish of the poetry he speaks of, and whose Gipsey King' we should be glad to see) has gratified us with a letter containing the following passage :—
Thousands of your Readers have had, if they are at all like us, a deep gratification-Keats's Eve of St Agnes' is beautiful-this we felt before,' and now feel doubly, accompanied with your comment and interpretation. Isabella' is also a delightful poem -some of its lines are like solid bars of gold, once read they are read again, and never forgotten. But the same may be said of much of Keats's poetry. Of all our modern great poets he has been the least read and appreciated. As far as my experience in poetry goes, and the enjoyment of it, he takes his place with the highest-or why do passages from his poems come into the mind in the divine company of Shakspeare's and Milton's? I never read him without thinking of < Comus' and The Midsummer Night's Dream.' What a chaste antique witchery there is in the Eve of St Agnes !'-what pathos in 'Isabella!'—and what a compass of mind and power in Hyperion!'-to use his own words,-" Might half-slumbering on his own right arm." You will, it is to be hoped, give and comment on Isabella,' and, surely, too, Comus.'
ON THE DEATH OF HIS WIFE IN
BY LORD HAILES.
[SIR David Dalrymple, Scotch lord of session, the excellent writer of the Annals of Scotland.' His friend Lord Woodhouselee says truly of the following lines, that it would not be easy to produce from the works of any modern Latin poet (he might have added, or ancient,) a more delicate, tender effusion, or an idyllion of greater classical purity. It is a pity that the editor of Blackwood," or of the Times,' or Mr Landor, or some other accomplished scholar, does not make a selection of these classical amenities, and give us them in a volume with notes and translations. Our friend Mr Webbe should do it. We are sure that men of genius, of all parties, would hail it with encouragement and delight.]
Vidi, gemellos, et superbivi parens,
At mox sub uno flebilis vidi parens
Te, dulcis uxor! ut mihi sol occidit,
Heu, solus, ac dubius feror!
AN ATTEMPT TO TRANSLATE THE ABOVE.
I saw them, twins, a parent proud,
A little while, a parent bow'd,
I saw them, through my tears, both dead.
But when thou left'st me too, sweet wife!
Now through a lone and silent life
DESTRUCTION OF A SHIP AND ITS
Not boats only, but sometimes even ships are destroyed by these powerful creatures.
It is a well-authenticated fact, that an American whale ship, the Essex, was destroyed in the South Pacific Ocean by an enormous Sperm Whale. While the greater part of the crow were away in the boats killing whales, the few people remaining on board saw an enormous whale come up close to the
ments we ever heard; and very easy to play too; it ship, and, when very near, he appeared to sink down
is, therefore, to the taste, and within the power of
CARDINAL VIRTUES OF WIT.
Cardinal du Bellay was so extravagantly fond of the works of Rabelais, that being once desired to ask a person of learning to stay dinner, "Has he read the book?" quoth he. The answer was, 66 No; he is of a serious cast." "Then let him dine with the servants," replied the Cardinal. As if there could be no merit without reading that facetious performance.
A REMARK WHICH WE BELIEVE TO BE WELL-FOUNDED.
If a man keeps always perfectly sober, with an even temper, and no display of wealth, he may pass unscathed almost everywhere.-Alexander's Sketches in Portugal.
gregated in a remaining whale-boat, into which they
sition it is. It is among the very best of inventions,
One boat was fortunately picked up by a vessel not far from the coast; in it were the only survivors of the unfortunate crew, three in number-the remainder having miserably perished under unheard-of suffering and privations. These three men were in a state of stupefaction, allowing their boat to drift about where the winds and waves listed. One of these survivors was the master: by kind and careful attention on the part of their deliverers, they were eventually rescued from the jaws of death, to relate the melancholy tale.-[From a very interesting and comprehensive little account, just published, of the Sperm, Whale, its Fishery, &c. Effingham Wilson, pp. 58.]
