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“ Yt is a greate disorder in the churche, that survived to the present day, owing to a supposed lains next, and the boy-bishop with his priests in the porters, butchers, and water-bearers, and who not, be tomb of Humphrey, the good Duke of Gloucester, last and highest place. He then took his seat, and suffered (in special tyme of service) to carrye and which was popular with the poorer frequenters of the rest of the children disposed themselves on each recarrye whatsoever, no man withstandinge them or the place. They had a custom of strewing herbs side of the choir, upon the uppermost ascent, the gainsaying them." &c.

before it, and sprinkling it with water. The tomb, canons resident bearing the incense and the book, “The notices of encroachments on St. Paul's, in according to Stow, was not Humphrey's, but that of and the petit-canons the tapers, according to the the same reign, are equally curious. The chantry Sir John Beauchamp, one of the house of Warwick. rubrick. Afterwards he proceeded to the altar of the and other chapels were completely diverted from their Men who strolled about for want of a dinner were Holy Trinity, and All Saints, which he first censed, ancient purposes; some were used as receptacles for familiar enough with this tomb; and were therefore and next the image of the Holy Trinity, his priests stores and lumber, another was a school, another a said to dine with Duke Humphrey.

all the while singing. Then they all chaunted a serglazier's shop; and the windows of all were, in gene- While some of the extraordinary operations above- vice with prayers and responses, and, in the like ral, broken. Part of the vaults beneath the church mentioned were going on, (the intriguing, picking of manner taking his seat, the boy-bishop repeated sawas occupied by a carpenter, the remainder was held pockets, &c.) the sermon was very likely proceeding. lutions, prayers, and versicles; and in conclusion by the bishop, the dean and chapter, and the minor it is but fair, however, to conclude that, in the Ca- gave his benediction to the people, the chorus answer. canons. One vault, thought to have been used for a tholic times, during the elevation of the host, there ing Deo Gratias.” * burial-place, was converted into a wine-cellar, and a was a show of respect. We have heard a gentleman The origin of customs is often as obscure as that way had been cut into it through the wall of the say, who visited Spain in his childhood, that he re- of words, and may be traced with probability to many building itself. (This practice of converting church membered being at the theatre during a fandango, sources. Perhaps the boy-bishop had a reference, vaults into wine cellars, it may be remarked, is not when a loud voice cried out Dios" (God;) and all not only to St. Nicholas, but to Christ preaching yet worn out. Some of the vaults of Winchester the people in the house, including the dancers, fell when a boy among the doctors, and to the divine Cathedral are now, or were lately, used for that pur- on their knees. A profound silence ensued. After wisdom of his recommendations of a childlike simpose). The shrowds and cloisters under the convo- a pause of a few seconds, the people rose, and the plicity. The school afterwards founded by Dean cation house, 'where not long since the sermons in fandango went on as before. The little boy could Colet was in honour of "the child Jesus." There foul weather were wont to be preached,' were made not think what had happened, but was told that the was a school attached to the cathedral, of which Colet's • a common lay-stall for boardes, trunks, and chests, host had gone by. The Deity (for so it was thought) was, perhaps, a revival, as far as scholarship was conbeing lett oute unto trunk-makers, where, by meanes had been sent for to the house of a sick man; and it cerned. The boys in the older school were not only of their daily knocking and noyse, the church is was to honour him in passing, that the theatre had taught singing, but acting, and for a long period were greatly disturbed.' More than twenty houses also gone down on their knees. Catholics reform as the most popular performers of stage-plays. In the had been built against the outer walls of the cathe- well as other people, with the growth of knowledge, timeof Richarci the Second, these Boy.Actors petitioned dral; and part of the very foundations was cut away especially when restrictions no longer make their the king to prohibit certain ignorant and "inexpert to make offices. One of those houses had literally a prejudices appear a matter of duty. We know not people from presenting the History of the Old Testa closet dug in the wall; from another was a way how it is in Spain at this moment, with regard to ment." They began with sacred plays, but afterthrough a window into a ware-room in the steeple; the devout interval of the fandango; but we know wards acted profane ; so that St. Paul's singing-school a third, partly formed by St. Paul's, was lately used what would be thought of it by thousands of the off- was numbered among the play-houses. This custom, as a play-house ; and the owner of the fourth baked spring of those who witnessed it on this occasion; as well as that of the boy-bishop, appears to have his bread and pies in an oren excavated within a but- and certainly in no Catholic church now-a-days can been common wherever there were choir-boys; and tress." See Mal. Lon. Red, vol. iii. p. 71-73. be seen the abominations of old St. Paul's.

doubtless originated, partly in the theatrical nature The middle of St. Paul's was also the Bond-Street

The passenger who now goes by the cathedral and of the catholic ceremonies at which they assisted, of that period, and remained so till the time of the associates the idea of the inside with that of respect- and partly in the delight which the more scholarly of commonwealth. The loungers were called Paul's ful silence, and the simplicity of Protestant worship, their masters took in teaching the plays of Terence Walkers. "The young gallants from the Inns of little thinks what a noise has been in that spot, and and Seneca. The annual performance of a play of Court, the western and the northern parts of the what gorgeous processions have issued out of it. Terence, still kept up at Westminster school, is supmetropolis, and those that had spirit enough,” says Old St. Paul's was famous for the splendour of its posed by Warton to be a remnant of it. The choristers our author, “to detach themselves from the counting- shrine, and for its priestly wealth. The list of its of Westminster Abbey, and of the chapel of Queen houses in the east, used to meet at the central point, copes, vestments, jewels, gold, and silver cups, candle- Elizabeth, (who took great pleasure in their performSt. Paul's; and from this circumstance obtained sticks, &c. occupies thirteen folio pages of the Mo- ances,) were celebrated as actors, though not so the appellations of Paul's Walkers, as we now say nazsticon. The side aisles were filled with chapels to much so as those of St. Paul's. A set of them were Bond-street Loungers.

However strange it may different saints and the Virgin; that is to say, with incorporated under the title of Children of the Revels, seem, tradition says, that the great Lord Bacon used

nooks partitioned off one from another, and enriched among whom are to be found names that have since in his youth to cry, Eastward ho! and was literally with separate altars; and it is calculated that, taking become celebrated as the fellow-actors of Shakspeare, a Paul's Walker.” Moser, in the European Magazine, the whole establishment, there could hardly be fewer -Field, Underwood, and others. It was the same July, 1807.

than two hundred priests. On certain holidays, this with Hart, Mohun, and others, who were players in Lord Bacon had a taste for display, which was sacred multitude, in their richest copes, together with the time of Cibber. It appears that children with good afterwards exhibited in a magnificent manner, worthy the lord mayor, aldermen, and city companies, and voices were sometimes kidnapped for a supply.+ of the grandeur of his philosophy; but this, when he all the other parish priests of London, who carried a Tusser, who wrote the Five Hundred Points of Good was young, might probably enough have been vented

rich silver cross for every church, issued forth from Husbandry, is thought to have been thus pressed into in the shape of an exuberance, which did not yet know the cathedral door in procession, lifting up a hymn, the service; and a relic of the custom is supposed to what to do with itself. Who would think that the

and so went through Cheapside and Cornhill to have existed in that of pressing drummers for the late Mr. Fox ever wore red-heeled shoes, and was a Leadenhall, and back again. The last of these spec- army, which survived so late as the accession of "buck about town ?"