But very frequently all his worldly of the ballad are not without merit, and the first is so A GENTLEMAN WITH A WIFE IN
possessions consist only of a shred of cloth and his beautiful, that it makes one impatient of the mediEVERY TOWN,
Brahminical string, by the magic influence of which, ocrity of the rest. The picture it presents has the (From the second volume of the Hindoos' (just however, he sometimes possesses a harem of a hun- true ballad freshness and simplicity,—the truth told published),–
,—a volume still more amusing than the dred and twenty ladies scattered over Bengal, each of in simple words, " Regent,” perhaps, is not so well; first, and giving the most extraordinary pictures of whom is proud to call him husband, and looks but the rest is as fresh as the "summer night :" Hindostan, which (with admirable things in it) may forward to his distant and uncertain visitas
“ The dews of summer night did fall; be called, in many respects, the very hot-bed of ab
of rejoicing and jubilec. Numbers surdity. ]
The moon, sweet regent of the sky, convert these kinds of marriages into a pro
Silver'd the walls of Cumnor Hall, THERE exists in Bengal a particular tribe of Brah
fitable speculation, and possess
no other means
And many an oak that grew thereby." mins, who conduct their marriages in a manner
of living. At each new marriage large predifferent from that which prevails among other
sents are made them, which are renewed whenever We recollected this stanza: we had been repeating it, members of the same caste.
The history of this they visit their wives. Thus a Kulina, having mar- like a tune, for a week past, till the communications tribe is as follows. Formerly, there existed in Ben- ried into fifty or a hundred families, passes from of our friends came to hand; and then were obliged gal but one order of Brahmins, called Satsati, all of house to house, where he is received with distinction, to comfort ourselves for the breaking of the spell, by whom were equal in honour. There was, conse
sumptuously entertained, and loaded at his departure thinking how kind and prompt they had been in quently, no powerful rivalry to stimulate to exertion, with presents, in the hope of tempting him soon to sending us so many copies within three days after the whether in virtue or learning, and the whole caste
In some cases the husband never sees the
appearance of our request. insensibly sank into sloth and ignorance. For some wife after the nuptials ; in others be visits her once,
We received the amazing anagram of our friend time this state of things continued undisturbed. perhaps, in three or four years. A Kulina of respect
T. T., and have not yet recovered of the perplexity But at length a prince arose, who, incensed at their able circumstances never lives with the wife, who re
into which it has thrown us as to whether our Readindolence and incapacity, and wishing to offer up, mains at the house of her parents; he sees her occa
ers would derive as amusing an astonishment from it by pious and skilful hands, a sacrifice, which he de- sionally, as a friend rather than as a husband, and he
as ourselves. signed to solemnize for obtaining rain, invited from dreads to have children by her, lest he should thereby a neighbouring state five Brahmins of learning and sink in honour. In fact, to obviate this evil, they
The · History of the Streets of London,' contained
in the Supplements, will have a copious index to it virtue capable of conducting the ceremony in a benever acknowledge the children born in the houses of
when concluded. coming manner. Their performance satisfied the
their fathers-in-law. monarch, who, as a reward, gave them grants of The prevalence of these preposterous customs is
We have no recollection of seeing the Latin land; and from these five men, nearly all the Brah
version mentioned by GODFREY GRAFTON. His the cause of innumerable evils: the married women, mins, now in Bengal, are supposed to be descended.
Prayer' does great credit to his nature, but neglected by their husbands, and still more their hosts Nearly the same thing, however, happened to their of unmarried sisters, frequently indulge in every kind
wants a little more vigour in some of the lines. The posterity as had happened to the Satsatis: ignorance,
following passage in his letter is of a kind which parof debauchery and vice; while their husbands have the vice which most easily besets mankind, intent,
ticularly gratifies us :lately been found, to a most extraordinary extent, for the most part, on vulgar acquisitions, again crept
“I do not believe there is a man on earth, even among the most daring robbers and banditti. in, and a second reform became necessary. Ballâlsêna,
among the worst of those whom the every-day, and therefore, King of Bengal, observing among the Brah
particularly 'decorous world shuns as blackguards,' mins a great lukewarmness in the performance of their
who has not in his heart of hearts some redeeming religious duties, determined to divide them into three
quality; and I do firmly believe that of all the puborders, distinguishing one as a peculiar order of merit, Henry de Lancaster, commander of the English lications which issue from the press throughout to intitle a man to enter which the following qualifi- forces, invited the Knight of Liddesdale to combat Great Britain, none is more calculated to cherish and cations were required : to observe the duties of the with him in the lists at Berwick. In the first course
draw out that kind of latent goodness than yours'; caste, to be meek and learned, of good report, to the Kniglit of Liddesdale was wounded by the break
and this I consider one of its greatest claims to possess a disposition to visit the holy places, to being of his own spear. This accident baving inter- attention ; yes, even a claim superior far to its litedevout, not to desire gifts from the impure, to delight rupted the sport, Henry Lancaster requested Alex- rary merit, though I am sure I shall not be accused in an ascetic life, and to be liberal and beneficent. ander Ramsay to bring twenty gentlemen with him
of underrating the latter." Those in whom these nine qualities were found, to encounter an equal number of English. The re
G. W. cannot do better than cultivate his taste for he denominated Kulinas ; those who possessed quest was complied with ; and the sports continued poetry, provided it be only the ornament of his leisome, but were wanting in other qualities, were
for three days. Two of the English combatants sure, and interfere with no duty of certainty. Even called Srotriyas ; while those, in whom none o. were killed on the field; nor was the loss of their the greatest poets, when they begin life, have no these signs of superiority could be discovered, were antagonists less considerable. The point of a spear right to reckon upon their genius alone; especially termed Vansajas.
pierced the brain of William de Ramsay. After as it sometimes happens, that the greater the genius, The distinctions thus created, and which still conhaving been shrieved he expired in his armour. John
the less likely is it to be so generally understood by tinue to be observed with great tenacity, have given Hay, an eminent person among the Scots, received a
its contemporaries, as to be of worldly advantage to rise to the greatest enormities.
The great poet, therefore, must often fully give his son in marriage to the daughter of a
happened to arrive from abroad. An English knight work like other men for a subsistence, and be conSrotriya, or even to a Vansaja; but, in the second challenged him. “ Brother,” said Graham, pleasantly,
tent (as he well may) with his enjoyment of his beautiful fancies and his prospect of fame.
And the case, on condition that his family, if the practice be “prepare for death, and confess yourself, and then continued, shall sink to the level of a Vansaja. This you shall sup in Paradise.” And so it fell out, says lesser must be glad that he too has a perception of danger, however, he generally confronts with great Fordun. He appears not to have felt any horror at
the beauties of nature, wherewith to solace himself
after his necessary tasks. readiness for a certain consideration; and the Sro- a scene, where brave men, without either national triyas and Vansajas, vehemently ambitious of forming animosity, or personal cause of offence, lavished their The corrections kindly furnished us by F. will be connexions with the privileged class, consent to ex- lives in savage amusement.--Dalrymple's Annals of made in the way he mentions. They have been accipend enormous sums of money to obtain Kulîna hus- Scotland.
dentally delayed, too late even for their appearance bands for their daughters. For this reason, the male
in the next number of the Supplement; but will youth of this class are generally engaged as soon as
certainly be found in the one following.
TO CORRESPONDENTS. born to women of the inferior tribes. But the con
The • Triumph of Cholera' is by no means destitriver of the rules, by which these people regulate We have to thank five of our Readers for supplying tute of merit; but it is too long for the London their conduct, neglected to provide for the daughters us with copies of the ballad of · Cumnor Hall.' One JOURNAL. of Kulinas, who are forbidden to marry out of their of them expresses a wish to have some remarks upon We thank G. for his letter : but he is mistaken in class, and, unless very wealthy, can find no husbands it; but upon further acquaintance it turns out to be identifying the occasional weakness of temperament in it. They therefore remain unmarried. Polygamy, hardly worth the compliment. The story, too, is he alludes to in the excellent individual in question, itself an evil, is frequently resorted to as a remedy to apocryphal. It is by no means certain that Leicester with the habit of the other. And the exclusiveness the inconvenience resulting from this arrangement. killed his wife ; and Mr Sharon Turner, in his · His- he speaks of, was as inclusive a thing as possible ; The Kulina Brahmin, solicited and courted on all tory of England, has given reasons for supposing, and repelled (as indeed he guesses) nobody who had sides, marries a number of wives, some from his own that if the Countess did die of a fall down stairs, it a hearty regard for any thing. That was the only class, to gratify his friends, others from among the was probably owing to accident,—a catastrophe of the qualification. inferior classes, through considerations of interest, to sort being by no means uncommon. We have un
We have not room for the approbation given of us enrich himself, or to provide for himself a home in fortunately mislaid the paragraph we had copied from
at such kind length by PHILOLOGUS; but it is duly various parts of the country, where he may be lodged Mr Turner; but, if we reinember rightly, he says, valued. So also the letter of E. L-S. and entertained without expense during his peregrin- that he himself had known three instances of such a ations from one place of pilgrimage to another. death. It is well-known, that Bruce the traveller,
LONDON: Published by H. HOOPBR, Pall Mal East, and The women of his own class he commonly leaves after all his hair-breadth escapes in distant regions,
supplied to Country Agents by C. KNIGHT, Ludgate-street. at the houses of their friends; of the others he gener
died of a fall down stairs in his own house, while ally takes one to his own house, when he happens to showing some visitors out of it. The closing stanzas
From the Steam-Press of C. & W. REYNELL, Little Pulteney-streets
of Mothers, and Queen of all Things, of the con- therefore, are rendered as intense as they can be by
tempt of the scientific, and the indignation of the the infrequency. What signify the circumstances THE QUEEN-BEE DEPOSED ! lovers of common sense.
that may have hindered them? Let them be butNATURE, Regina.