tacles was for the peace of Guisnes, in 1546 ; shortly Charles the First. The exercise of the right of might But to conclude with these curious passages:-“The after which Henry the Eighth swept into his treasury over children, and by people who wanted singers, Walkers in Paul's,” continues our author “during the whole glories of Catholic worship, copes, crosses, an effeminate press-gang,-would seem an intolerable this and the following reigns, were composed of a jewels, church-plate, &c.--himself being the most nuisance; but the children were probably glad enough motley assemblage of the gay, the vain, the dissolute, bloated enormity that had ever mis-used them. to be complimented by the violence, and to go to sing the idle, the knavish, and the lewd; and various Among other retainers to the establishment, and play before a court. notices of this fashionable resort may be found in the Henry suppressed a singular little personage, entitled Ben Jonson has some pretty verses on one of these old plays and other writings of the time. Ben Jon

the Boy-Bishop. The Boy-bishop (Episcopus Puerorum) nile actors: son, in his Every Man out of his Humour, has given a was a chorister, annually elected by his fellows to series of scenes in the interior of St. Paul's, and an imitate the state and attire of a bishop, which he as

Weep with me, all you that read assemblage of a great variety of characters ; in the sumed on St. Nicholas's day, the sixth of December,

This little story; course of which the curious piece of information oc- and retained till that of the Innocents, December the

And know, for whom a tear you shed curs, that it was common to affix bills, in the form of twenty-eighth. “This was done,” says Brayley, “in

Death's self is sorry, advertisements, upon the columns in the aisles of commemoration of St. Nicholas, who, according to

'Twas a child that so did thrive the church, in a similar manner to what is now done the Romish church, was so piously fashioned, that

In grace and feature, in the Royal Exchange: those bills he ridicules in even when a babe in his cradle, he would fast both

As heaven and nature seemed to strive two affected specimens, the satire of which is ad- on Wednesdays and Fridays, and at those times was

Which owned the creature. mirable. Shakspeare also makes Falstaff say, in 'well pleased to suck but once a day. However rispeaking of Bardolph, “I bought him in Paul's, and diculous it may now seem, the boy-bishop is stated

Years he numbered, scarce thirteen, he'll buy me a horse in Smithfield : if I could get me to have possessed episcopal authority during the above

When fates turned cruel; but a wife in the stews, I were mann'd, hors'd, and term; and the other children were his prebendaries.

Yet three filled zodiacs had he been wiv'd." He was not permitted to celebrate mass, but he had

The stage's jewel; To complete these urbanities, the church was the full liberty to preach ; and however puerile his dis

And did act (what now we moan) resort of pickpockets. Bishop Corbet, a poetical wit courses might have been, we find they were regarded

Old men so duly, of the time of Charles the First, sums up its character, with so much attention, that the learned Dean Colet,

As, soothe, the Parcæ thought him one, as the " walke

in his statutes for St. Paul's school, expressly ordains “ Where all our Brittaine sinners sweare and talk." * that the scholars shall, on ‘every Childermas daye,

He played so truly. come to Paule's Churche, and hear the Chylde Till, by error of his fate, Only one reformation had taken place in it since the Bishop's sermon, and after be at the hygh masse, and

They all consented; complaint made by Edward the Third: no woman, at cach of them offer a penny to the chylde bishop; and But viewing him since (alas, too late) the time of Earle's writing, was to be found there ; at with them the maisters and surveyors of the scole.'

They have repented; least not in the crowd. “The visitants," he says, Probably," continues Mr. Brayley, “these orations

And have sought (to give new birth) "are all men, without exceptions.”+ A common- though affectedly childish, were composed by the wealth writer insinuates otherwise : but the visita

In baths to steep him! more aged members of the church. If the boytion was not public. The practice of “walking and bishop died within the time of his prelacy, he was

But being so much too good for earth, talking" in St. Paul's appears to have revived under interred in pontificalibus, with the same ceremonies

Heaven vows to keep him. James the Second, probably in connexion with Ca. as the real diocesan; and the tomb of a child bishop This child, we see, was celebrated for acting old tholic wishes; for there was an act of the first of

in Salisbury cathedral, may be referred to as an in- It is well known, that up to the Restoration, William and Mary, by which transgressors forfeited stance of such interment."*

and sometimes afterwards, boys performed the parts twenty pounds for every offence; and what is re- “From a printed church-book," says Mr. Hone, of women. Kynaston, when a boy, used to be taken markable, the bishop threatened to enforce this act "containing the service of the boy-bishop set to out by the ladies an airing, in his female dress, after so late as the year 1725, “the custom,” says Mr. music, we learn that, on the eve of Innocent's-day, the play. This custom of males appearing as females, Malcolm, "had become so very prevalent.” I

the boy-bishop, and his youthful clergy, in their A proverb of “ dining with Duke Humphrey," has copes, and with burning tapers in their hands, went

Ancient Mysteries Described, &c. 1823, p. 195. in solemn procession, chanting and singing versicles, as

+ Purvey'd is the word of Mr. Chalmers; who says, how. • Poems. Gilchrist's edition, 1807, p. 5. they walked into the choir by the west door, in such

ever, that he knows not on what principle the right of " + Microcosmographie, quoted in Pennant. order that thedean and canons went foremost, the chap

veying such children" was justitied, "except by the maxim Anecdotes of the Manners and Customs of London during

that the king had a right to the services of all his subjects." the Eighteenth Century, vol. i. p. 281.

• London and Middlesex, vol. il. p. 229.

See Johnson and Steevens's Shakspeare, Prolegomena, vol. ii. p.516,

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gave rise, in Shakspeare's time, to the frequent in- we have met with on a lady of the name of Green- will drag him by the hair of the head out of the troduction of female characters disguised ; thus pre- wood, of whom her husband says,

court!"* senting a singular anomaly, and a specimen of the

Old St. Paul's was much larger than new; and “ Her graces and her qualities were such gratuitous imagination of the spectators in those

That she might have married a bishop or a judge;

the churchyard was of proportionate dimensions. days; who, besides being contented with taking the

But so extreme was her condescension and humility, present Streets of Ave Mary Lane, Paternoster Row,

The wall by which it was bounded ran along by the bare stage for a wood, a rock, or a garden, as it happened, were to suppose a boy on the stage to pretenul

That she married me, a poor doctor of divinity;

Old Change, Carter Lane, and Creed Lane; and

By which heroic deed, she stands confest, to be himself.

therefore included a large space and many buildings, One of the strangest of the old ceremonies in which

Of all other women, the phenix of her sex.”

which are not now considered to be within the prethe clergy of the cathedral used to figure, was that Sir Christopher is said to have died of a broken cincts of the cathedral. This spacious area had grass which was performed twice a year, namely, on the heart, because his once loving mistress exacted a inside, and contained a variety of appendages to the day of the Commemoration and on that of the Con- debt of him, which he found it difficult to pay. It establishment. One of these was the cross, which version of St. Paul. On the former of these festivals, was common to talk of courtiers dying of broken we have alluded to at the beginning of this chapter, a fat doe, and on the latter, a fat buck, was presented hearts at that time ; which gives one an equal notion and of which Stow did not know the antiquity. It to the Church by the family of Baud, in considera- of the queen's power, and the servility of those gen- was called Paul's Cross, and stood on the north tion of some land which they held of the Dean and tlemen. Fletcher, bishop of London, father of the side of the church, a little to the east of the entrance Chapter at West Lee in Essex.

The original agree- great poet, was another who had a tomb in the old to Canon Alley. It was around Paul's Cross, or ment made with Sir William Le Baud in 1274, was, church, and is said to have undergone the same fate. rather in the space to the east of it, that the citizens that he himself should attend in person with the It was he that did a thing very unlike a poet's father. were wont anciently to assemble in Folkmote, or animals; but some years afterwards it was arranged He attended the execution of Mary Queen of Scots, general convention—not only to elect their magisthat the presentation should be made by a servant, and said aloud, when her head was held up by the trates and to deliberate on public affairs, but also, as accompanied by a deputation of part of the family. executioner, “So perish all Queen Elizabeth's ene- it would appear, to try offenders and award punish'The priests, however, continued to perform their part mies !” He was then Dean of Peterborough. The ments. We read of meetings of the Folkmote in the in the show themselves. When the deer was brought queen made him a bishop, but suspended him for thirteenth century; but the custom was discontinued, to the foot of the steps leading to the choir, the marrying a second wife, which so preyed upon his as the increasing number of the inhabitants, and the reverend brethren appeared in a body to receive it, feelings, that it is thought, by the help of an immo. mixture of strangers, were found to lead to confusion dressed in their full pontifical robes, and having derate love of smoking, to have hastened his enda and tumult. In after times the cross appears to their heads decorated with garlands of flowers. From

catastrophe worthy of a mean courtier.

He was

to have been used chiefly for proclamations, and thence they accompanied it as the servant led it for- well, sick, and dead, says Fuller, in a quarter of an other public proceedings, civil as well as ecclesiasward to the high altar, where having been solemnly hour. Most probably he died of apoplexy, the to- tical, such as the swearing of the citizens to allegiance, offered and slain, it was divided among the residen- bacco giving him the coup de grace.* Dr. Donne, the emission of papal bulls, the exposing of penitents, tiaries. The horns were then fastened to the top of the head of the metaphysical poets, so well criti- &c., “and for the defaming of those,” says Pennant, a spear, and carried in procession by the whole com- cised by Johnson, was Dean of St. Paul's, and had a “who had incurred the displeasure of crowned pany around the inside of the church, a noisy concert grave here, of which he has left an extraordinary me- heads.” A pulpit was attached to it, it is not known of horns regulating their march. This ridiculous morial. It is a wooden image of himself, made to when, in which sermons were preached, called Paul's exhibition, which looks like a parody on the pagan his order, and representing him as he was to appear Cross Sermons, a name by which they continued to ceremonies of their predecessors the priests of Diana, in his shroud. This, for some time before he died, be known when they ceased in the open air. Many was continued by the cathedral clergy down to the he kept hy his bed-side in an open coffin, thus en- benefactors contributed to support these sermons. time of Elizabeth.

deavouring to reconcile an uneasy imagination to the In Stow's time the pulpit was an hexagonal piece of The modern passenger through St. Paul's Church- fate he could not avoid. It is still preserved in the wood, “covered with lead, elevated upon a flight of yard has not only the last home of Nelson and others vaults under the church, and is to be seen with the stone steps, and surmounted by a large cross." to venerate, as he goes by. In the ground of the old other curiosities of the cathedral. We will not do a During rainy weather the poorer part of the audience church were buried, and here, therefore, remains

great man such a disservice as to dig him up for a retreated to a covered place called the shrowds, which whatever dust may survive them, the gallant Sir spectacle. A man should be judged of at the time are supposed to have abutted on the church wall. Philip Sidney (the beau ideal of the age of Elizabeth), when he is most himself, and not when he is about The rest, including the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, and Vandyke, who immortalised the youth and beauty to consign his weak body to its elements.

most probably had shelter at all times; and the King of the court of Charles the First. One of Elizabeth's

Of the events that have taken place connected with and his train (for they attended also), had covered great statesmen also lay there,-Walsingham,—who St. Paul's, one of the most curious was a scene that galleries. f Popular preachers were invited to hold died so pror, that he was buried by stealth, to pre- passed in the old cathedral between John of Gaunt forth in this pulpit, but the Bishop was the inviter. vent his body from being arrested. Another, Sir and the Anti-Wickliffites. It made him very unpo- In the reign of James the First, the Lord Mayor and Christopher Hatton, who is supposed to have danced

pular at the time. Probably, if he had died just Allermen ordered, that every one who should preach himself into the office of her Majesty's Chancellor,t after it, his coffin would have been torn to pieces; there, considering the jourries some of them might had a tomb which his contemporaries thought too but subsequently he had a magnificent tomb in the take from the Universities, or elsewhere, should, at magnificent, and which was accused of “shouldering" church, on which hung his crest and cap of state, his pleasure, be freely entertained for five days' the altar. There was an absurd epitaph upon it, by together with his lance and target. Perhaps the space, with sweet and convenient lodging, fire, canwhich he would seem to have been a dandy to the merits of the friend of Wickliff and Chaucer are now dle, and all other necessaries, viz., from Thursday

as much overvalued. The scene is taken as follows, before their day of preaching, to Thursday morning

by Mr. Brayley, out of Fox's Acts and Monu- following.” “This good custom,” says Maitland, Stay and behold the mirror of a dead man's liouse, ments :

continued for some time. And the Bishop of Whose lively person would have made the stay and

“ One of the most remarkable occurrences 'that London, or his chaplain, when he sent to any one to wonder.

ever took place within the old cathedral was the at- preach, did actually signify the place where he might When Nature moulded him, her thoughts were most

tempt made in 1376 by the Archbishop of Canter- repair at his coming up, and be entertained freely."

bury and the Bishop of London, under the commands In earlier times a kind of inn seems to have been on Mars ;

of Pope Gregory the Eleventh, to compel Wickliff, kept for the entertainment of the preachers at Paul's And all the heavens to make him goodly were agree

the father of the English Reformation, to subscribe Cross, which went by the name of the Shunamites' ing;

to the condemnation of some of his own tenets, House. Thence he was valiant, active, strong, and passing which had been recently promulgated in the eight “Before this cross,” says Pennant, in 1483, comely;

articles that have been termed the Lollards' Creed. was brought, divested of all splendour, Jane Shore, And God did grace his mind and spirit with gifts The Pope had ordered the above prelates to appre- the charitable, the merry concubine of Edward the excelling.

hend and examine Wickliff; but they thought it most Fourth, and, after his death, of his favourite, the Nature commends her workmanship to Fortune's

expedient to summon him to St. Paul's, as he was unfortunate Lord Hastings. After the loss of her charge, openly protected by the famous John of Gaunt, Duke

protectors, she fell a victim to the malice of crook. Fortune presents him to the court and queen,

of Lancaster; and that nobleman accompanied him backed Richard. He was disappointed (by her excelQueen Eliz. (O God's dear handmayd) his most

to the examination, together with the Lord Percy, lent defence) of convicting her of witchcraft, and miracle.

Marshall of England. The proceedings were soon in- confederating with her lover to destroy him. He Now hearken, renler, raritic not heard or seen;

terrupted hy a dispute as to whether Wickliff shouid then attacked her on the weak side of frailty. This This blessed Queen, mirror of all that Albion ruld,

sit or stand; and the following curious dialogue arose was undeniable. He consigned her to the severity of Gave favour to his faith, and precepts to his hopeful on the Lord Percy desiring him to be seated :

the church : she was carried to the Bishop's palace, time; First trained him in the stately band of pensioners

Bishop of London. “If I could have guessed, Lord clothed in a white sheet, with a taper in her hand, Percy, that you would have played the master here, I and from thence conducted to the cathedral, and the

would have prevented your coming.” And for her safety made him Captain of the Guard."

cross, before which she made a confession of her only

Duke of Lancaster. Yes, he shall play the master fault. Every other virtue bloomed in this ill-fated Now doth she prune this vine, and from her sacred here, for all you.”

fair with the fullest vigour. She could not resist breast Lessons his life, makes wise his heart for her great

Lord Percy. “Wickliff, sit down! You have need the solicitations of a youthful monarch, the handof a seat, for you have many things to say.”

somest man of his time. On his death she was recouncells,

Bishop of London. ' It is unreasonable that a
And so, Vice-Chamberlain, where foreign princes eyes

duced to necessity, scorned by the world, and cast off clergyman, cited before his ordinary, should sit during by her husband, with whom she was paired in her Might well admire her choyce, wherein she mostexcels.

his answer.
He shall stand!”

childish years, and forced to fling herself into the He then aspires, says the writer, to the highest Duke of Lancaster. “My Lord Percy, you are in arms of Hastings.” “In her penance she went,” subject's seat,” and becomes

the right! And for you, my Lord Bishop, you are says Holinshed, “in countenance and pase demure, grown so proud and arrogant, I will take care to

so wamanlie, that albeit she were out of all araie, Lord Chancelour (measure and conscience of a holy

humble your pride; and not only yours, my lord, king :)

but that of all the prelates in England. Thou de. * London and Viddlesex, vol. ii. p. 231. Robe, Coller, Garter, dead figures of great honour,

pendest upon the credit of thy relations; but so far † The active habits of our ancestors enabled them to bear Alms-deeds with faith, honest in word, frank in

these out-of-doors sermons better than their posterity could; dispence, from being able to help thee, they shall have enough

yet, as times grew less hardy, they began to have consequences, to do to support themselves.” The poor's friend, not popular, the church's pillar.

which Bishop Latimer attributes to another cause.