Given at our Court of the Winds, or ton-making, or bread-making, or a clerkship, or To Our Right Trusty and Well-Beloved Samuel
Flower-Trumpeters, this eleventh day servitude, or any other chance or condition of life,
of the month of March, One Thousand what care we, provided the love be genuine, and Bagster, Junior, Dr Edward Bevan, Captain Thomas Brown, William and Samuel Curtis, Dr
Eight Hundred and Thirty-five, and the pleasure truly felt ? Burns was a ploughman, John Evans, Edward Jesse, William Kirby, John
in the Never-to-be-calculated Year of Allan Ramsay a hair-dresser, Gay at one time a our Reign.
mercer, Claudius Loudon, James Rennie, William Spence,
Richardson a printer, Dodsley a footman. N. A. Vigors, and all and singular our bee-mas
Do we suppose that the authors of Sir Charles
Grandison, Black-Eyed Susan,' and the finest ters, entomologists, gardeners, naturalists, poets,
love-songs in the world, did not make as cordial and and others whom it may concern, GREETING :
exquisite lovers as the best-bred gentlemen about WHEREAS, by our singular good ordination,
town, and that their mistresses and they did not from time immemorial, our beloved and industrious
worship each other with a vivacity and a passion little households, called Bees, purveyors to us of honey
SUNDAY IN LONDON.
infinite ? and wax, and singers of us to sleep by the side of our
Our Sunday lover, then, is an apprentice or a flowery brooks, have been, and are, and shall continue Hard is it, thou coming kindness, and hard thou clerk, and his mistress is a tradesman's daughter, to be, till we think fit to ordain otherwise, the issue, already-existing knowledge, and kindness too, of and they meet only on Sundays and Sunday evenmale and female, lawfully begotten, of one sole Christian philanthropists and philosophers, not to
ings, counting every minute till the time arrives, Mother and Matriarch, falsely called Queen, who feel a wish to take the cane out of the hands of listening to every knock, trying to look calm when ruleth, like other mothers of households, intirely in the beadle yonder, who is tyrannizing over barrow
the other joins the family party; for they seldom right of her motherhood, and solely because she is women and little boys, and lay it about his own
see one another alone even then. But now they are the parent of all and singular the males, females, hat. In the name of God, what sort of Christianity
at least in the same room, and happiness is with drones, workers, fighters, victuallers, sentinels, and would the law have, if it is not to be Christian ?
them. They see and hear each other; they see the all other denominations of bee whatsoever, separate -if it is not to prefer “spirit” to “ letter ?” There
little manæuvres to get a nearer seat; at length they or inclusive, and not because she resembleth in any are some men, according to whose notions it would
sit close together. The parents are not displeased, respect the human Sovereign known by the name of appear as if heaven itself ought to shut up shop and let things take their course
. This is, perhaps, Queenon Sundays, and afford us no light and sunshine.
the happiest time of courtship—when lovers feel And Whereas the said human Sovereign could We verily believe, that they think the angels go to
secure of one another's affections, and only have by no parity of right or reason, except in the sense church on that day, and put on clean wings, and just sufficient doubt of other security to make yciept metaphorical, be styled Mother or Matriarch that St Paul preaches a sermon.
everything seem dependent on themselves and the of the innumerable separate households, composing See now_here comes a little fellow whom they result of their own will and choice. By degrees, Kingdoms or Queendoms; but on the contrary would suppress, clean as a pink, far happier than a as the family divide in their talk, they are suffered would be justly and highly scandalised at the slightest prince, a sort of little angel himself, making al. to talk exclusively together. Every word is preintimation purporting that she was, in like and verit- lowance for the pug-nose; but innocence and hap- cious; every question the most indifferent has a able manner,
the actual mother and parent of all and piness are in his face, and before him (not to speak meaning: it is sufficient for one to say, “ I like singular her Majesty's foot-soldiers, horsemen, vestry- it profanely) is the beatific vision of the piece of this,” or “ I like that,” and the other thinks it a men, noblemen, bishops, members of parliament, hot mutton, which he is carrying home from the charming observation-a proof of fine sense, corn-factors, hosiers, dyers, boot-makers, &c. &c. to baker's, and devouring with his eyes. He is an
feeling, or taste, or, above all, of love ; for the eyes, the great confusion of terms and ideas, and detriment honest boy, for his mother has trusted him with
or the quivering lips, or the panting bosom, speak of her crown and dignitycarrying the meat and the baked potatoes ; and it
with it, and the whole intercourse, whether speakAnd Whereas, furthermore, the state or condition is the only bit of meat which he or she, or bising or silent, is one of intense acquiescence and of Motherhood, or Matriarchship, hath its own father, can get to eat all the week round; and his delight. A gentleman comes up and gallantly adrights, dignities, and sovereign powers, as We who little sisters are to have some of it, for they have
dresses some smiling remark to the lady; the lover, are both Queen and Mother well know, and standeth all been good, and helped to earn it ; and so here
if he is not quite sure of her mind, begins to be in no need of honours otherwise derived
is a whole, good, hard-working, honest family, jealous. The gentleman moves off, and a remark AND WHEREAS, most especially and lastly, it is of whom the religious eaters of hot meat every day
at his expense prostrates the lover's soul with gratiimportance to all classes and denominations of crea- would prevent from having their bit on Sundays, tude. The lady leaves the room to put a child to tures, to the furtherance of truth, and the operations because why? Because it would do the poor souls bed, or speak to a sister, or look after the supper, of right reason, and beneficence, that the terms and any harm? No; but because it would do their and darkness falls upon the place. She returns, and ideas herein above-mentioned should be kept dis- rich dictators the harm of seeing their own prag
her footsteps, her face, her frock, her sweet countetinct and well apprehended, each in its proper con- matical will and pleasure opposed, humours, the
nance, is thrice blessed, and brings happiness back fine and limitation, to the due glory of Me its ori- very result perhaps of their own stuffing and indi. again. She resumes her chair, with a soft“ thank ginator (for in Me art originateth), and to the com- gestion.
ye,” as he elaborately, and for no need whatsoever, fort and security of all things
A Sunday evening in London, with its musical puts it in its best position for being resumed; and This is TO GIVE Notice,
and other social meetings, such as cannot take place never, he thinks, did soul, breath, and bosom, go so That from this present Wednesday the Eleventh
between men in business during the rest of the sweetly together as in the utterance of that simple of March, in the year One Thousand Eight Hun- week, has parties enough to render it much livelier phrase. For her part, she has, secretly, hardly any dred and Thirty-five, and henceforward through all
than it appears.
But the lovers—the lovers are the bounds to her gratitude ; and it is lucky that they time to come, in all books, poems, treatises, refer. thing. With them we begin, and with them we
are both excellent good people, otherwise the very ences, discourses, casual mention, and all and every conclude ; for what so good to begin or to end with
virtues of one or other of them might be their demention whatsoever, the said Mother or Matriarch
as love? We loved as early as we can recollect; struction. (Ah! they will think of this in after. of the Bee-household, yclept the Hive, do cease and
we love now; and our death will be a loving one, times, and not look with severe countenances on the discontinue to be styled and intitled Queen, and be let it be coloured otherwise as it may.
victims of the less honourable.) At length they sit denominated, and reverenced solely under the deno- . When we speak of lovers on a Sunday evening, looking over some pictures together, or a book, mination of Mother or Matriarch as aforesaid; we mean, of course, lovers who cannot well visit on which they are as far from reading as if they did not upon pain of our singular displeasure as the Mother any other day in the week; and whose meetings, They turn over the leaves, however, with a [From the Steam-Press of C. & W. REYNALL, Little Pulteney-street.]
charming hypocrisy, and even carry their eyes along the lines; their cheeks touch-his hand meets : hers by favour of the table-cloth or the handkerchief; its pressure is returned; you might hear their hearts beat, if you could listen.