Bishop of Lonelon. “I place no confidence in my citizens of Raim," said he, in a sermon preached in Lincolnshire This tombe sheweth one, the heaven's shrine the

relations, but in God alone, who will give me the in the year 1552, “had their burying-place without the city, other.ti

which, no doubt, is a laudable thing; and I do marvel, that boldness to speak the truth.”

London, being so great a city, hath not a burial place without, The first line in italics, and the poetry throughout, Duke of Lancaster (speaking softly to Lord Percy). for no doubt it is an unwholesome thing to bury within the are ,only to be equalled by a passage in an epitaph

“Rather than take this at the Bishop's hands, I city, especially at such a time, when there be great sickness,

and many die together. I think verily that many a man taketh

his death in Paul's churchıyard, and this I speak of experience; " His bushy beard, and shoe-strings green, * The Bishop's aecond wife was a Lady Baker, who is said,

for I myself, when I have been there on some inoruings to hear His high-crown'd hat, and satin doublet, by Mr. Brayley, to have been young as well as beautiful, and

the sermons, have felt such an 'll savoured unwholesome Moy'd the stout heart of England's queen,

probably did not add to the prelate's repose.

In the mention

savour, that I was the worse for it a great while after : and I of her in Mr. Brayley's table of contents, is a ludicrous misThoughi Pope and Spaniard could not trouble it."

think no less, but it is the occasion of great sickness and take of the index-maker. Taking a hasty glance at the text,

disease."--Brayley, vol. ii.p. 313.
GRAY.

and overlooking a parenthesis. he has recorded her thus :-
+ Maitland's History of London, vol. ii. p. 1170.
Baker, Lady, her immoderate love of tobacco,"

Maitland, vol. ii. p. 949.

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save her kertie onne, yet went she so taire and lovelie, home to dinner with all the other prelates."* About corporal suffering, the king ordered them to pay namelie, while the wondering of the people cast a ten years afterwards the preachers at Paul's Cross 1,5001. to the children of the deceased, in restitution comlie rud in her cheeks, (of which she before had received an order from the king to “teach and de

of what he himself styles the cruel murder.'"'* most misse,) that hir great shame wan hir much clare to the people, that neither the Pope, nor any of The clerzy, with almost incredible audacity, afterpraise among those that were more amorous of hir his predecessors, were anything more than the simple wards commenced a process against the dead body of bodie, than curious of hir soule. And manie good Bishops of Rome.” On the accession of Mary, the Hunne for Heresy; and, having obtained its condemfolkes that hated her living, (and glad were to see discourses were ordered to veer directly round, which nation on that score, they actually burned it in Smithsin corrected,) yet pitied they more hir penance, produced two attempts to assassinate the preachers in field. The Lollard's Tower continued to be used as than rejoiced therein, when they considered that the sermon-time; and the moment Elizabeth came to the a prison for heretics for some time after the Refor. Protector procured it more of a corrupt intent than throne, the divines began recommending the very mation. Stuwe tells us that he recollected of one any virtuous affection.” opposite tenets, and the Pope was finally rejected. Peter Burchet, a gentleman of the Middle Temple

, “Rowe,” continues Pennant, “has flung this part At this Cross Elizabeth afterwards attended to hear a being committed to this prison, on suspicion of holdof her sad story into the following poetical dress; thanksgiving sermon for the defeat of the Invincible ing certain erroneous opinions, in 1573. This

, bowbut it is far from possessing the moving simplicity Armada; on which occasion a coach was first seen in ever, is, we believe, the last case of the kind that is of the old historian.”'*

England,—the one she came in. The last sermon recorded.

attended there by the sovereign, was during the reign It remains to say a word of St. Paul's School, Submissive, sad, and lowly was her look; of her successor'; but discourses continued to be de- founded, as we have already mentioned, by Deals A burning taper in her hand she bore ;

livered up to the time of the Civil Wars, when, Colet; and destined to become the most illustrious And on her shoulders, carelessly confused, after being turned to account by the Puritans for of all the buildings on the spot, in giving education to With loose neglect, her lovely tresses hung; about a year, the pulpit was demolished by order of Milton. We have dwelt more upon the localities of Upon her cheek a faintish flush was spread; : Parliament. The "willing instrument” of the over- St. Paul's Churchyard than it is our intention to do on Feeble she seemed, and sorely smit with pain; throw was Pennington, the Lord Mayor. The inha- others. The dignity of the birth-place of the metroWhile, barefoot as she trodd the flinty pavement, bitants who look out of their windows now-a-days on polis beguiled us; and the events recorded to have Her footsteps all along were marked with blood; the northern side of St. Paul's, may thus have a suc- taken place in it are of real interest.- Milton was Yet silent still she passed, and unrepining; cession of pictures before their mind's eye, as curious not the only person of celebrity educated at this Her streaming eyes bent over on the earth ; and inconsistent as those of a dream,-princes, school. Bentley, his critic, was probably induced Except when, in some bitter pang of sorrow, queens, lord-mayors, and aldermen,

by the like circumstance to turn his unfortunate atTo heaven she scemed in fervent zeal to raise,

tention to the poet's epic in after life, and make And beg that mercy man denied her here.

A mob of coblers, and a court of kings,

those gratuitous massacres of the text, which gave a Jane's penance, Richard's chagrin, Wolsey's exalta- profound scholar the air of the most presumptuous “The poet bas adopted the fable of her being tion; clergymen preaching for and against the Pope ; of coxcombs. Here also Camden received part of denied all sustenance, and of her perishing with a coach coming as a wonder, where coaches now

his education; and here were brought up, Leland, hunger, but that was not fact. She lived to a great throng at every one's service; and finally a puritan

his brother antiquary; the Gales (Charles, Roger, and age, but in great distress and miserable poverty; ical Lord Mayor, who “blasphemed custard,” laying deserted even by those to whom she had, during the axe to the tree, and cutting down the pulpit and Samuel), all celebrated antiquaries; Sir Anthony prosperity, done the most essential services. She all its works.