tion; on various political and social institutions on
Oh! welcomes war; welcome, sorrow;; welcome,, folly, mistake, perverseness, disease, death, disappointment, all the ills of life, and the astonishments of man's soul! Those moments, nay, the recollections of them, are worth the whole payment. Our children will love, as we have loved, and so cannot be wholly miserable. To love, even if not beloved, is to have the sweetest of faiths, and riches fineless, which nothing can take from us but our own unworthiness. And once to have loved truly, is to know how to love everything which unlovingness has not had a hand in altering-all beauties of nature and of mind, all truth of heart, all trees, flowers, skies, hopes, and good beliefs, all dear decays of person, fading towards a two-fold grave, all trusts in heaven, all faiths in the capabilities of loving man. Love is a perpetual proof that something good and earnest and eternal is meant us, such a bribe and foretaste of bliss being given us to keep us in the lists of time and progression: and when the world has realised what love urges it to obtain, perhaps death will cease; and all the souls which love has created, crowd back at its summons to inhabit their perfected' world.
Truly, we have finished our Sunday evening with a rapt and organ-like note. Let the reader fancy he has heard an organ indeed. Its voice is not unapt for the production of such thoughts, in those who can rightly listen to its consummate majesty and warbling modulations.
[Something yet remains to be said of Sunday in the Suburbs.'].
The scope of the work is well expressed in the title- The Philosophy of Health; or, an Exposition of the Physical and Mental Constitution of Man, with a view to the promotion of Human Longevity and Happiness;' and the connexion and order of its subjects is thus stated in the introduction:-" The object of the present work is to give a brief and plain account of the structure and functions of the body, chiefly with reference to health and diseases This is intended to be introductory to an account of the constitution of the mind, chiefly with reference to the development and direction of its powers: There is a natural connexion between these subjects, and an advantage in studying them in their natural order. Structure must be known before function... can be understood: hence the science of physiology is based on that of anatomy, The mind is dependent on the body: hence an acquainance with the physiology of the body should precede the study of To the Editor of the London Journal. the physiology of the mind. The constitution of the SIR,-I have just enjoyed the exquisite pleasure of mind must be understood, before its powers and affecreading the book I send to you. I am a woman, and having long and deeply felt the want of such knowledge as it imparts, and knowing how general the want is, I long to make public the out-pouring of my own mind on having at last found the means of satisfying it. I think. I perceive in you a kindred spirit to that which has animated the author, and. I therefore send what I have written to you. I wish that you should make whatever use you please of it, and even if you can make none at all, I think you will, perhaps, thank me for calling your attention to the work, if it should have escaped your notice.
PHILOSOPHY OF HEALTH.”^
signed a special attention to this new work by Dr
I am, Sir, with many thanks for the pleasure I so often receive in reading the LONDON JOURNAL,
In this state of things, in this condition of darkness on the one hand, and of opposite and conflicting opinicn on the other, the work before us seems to come like the "still small voice" that followed the whirlwind and the storm, when the prophet was seeking for God. It calls us back to Nature, and tells us about Humanity. It is truly an exposition. lt presents no theories; it advances no doctrines; it opens to us facts; it details phenomena, and invites us to come and see, and seeing, to use our understandings and form our conclusions. It is true philosophy. If completed as it is begun (for there is but one volume yet published), it must be an extensive work; but, when completed, the date of its publication will form an epoch in human existence. Sooner or later it must influence human minds, and its author must rank among the foremost of the benefactors of humanity.
tions can be properly developed and directed: hence
them; but I have been very careful to use no such term without assigning the exact meaning of it. A techinical term unexplained is a dark spot on the field of knowledge; explained, it is a clear and steady. light." This is the true way.to deal with technical terms.
It is extremely difficult to make extracts from a work like this. The volume contains a general view of life, as existing in the vegetable and in the animal; the distinctive characters of the vegetable or organic, and the animal or sentient life, and the combination of the two lives in the animal; the definition of structure and function; the progress of structure and its increasing complexity, as the scale ascends from the vegetable to the animal, and from the lowest animal up to man; with a beautifully philosophical view of the cause of this increasing complexity, which is given "not arbitrarily, but from absolute necessity," and because "the number, the superiority, the relation, the range, and the energy of the functions performed by the higher being, require it. An account of the progressive advancement of life and of death fol lows. These subjects occupy the two first chapters. The third is devoted to an exposition of the conclusions deducible from the facts which have been detailed; they are important, grand, and cheering. That the end of organization and of life is the promotion of happiness; that pleasure is the direct, the ordinary, and the gratuitous result of the action of all the organs, and that the higher the organized structure the greater is the enjoyment to which it is subservient; that pleasure flows from the exercise of every faculty, and the higher the faculty the greater. the pleasure. That pain, though occasionally the result, is always the accidental, never the ordinary result, and that it is self-destructive, while the tendency of pleasure is to its own increase and perpe.. tuity. The fourth chapter illustrates the bearing of these facts on the duration of human life, and shows both from physiology and from statistics that its term is capable of being, lengthened; that it has already been lengthened considerably; that longevity is a good, since it is only the best portion of human life which can be lengthened, namely, the period of maturity, all the others, infancy, childhood, adoles cence, decay, being fixed within narrow limits, while that of maturity varies greatly at present according to different circumstances, and there is no reason why, at any fixed period, it should end.