Denny, the only man who had the courage and hodragged a wretched life even to the time of Sir The next appendage to the old church, in point of nesty to tell Henry the Eighth, that he was dying; Thomas More, who introduces her story into his Life importance, was the Bishop's or London House, the of Edward the Fisth. The beauty of her person is

Halley, the astronomer; Bishop Cumberland, the name of which survives in that of London House spoken of in high terms: “Proper she was, and Yard. This, with other buildings, perished in the great grandfather of the dramatist; Pepys, who has faire: nothing in her bodie that you would have Great Fire; and on the site of it were built the houses lately obtained so curious a celebrity, as an annalist changed: but you would have wished her somewhat now standing between the yard just mentioned and the

of the court of Charles the Second: and last, not higher. Thus sai they that knew hir in hir youth.

present Chapter House. The latter was built by Now is she old, leane, withered, and dried up: Wren. The old one stood on the other side of the

least, one in whom a learried' education would be as nothing left but rivelled skin and hard bone; and cathedral, where the modern deanery is to be found, little looked for as in Pepys, if we are to trust the yet, being even such, who so well advise her visage,

only more eastward. The bishop's house was often stories of the times; to wit, John Duke of Marlbomight gesse and devise, which parts how filled, would used for the reception of princes. Edward the Third

rough Barnes was laughed at for dedicating his. make it a faire face.”+

and his Queen were entertained there after a great To these pictures, which are all drawn with tournament in Smithfield; and there poor little

Anacreon to the Duke, as one to whom Greek was spirit, may be added a portrait in the notes to Dray- Edward the Fifth was lodged, previously to his ap

unheard of; and it has been related as a slur on the ton's Heroicul Epistles, referring to the one by Sir pointed coronation. To the east of the bishop's great general (though assuredly it is not so), that Thomas More. Her stature,” says the comment, house, stretching towards Cheayside, was a chapel, having alluded on some occasion to a passage in his"was mean, her hair of a dark yellow, her face round erected by the father of Thomas Becket, called and full, her eye gray, delicate harmony being be- Pardon-Church-Haugh, which was surrounded by a

tory, and being asked where he found it, he confessed twixt each part's proportion, and each proportion's cloister, presenting a painting of the Dance of Death that his authorlty was the only historian he was accolour; her body, fat, white, and smooth; her on the walls, a subject rendered famous by Holbein.t quainted with ;, namely, William Shakspeare. countenance cheerful, and like to her condition. Another chapel called the Charnel, a proper neigh

Less is known of Milton during the time he passed That picture which I have seen of hers, was such as bour to this fresco, stood at the back of the two stie rose out of her bed in the morning, having buildings just mentioned. It received its name from

at St. Paul's School, than of any other period of his nothing on but a rich mantle, cast under her arm, the quantity of human bones collected from St. life. It is ascertained, however, that he cultivated over her shoulder, and sitting in a chair on which Paul's Churchyard, and deposited in a vault beneath.

the writing of Greek verses, and was a great favourher naked arm did lie.

What her father's name was, The Charnel was taken down by the Protector or where she was born, is not certainly known : but Somerset about 1519, and the stones used to help in

ite with the usher, afterwards master, Alexander Shore, a young man of right goodly person, wealth, the building of the new palace of Somerset House. Gill, himself a Latin poet of celebrity. At the back and behaviour, abandoned her bed, after the king had On this occasion it is stated than more than a thou- of the old church was an enormous rose-window, made her his concubine.”I

sand cart-loads of bones were removed to Finsbury which we may imagine the young poet to have conRichard, in the extreme consciousness of his being Fields, where they formed a large mount, on which in the wrong, made a sad bungling business of his three windmills were erected. From these Windmill templated with delight, in his fondness for ornaments first attempts on the throne. The penance of Jane Street in that neighbourhood derives its name. The of that cast; and the whole building was calculated Shore was followed by Dr. Shaw's sermon at the same ground on which the chapel stood was afterwards to impress a mind, more disposed, at that time of life, cross, in which the servile preacher attempted to built over with dwellings and warehouses, having. bastardize the children of Edward, and to recommend sheds before them for the use of Static

to admire as a poet, than to quarrel as a critic or a

ers. Immethe “legitimate” Richard as the express image of his diately to the north of St. Paul's School, and towards sectary. Gill, unluckily for himself, was not so cafather. Richard made his appearance, only to wit- the spot where the churchyard looks into Cheapside, tholic. Some say he was suspended from his masterness the sullen silence of the spectators ; and the was a campanile, or bell-house; that is to say, a

ship for severity; a quality which he must have carDoctor, with a sensibility arguing more weakness belfry, forming a distinct building from the Cathethan wickedness, took to his house, and soon after dral, such as it is accustomed to be in Italy. It was

ried to a great pitch, for that age to find fault with died. § by the ringing of this bell that the people were anci

it; but from on answer written by Ben Jonson to a ently called together to the general assemblage called fragment of a satire of his, it is more likely he got In the reign of the Tudors, Paul's cross was the

the Folk-mote, mentioned above. The campanile was scene of a very remarkable series of contradictions.

into trouble for libels against the court. Aubrey very high, and was won at dice from King Henry the The government uniler Henry the Lighth preached for Eighth hy Sir Miles Partridge, who took it down and

says, that the old doctor, his father, was once obliged and against the same doctrines in religion. Mary

sold the materials. On the side of the cathedral di- to go on his knees to get the young doctor pardoned, furiously attempted to revive them; ana they were

rectly the reverse of this (the south-west), and formfinally denounced by Elizabeth. Wolsey began in

and that the offence consisted in his having written a ing a part of the great pile of building, was the parish letter, in which he desigcated King James and his 1521, with fulminating, by command of the Pope,

church of St. Gregory, over which was the Lollard's against one Martin Eleutherius," (Luther). The Tower, or prison, infamous, like its namesake at

son, as the "old foole and the young one." There denouncement was made by Fisher, (afterwards be

Lambeth, for the ill-treatment of heretics. “This,” headed for denying the king's supremacy); but

are letters written in carly life from Milton to Gill, says Brayley, on the authority of Fox's Martyrology, full of regard and esteem ; nor is it likely that the Wolsey sate by, in his usual state, censed and cano

was the scene of at least one 'foul and midnight regard was diminished by Gill's petulance against the pied, with the Pope's ambassador on one side of him, and the Emperor's on the other. During the sermon

murder,' perpetrated in 1514, on a respectable citizen,
named Richard Hunne, by Dr. Horsey, chancellor of

court.

In one of the letters, it is pleasant to hear a collection of Luther's books was burnt in the churchyard; “ which ended, my lord Cardinal went

the diocese, with the assistance of a bell-ringer; and the poet saying, "Farewell, and on Tuesday next er. afterwards defended by the Bishop Fitz-James, and pect me in London among the booksellers.”+

the whole body of prelates, who protected the mur* The reader, perhaps, will agree with us in thinking, that

derers from punishment, lest the clergy should be. the last three lives of this poetry are unworthy of the rest,

* Briyl:y, vol. ii. p. 320. and put Jane in a theatrical attitude which she would not have come amenable to civil jurisdiction. Though the See Todd's Milton, vol. vii.; Aubrey's Letters and Lires, atrected.

villains, through this interference, escaped without and Ben Jonson's Poems. Gill's specimen of a satire is very † Some Account of London, third edition, p. 394.

bad, and the great laureate's answer is not much better. The # Chalmers's British Poets, vol. iv. p. 9). * From a MS, in the British Museum, quoted by Brayley,

first couplet of the latter, however, is to the purpose :vol. ij. p. 319. “Having once ended,” says Stow, “the preacher gat him

"Shall the prosperity of a pardon still home, and never after durst look out for shame, but kept him + A Dance of Death for the subject was often repeated) is a

Secure thy railing rhymes, infamous Gill?" out of sight like an owle; and when he once asked one that procession of the various ranks of life, from the pope to the had been his olde friende, what the people talked of him, ail peasant, each led by a skeleton for his partner. Holbein en.

(To be Continued.) were it that his owne conscience well shewed him that they talked no good, yet when the other answered him, that there

larged it by the addition of a series of visits privately paid by

Death to the individuals. The figurantes, in his work, by no was in every man's mouih spoken of him such shame, it so strake him to the hart, that in a few daies after, he withered,

means go down the dance with an air of despondency.” The and consumed away."'-Brayley, vol. i. p. 312. human beings are unconscious of their partners (which is

LONDON : Published by 1. Hoop&R, 13, Pall Mall S28l. fine) 3 and the Deaths are as jolly as skeletons well can be,

Sparrow, Printer, 11, Crane Court.

CONTENTS.

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her notions led her to estimate the matter by the
THE STREETS OF THE METROPOLIS.
simple process of the rule of three direct, and on

CHAPTER II.
THEIR NEMORIES AND GREAT MEN.

this principle she had good reason to complain of the

surveyor."* The same writer tells us, that Wren's CHAPTER THE FIRST. (Continued) principal enjoyment during the remainder of his life, The Church of St. Faith. Booksellers of the

consisted in his being “carried once a year to see his Church-yard. Mr. Johnson's.-Mr. Newberry's.Desecration of St. Paul's Cathedral during the Com. great work ;" “ the beginning and completion of

Children's Books.-Clerical Names of Streets near St. monwealth.The present Cathedral.- Sir Christopher

which," observes Walpole, “ was an event which, one Paul's.-Swift at the top of the Cathedral.-Dr. John. Wren.-Statute of Queen Anne. could not wonder, left such an impression of con

son at St. Paul's.- Paternoster Row'.-Panyer's Alley. The parliamentary soldiers annoyed the inhabit- tent on the mind of the good old man, that it seemed Stationer's Hall.- Almanacks.— Knight Riders' Street. ants of the churchyard, by playing at nine-pins at to recall a memory almost deadened to every other Armed Assemblies of the Citizens.-Doctor's Commons. unseasonable hours, - a strange misdemeanour for use.” The epitaph upon him by his son, which Mr. The Herald's College.-Coats of Arms.Ludgate. that “church militant.” They hastened also the de Mylne, the architect of Blackfriar's bridge, caused to Story of Sir Stephen Forster.-Prison of Ludgate. struction of the cathedral. Some scaffolding, set be rescued from the vaults underneath the church, Wyatt's Rebellion.The Belle Saurage Inn.-Blackup for repairs, had been given them for arrears of where it was ludierously inapplicable, and placed in friars. Shakspeare's Theatre.- Accident at Blackpay. They dug pits in the body of the church to gold letters over the choir, has a real sublimity in it, friars in 1623.- Printing House Square.— The Times. saw the timber in; and they removed the scaffolding though defaced by one of those plays upon words, Baynard's Castle.-Story of the Baron Fitzwalter.

Richard III. and Buckingham.--Diana's Chamber.-
with so little caution, that great part of the vaulting which were the taste of the times in the architects
fell in, and lay a heap of ruins. The east end only youth, and which his family perhaps had learnt to The Royal Wardrobe.- Marriages in the Fleet.- Fleet

Ditch.-The Dunciad.
and a part of the choir continued to be used for pub- admire.
lic worship, a brick wall being raised to separate this

'Subtus conditur

We remember, in our childhood, a romantic story portion from the rest of the building, and the con

Hujus ecclesiæ et urbis conditor

at school, of a church that stood under St. Paul's. gregation entering and getting out through one of

Ch. Wren,

We conceived of it, as of a real good-sized church, the north windows. Another part of the church was

Qui vixit annos ultra nonaginta

actually standing under the other; but how it came converted into barracks and stables for the dragoons.

Non sibi sed bono publico.

there, nobody could imagine. It was some ghostly As for Inigo Jones's lofty and beautiful portico, it

Lector, si monumentum requiris,'

edification of providence, not lightly to be inquired was turned into “shops," says Maitland, “ for milli

Circumspice.

into ; but as its name was St. Faith's, we conjectured ners and others, with rooms over them for the con

that the mystery had something to do with religious venience of lodging; at the erecting of which, the

We cannot preserve the pun in English, unless belief. The mysteries of art do not remain with us magnificent columns were piteously mangled, being perhaps by some such rendering as, " Here found a for life, like those of nature. Our phenomenon obliged to make way for the ends of beams, which

grave, the founder of this church;” or “ Underneath amounted to this. “ The church of St. Faith," penetrated their centers." The statues on the top is founded the tomb,” &c. The rest is admirable : says Brayley, “was originally a distinct building, were thrown down and broken to pieces. We have already noticed the lucky necessity for a Who lived to the age of upwards of ninety years,

standing near the east end of St. Paul's; but when

the old cathedral was enlarged, between the years new church, occasioned by the great fire. An attempt Not for himself, but for the public good.

1256 and 1312, it was taken down, and an extensive was at first made to repair the old building-the

Reader, if thou seekest his monument,

part of the vaults was appropriated to the use of the work, as we have already mentioned, being com

Look around.

parishioners of St. Faith's, in lieu of the demolished mitted to the charge of Sir John Denham (the poet),

fabric.
his Majesty's Surveyor General. But it was even-
The reader does look around, and the whole interior

This was afterwards called (the church of tually found necessary to commence a new edifice of the cathedral, which is finer than the outside,

St. Faith in the Crypts,) Ecclesia Sanctæ Fidei in from the foundation. Sir Christopher Wren, who seems like a magnificent vault over his single body! Cryptis; and, according to a representation made to

the Dean and Chapter, in the year 1735, measured accomplished this task, had been before employed in The effect is very grand, especially if the organ is

180 feet in length, and 80 in breadth. After the superintending the repairs--and was appointed head playing. A similar one, as far as the music is con

fire of London, the parish of St. Faith was joined surveyor of the works in 1669, on the demise of cerned, is observable when we contemplate the Denham. It is not our intention to enlarge on the statues of Nelson and others. The grand repose of

to that of St. Augustine; and, on the rebuilding of present state of places and public buildings in Lon. the church, in the first instance, gives them a mortal

the cathedral, a portion of the churchyard belonging

to the former was taken to enlarge the avenue don, especially as a volume, we understand, may dignity, which the organ seems to waken up and reshortly be laid before the public, which shall take a vive, as if, in the midst of the

round the east end of St. Paul's, and the remainder

was inclosed within the cathedral railing." * particular survey of the two great cathedrals of Lon

' Pomp and threatening harmony,"+

The parishioners of St. Faith have still liberty to don and Westminster, their architecture and monuments. We shall content ourselves therefore with their spirits almost looked out of their stony and bury their dead in certain parts of the churchyard and

the crypts.

Other portions of the latter have been stating, in reference to times gone by, that Sir Chris- sightless eye-balls. Johnson's ponderous figure looks topher Wren had very great and ungenerous trouble down upon us, with something of sourness in the

used as a store-house for wine, stationery, &c. The

stationers and booksellers of London, during the fire, given him, in the erection of the new structure; and expression; and in the presence of Howard, we feel after all, did not build it as he wished. His taste as if pomp itself were in attendance on humanity. It

thought they had secured a great quantity of their was not understood, either by court or clergy; he is a pity that the sculpture of the monuments in

stock in this place; but on the air being admitted,

when they went to take them out, the goods had was envied (and, towards the close of his life, ousted) general is not worthy of these emotions, and tends to by inferior workmen ; was forced to make use of two undo them.

been so heated by the conflagration of the church orders instead of one, that is to say, to divide the A poor statue of Queen Anne, in whose reign the overhead, that they took fire at last, and the whole

property was destroyed. Clarendon says it amounted sides and front into two separate elevations, instead of church was finished, stands in the middle of the front

to the value of two hundred thousand pounds.t running them up and dignifying them with pillars of area, with the figures of Britain, France, Ireland, the whole height; and during the whole work, and America, round the base. Garth, who was a

One of the houses on the site of the old episcopal which occupied a great many years, and took up a whig, and angry with the councils which had dis

mansion, now occupied by his successor, Mr. Hunter, considerable and anxious portion of his time, not missed his hero Marlborough, wrote some bitter lines

was Mr. Johnson's, the bookseller, a man who deunattended with personal hazard, all the pay which upon it, which must have had double effect, coming the remarkable circumstance of his never having

serves mention for his liberality to Cowper, and for he was then, or ever, to expect, was a pittance of from so goodnatured a man.

seen the poet, though his intercourse with him was two hundred a-year. A moiety of this driblet was for some time actually suspended, till the building

Near the vast bulk of that stupendous frame,

long and cordial. Mr. Johnson was in connexion should be finished; and for the arrears of it he was

Known by the Gentiles' great apostle's name,

with a circle of men of letters, some of whom were forced to petition the government of Queen Anne,

With grace divine, great Anna's seen to rise,

in the habit of dining with him once a week, and and then only obtained them under circumstances

An awful form that glads a nation's eyes :

who comprised the leading polite writers of the last of the most unhandsome delay. Wren, however,

Beneath her feet four mighty realms appear,

generation,-Cowper, Darwin, Hayley, Dr. Aikin, And with due reverence pay their homage there.