How much such a work is needed, they best know, whose knowledge of human nature is most profound; but to write it required a rare union of qualitiesthe anatomist, the physiologist, the physician, the intellectual and the moral philosopher combined. Of Dr Southwood Smith's qualification for the great task he has undertaken, a judgment may be formed from that part of it which he has accomplished. The volume before us is evidently the result of long and careful investigation. The arrangement of the mat. ter is such, that subject after subject is introduced gradually and naturally, though extremely condensed; the descriptive part is full and complete; the style is remarkable for clearness and simplicity; it seems as if no useless word had been permitted to remain; yet the beauty and variety of the ideas conveyed by it give it the character of the highest kind of eloquence. Considered as a popular work, it will be found perfectly intelligible to all' who study it, and from it the child might be instructed how it is made. "In the expository portion of the work," Dr Smith continues in the introduction, "I' have not been anxious to abstain from the employment of technical terms; when a decidedly useful purpose was to be obtained by the introduction off
The remaining three chapters give a general view of the structure of the intire body, and a particular description of one of its functions-the circulation. This part of the work is written with great care and precision, and by the aid of a large number of diagrams the subjects are made so clear, that no one who studies them with attention can fail to under stand them, nor, understanding, to be deeply im pressed by the detail of mechanism so exquisiite, of“ contrivances so wonderful, of means adapted to ends in a mode far surpassing human skill, of a mysterious power at work which human skill cannot approach— the principle of life generating power instead of merely collecting it, and carrying on operations of which the results only can be appreciated, the mode in which they are accomplished being beyond the power of human intelligence to perceive. From this part of the work it is impossible to make extracts; it is a treatise complete in itself, which requires to be read in connexion and with care. It is from the
PHILOSOPHY is the science of principles, and prin-
third chapter, in which the conclusions to be deduced from the general view of human existence are laid down, that they can best be taken, and, even from them, no adequate idea can be formed of the work. Portions read separately may seem like theory; read in connexion they come with the force of demonstra tion; but the attempt must be made.
We have been taught, step by step, that the vege table, or organic life, builds up, and exists for the purpose of building up, the animal life. "What then is the object of the animal life? That object, whatever itebe, must be the ultimate end of organization, and ofcall the actions of which it is the seat and the in struments. "Two functions, sensation and voluntary motion;
the impression communicated to the sentient nerves
ing which is ranked by everyone among the most
at the very confines of life; it is interwoven with the
actions that build up and that support the very frame-
are combined in the animal life. Of these two
"Is sensation, then, the ultimate object of organiza-
ject, because it is invariably attended with an ulti-
"Is the production of pain the ultimate object of organization? That cannot be, for the production of pain is the indirect, not the direct, the extraordinary, not the ordinary, result of the actions of life. It follows that pleasure must be the ultimate object, for there is no other of which it is possible to conceive. The end of organic existence is animal existence; the end of animal existence is sentient existence; the end of sentient existence is pleasurable existence; the end of life, therefore, is enjoyment. Life commences with the organic processes; to the organic are superadded the animal; the animal processes terminate in sensation; sensation ends in enjoyment: it follows that enjoyment is the final end. For this every organ is constructed; to this every action of every organ is subservient; in this every action ultimately terminates."-P. 73.
The proof is made out from every one of the faculties, beginning with the lowest, the first springs of organization and of life, and going on to the moral faculty, the crown and the glory of man. It is difficult to know where to choose; the exposition of each is so beautiful; but omitting the pleasures to be derived from the use of the senses, the pleasure of the eye in seeing, the ear in hearing, the pleasure arising from the use of the intellectual faculties, and the still higher pleasures arising from the use of the moral faculties, we shall extract, as being less obvious less likely to occur to minds in general, the passage illustrative of the mode in which pleasure is attached to the exercise of the organic organs; that which shows the heightening of the pleasures of sense by the addition of the intellectual faculties; and that which relates to the harmonious junction of the selfish and sympathetic parts of man's nature.