Mrs. Barbauld, &c. was a philosopher and a patriot; and if he under

Fuseli must not be omitted, went the mortification attendant on philosophers

Britain and Ireland seem to own her grace,

who was at least as good a writer as a painter; and and patriots, for offending the self-love of the shal

And e'en wild India wears a smiling face.

others of celebrity are still living, who have been low, he knew how to act up to the spirit of those

But France alone with downcast eyes is seen,'

among the instructors of their time, and will be venerable names, in the interior of a mind as

The sad attendant on so good a queen.

known to posterity. Here Bonnycastle hung his elevated and well composed as his own architecture.

Ungrateful country! to forget so soon

long face over his plate, as glad to escape from arithSome pangs he felt, because he was a man of hu

All that great Anna for thy sake has done,

metic into his jokes and his social dinner, as a great manity, and could not disdain his fellow-creatures;

When sworn the kind defender of thy cause,

boy; and here the first of our living poets (Words. but he was more troubled for the losses of the art Spite of her dear religion, spite of laws,

worth) published his earliest performance. than his own. He is said actually to have shed

For thee she sheathed the terrors of her sword,

But the most illustrious of all booksellers in our tears when compelled to deform his cathedral with

For thee she broke her gen'ral—and her word:

boyish days, not for his great names, not for his the side aisles, — some say in compliance with the

For thee her mind in doubtful terms she told,

dinners, not for his riches that we know of, nor for will of the Duke of York, afterwards James the

And learned to speak like oracles of old :

any other full-grown celebrity, but for certain little Second, who anticipated the use of them for the For thee, for thee alone, what could she more ? ?

penny books, radiant with gold, and rich with bad restoration of the old Catholic chapels. Money he

She lost the honour she had gained before ;

pictures, was Mr. Newberry, the famous children's despised, except for the demands of his family, con.

Lost all the trophies which her arms had won,

bookseller, "at the corner of St. Paul's church-yard," senting to receive a hundred a-year for rebuilding

(Such Cæsar never knew, nor Philip's son ;)

next Ludgate Street. The house is still occupied by such of the city churches (a considerable number)

Resigned the glories of a ten year's reign,

a successor, and children may have books there as

The gilding we conas were destroyed by the fire! And when finally And such as none but Marlborough's arm could formerly,--but not the same. ousted from his office of surveyor-general, he said

gain :

fess, we regret : gold, somehow, never looked so well with the ancient, “Well, I must philosophize a little

For thee in annals she's content to shine,

as in adorning literature. The pictures also,-may sooner than I intended.” (Nunc me jubet fortuna

Like other monarchs of the Stuart line.

we own that we preferred the uncouth coats, the expeditius philosophari). The Duchess of Marl

staring blotted eyes, and round pieces of rope for borough, in resisting the claims of one of her Blen

Many irreverent remarks were also made by the hats, of our very badly.diawn contemporaries, to all heim surveyors, said "that Sir C. Wren was con

coarser wits of the day, in reference to the position the proprieties of modern embellishment? We own tent to be dragged up in a basket three times a week

of her Majesty, with her back to the church and her the superiority of the latter, and would have it proto the top of St. Paul's, and at great hazard, for

face to a brandy-shop, which was then kept in that ceed and prosper, but a boy of our own time was 2001. a-year.” But, as a writer of his life has re

part of the church-yard. The calumny was worthy much, though his coat looked very like his grandmarked, she was perhaps " little capable of drawing

of the coarseness. Anne, who was not a very clever father's. The engravings, probably, were of that any nice distinction between the feelings of the woman, had a difficult task to perform; and though date. Enormous, however, is the improvement upon hired surveyor of Blenheim, and those of our archi.

we differ with her politics, we cannot, even at this the morals of these little books; and there we give tect, in the contemplation of the rising of the fabric distance of time, help expressing our disgust at per. them up, and with unmitigated delight. The good little which his vast genius was calling into existence : sonalities like these, especially against a female. boy, the hero of the infant literature in those days,

stood, it must be acknowledged, the chance of being * History of London, II. 1166,

Life of Sir Christopher Wren, in the Library of Useful
Knowledge, No. 24, p. 27.

• Vol. ii. p. 303.
Wordsworth.

* In his Life, rol. ill. p. 98. Edit. 1827.

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a very selfish man. His great virtue consisted in in St. Paul's. Very different must his look have Between Amen Corner, and Ludgate Street, at the being different from some other little boy, perhaps been, in turning into the chancel

, from the threaten- end of a passage from Ave-Maria Lane, "stood a his brother; and his reward was having a fine coach ing and trampling aspect they have given him in his great house of stone and wood, belonging in old time to ride in, and being a king Pepin. Now-a-days, statue. We do not quarrel with this aspect; there to John, Duke of Bretagne, and Earl of Richmond, since the world has had a great moral earthquake is a great deal of character in it. But the contrast, cotemporary with Edward II. and III. After him it that set it thinking, the little boy promises to be considering the place, is curious. A little before his was possessed by the Earls of Pembroke, in the time much more of a man; thinks of others, as well as death, when bodily decay made him less patient than of Richard II. and Henry IV., and was called Pemworks for himself; and looks for his reward to a cha- ever of contradiction, he instituted a club at the broke's Inn, near Ludgate. It then fell into the racter for good sense and beneficence. In no respect Queen's Arms, in St. Paul's Churchyard. “ He possession of the title of Abergavenny, and was is the progress of the age more visible, or more im- told Mr. Hook,” says Boswell, “that he wished to called Burgavenny House, under which circumstances portantly so, than in this apparently triling matter. have a City Club, and asked him to collect one ; but, it remained in the time of Elizabeth. “To finish the The most bigoted opponents of a rational education said he, don't let them be patriots.”* (This was an anti-climax," says Pennant, “it was finally possessed are obliged to adopt a portion of its spirit, in order allusion to the friends of his acquaintance, Wilkes). by the company of Stationers, who rebuilt it of wood, to retain a hold, which their own teaching must ac- Boswell accompanied him one day to the club, and and made it their Hall. It was destroyed by the cordingly undo: and if the times were not full of found the members “very sensible, well-behaved Great Fire, and was succeeded by the present plain hopes in other respects, we should point to this men:” that is to say, Hook had collected a body of building." Of the once powerful possessors of the evidence of their advancement, and be content with it. decent listeners. This, however, is melancholy. In old mansion nothing now is remembered, or cared

One of the most pernicious mistakes of the old the next chapter we shall see Johnson in all his for ; but in the interior of the modern building are to children's books, was the inculcation of a spirit of glory.