"But if the communication of sensibility to processes in their own nature incapable of exciting feeling, for the purpose of converting them into sources of pleasurable consciousness, indicate an express provision for the production of enjoyment, that provision is no less exemplified in the point at which this superadded sensibility is made to cease.
"Some of the consequences of a direct communica tion of consciousness to an organic process have been already adverted to. Had the eye, besides transmitting rays of light to the optic nerve, been rendered sensible of the incursive passage of each ray through its substance, the impressions excited by luminous bodies, which is indispensable to vision, the ultimate object of the instrument, if not wholly lost, must necessarily have become obscure, in direct proportion to the acuteness of this sensibility. The hand of the musician could scarcely have created its varied and rapid movements upon his instrument, had his mind been occupied at one and the same instant with the process of muscular contraction in the finger, and the idea of music in the brain. Had the communication of such a two-fold consciousness been possible, in no respect would it have been beneficial, in many it would have been highly pernicious; and the least of evils resulting from it would have been, that the inferior would have interrupted the superior faculty, and the means deteriorated the end. But in some cases the evil would have been of a much more serious nature. Had we been rendered sensible of the flow of the vital current through the engine that propels it; were the distensions of the delicate valves that direct the current ever present to our view; by some inward feeling were we reminded, minute by minute, of the progress of the aliment through the digestive apparatus; and were the mysterious operations of the organic nerves palpable to sight, the terror of the maniac, who conceived that his body was composed of unannealed
A little explanation is necessary before extracting
ness of the organic process. Of that we still remain
What is the consciousness excited? Not a conscious-glass, would be the ordinary feeling of life. Every
[This notice to be concluded next week.]
MARCH 11, 1544. At Sorrento, in the Bay of Naples,
salem Delivered.' A grave, majestic, and true, pock,→→
clear, solemn voice, and a deliberate utterance.
12, 1684. In the neighbourhood of Kilkenny, in Ireland, son of an English gentleman, who was collector of Belfast, George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, an illustrious metaphysician and philanthropist, who put the world upon canvassing that extraordinary Platonical puzzle of the nonexistence of matter; substance, he said, being nothing but an idea existing in the mind, and upheld there by the constant exercise of the will of God a very pious and sublime proposition, and unsusceptible of disproof by the human faculties though, on the other hand, the amount of those faculties appears to render all final conclusions on such subjects impossible. One of his most ingenious and perplexing arguments, next to that of reducing every sensation to a perception of the intellect, without which certainly its existence would be the same as non-existence, was, that Nature never took two means of doing anything when she could do it by one; and that, therefore, it would have been superfluous in her to create both the perception and the thing perceived. The perception, the said, was the thing perceived. And if you asked him how things always remained in the places in which you left them, or were missed and found elsewhere by others, &c. &c., the tranchant reply was ready, that the Divine Being so willed it; an argument which has more in it than appears at first sight; because, reason about the question as we may, the first cause, or mystery, remains as mysterious as ever; and God might evidently will it to be what Berkeley says, as well as something more accordant with ordinary opinion. On the other hand, it would seem, that God, at present, wills the ordinary opinion to be what it is: and with the most unaffected reverence for Berkeley (who was one of his divinest earthly creations, and hada right to "dwell apart" in his notions), we are of that class of thinkers (if we may lay claim to the appellation at all) who take the common sense of these matters for proofs of them; and believe in the distinction between matter and spirit, as God has itnpressed it in the common mind.Berkeley was one of the most amiable and disinterested of men, giving up time, money, and favour for the good of his fellowcreatures, and taking an early part in that diffusion of knowledge, which the junction of Christianity with modern philosophy has at length made a characteristic of civilization. Those of his eminent friends, the wits and philosophers of the day (for the was beloved by all parties) who ventured to banter his metaphysics, reverenced him all the while, and almost adored him. Pope said he had "every virtue under heaven;" and Atterbury declared, that till he had seen Berkeley, he did not think so much understanding, so much knowledge, so much endurance, and so much humility, had been the portion of any but angels." When he began life, he wrote in the “Guardian,' and is said to have had "a guinea and a dinner" from Steele for every paper he contributed; a vulgar mistake, surely, meaning that whenever his young friend tbrought his paper, he was asked to stay dinner as a matter of course, or of reciprocal pleasure; for Stee'e