be seen, looking almost as if they were alive, and as revenge and cruelty, in the tragic examples which St. Paul's Churchyard appears as if it were only a if we knew them personally, the immortal faces of were intended to deter their little readers from idle- great commercial thoroughfare, but if all the clergy Steele and Richardson, Prior in his cap, and Dr. ness and disobedience. One, if he did not behave could be seen at once, who have abodes in the neigh- Hoadley, a liberal bishop. There is also Mrs. Richhimself, was to be shipwrecked and eaten by lions; bourhood, they would be found o constitute a ardson, the wife of the novelist, looking as prim and another to become a criminal, who was not to be numerous body. If to the sable coats of these

particular as if she had been just chucked under the taught better, but rendered a mere wicked contrast gentlemen, be added those of the practisers of the chin; and Robert Nelson, Esq., supposed author of to the luckier virtue; and above all, none were to civil law, who were formerly allied to them, and who the Whole Duty of Man, and prototype of Sir Charles be poor but the vicious, and none to ride in their live in Doctor's Commons, the churchyard increases Grandison, as regular and passionless in his face as if coaches but little Sir Charles Grandisons, and all- the clerkly part of its aspect. It resumes, to the he had been made only to wear his wig. The same perfect Sheriff's. We need not say how contrary imagination, something of the learned and collegiate is not to be said of the face of Steele, with his black this was to the real spirit of Christianity, which at look it had of old. Paternoster Row is said to have eyes and social aspect; and still less of Richardson, the same time they so much insisted on.

been so called on account of the number of Stationers who, instead of being the smooth, satisfied-looking plexity in after life, when reading of poor philosophers or Text-writers that dwelt there, who dealt much personage he is represented in some engravings of and rich vicious men, was in proportion; or rather, in religious books, and sold horn-books or A B C's, him (which makes his heart-rending romance appear virtue and mere worldly success became confounded. with the Paternoster, Ave-Maria, Creed, Graces, unaccountable and cruel), has a face as uneasy as can In the present day, the profitableness of good con- &c.

And so of the other places above-named. well be conceived,-flushed and shattered with emo. duct is still inculcated, but in a sounder spirit. But it is more likely that this particular street (as, tion. We recognise the sensitive, enduring man, Charity makes the proper allowance for all; and indeed, we are told also) was named from the rosary such as he really was,-a heap of bad nerves. It is none are excluded from the hope of being wiser and or paternoster-makers; for so they were called ; worth any body's while to go to Stationers' Hall, on happier. Men, in short, are not taught to love and as appears by a record of “one Robert Nikke, a

purpose to see these portraits. They are not of the labour for themselves alone, or for their little dark paternoster-maker and citizen, in the reign of Henry first order as portraits, but evident likenesses. Hoad. corners of egotism; but to take the world along with the Fourth."

ley looks at once jovial and decided, like a goodthem into a brighter sky of improvement; and to It is curious to reflect what a change has taken natured controversialist. · Prior is not so pleasant as discern the want of success in success itself, it not place in this celebrated book street, since nothing was in his prints; his nose is a little aquiline, instead of accompanied by a liberal knowledge. sold there but rosaries. It is but rarely the word

turned up; and his features, though delicate, not so The Seven Champions of Christendom, Valentine and Paternoster-Row strikes us as having a reference to liberal. But if he has not the best look of his poetry, Orson, and other books of the fictitious class, which the Latin prayer. We think of booksellers' shops, he has the worst. He seems as if he had been sitting have survived their more rational brethren (as they and of all the learning and knowledge they have up all night ; his eyelids droop; and his whole face thought theinselves,) are of a much better order, sent forth. The books of Luther, which Henry the is used with rakery. and, indeed, survive by a natural instinct in society to Eighth burnt in the neighbouring churchyard, were It is impossible to see Prior and Steele together, that effect. With many absurdities they have a ge- turned into millions of volumes, (partly by reason of without regretting that they quarrelled : but as they neral tone of manly and social virtue, which may be that burning,) and have put an end to their prede. did quarrel, it was fit that Prior should be in the safely left to itself. The alısurdities wear out, and cessors for ever.

wrong. From a Whig he had become a Tory, and the good remains. Nobody in these times will think Paternoster-Row, however, has not been exclu- shewed that his change was not quite what it ought of meeting giants and dragons; of giving blows sively in possession of the booksellers, since it lost

to have been, by avoiding the men with whom he that confound an army, or tearing the hearts out its original tenants, the rosary-makers. Indeed it

had associated, and writing contemptuously of his of two lions on each side of him, as easily as if he would appear to have been only in comparatively fellow wits. All the men of letters, whose portraits were dipping his hands into a lottery. But there recent time, that the booksellers fixed themselves

are in this hall, were, doubtless, intimate with the are still giants and wild beasts to encounter, of an- there. They had for a long while been established in premises, and partakers of Stationers' dinners. Richother sort, the conquest of which requires the old St. Paul's Churchyard, but scarcely in the Row, till ardson, was Master of the Company. Morphew, a enthusiasm and disinterestedness; arms and war are after the commencement of the last century. "This bookseller in the neighbourhood, was one of the to be checked in their career, and have been so, by street,” says Maitland, writing in 1720, "before the publishers of the Tatler ; and concerts as well as that new might of opinion to which everybody may fire of London, was taken up by eminent mercers, festive dinners used to take place in the great room, contribute much in his single voice ; and wild silknten, and lacemen; and their shops were of both of which entertainments Steele was fond. men, or those who would become so, are tamed resorted unto by the nobility and gentry, in their It was here, if we mistake not, that one of the inferior by education and brotherly kindness, into ornaments coaches, that oftimes the street was so stopped up, officers of the company, a humourist on sufferance, of civil life.

that there was no passage for foot passengers. But came in, one day, on his knees, at an anniversary The neighbourhood of St. Paul's retains a variety since the said fire, those eminent tradesmen have

dinner, when Bishop Hoadley was present, in order of appellations, indicative of its former connexion settled themselves in several other parts; especially to drink to the “Glorious Memory.”+ The company, with the church. There is Creed Lane, Ave-Maria in Ludgate Street, and in Bedford Street, Henrietta

Steele included, were pretty far gone; Hoadley had Lane, Sermon Lane, * Canon Alley, Pater-Noster Street, and King Street, Covent Garden. And the remained as long as he well could; and the genuRow, Holiday Court, Amen Corner, &c. Members of inhabitants in this street are now a mixture of trades

flector was drunk. Steele, seeing the bishop a the cathedral establishment still have abodes in some people, such as tire-women, or milliners, for the sale

little disconcerted, whispered him, “Do laugh, my of these places, particularly in Amen Corner, which of top-knots, and the like dressings for the females."

lord; pray laugh:tis humanity to laugn. The is inclosed with gates, and appropriated to the houses In a subsequent edition of his history, published in good-natured prelate acquiesced. Next day, Steele of prebendaries and canons. Close to Sermon Lane 1755; it is added, “There are now many shops of

sent him a penitential letter, with the following is Do-little Lane; a vicinity which must have fur- mercers, silkmen, eminent printers, booksellers, and couplet :nished jokes to the Puritans. Addle Street is an publishers."f The most easterly of the narrow and ungrateful corruption of Athelstan Street, so called partly covered passages between Newgate Street and

Virtue with so much ease on Bangor sits, from one of the most respectable of the Saxon kings, Paternoster Row, is that called Panyer's Alley, re- All faults he pardons, though he none commits.' who had a palace in it.

markable for a stone built into the wall of one of the We have omitted to notice a curious passage in houses on the east side, supporting the figures of a

The most illustrious musical performance that ever Swist, in which he abuses himself for going to the pannier or wicker basket, surmounted by a boy, and

took place in the hall, was that of Dryden's Ode. A top of St. Paul's. “To day,” says he, writing to exhibiting the following inscription ;

society for the annual commemoration of St. Cecilia, tella, “I wa all about St. Paul's, and up at the

the patroness of music, was instituted in the year

“When you have sought the city round, 1680, not without an eye perhaps to the religious top like a fool, with Sir Andrew Fountain, and two

Yet still this is the highest ground.”

opinions of the heir presumptive, who was shortly to more; and spent seven shillings for my dinner, like

ascend the throne as James the Second. An ode was a puppy.” “This," adds the doctor, " is the second We cannot say if absolute faith is to be put in this time he has served me so: but I will never do it asseveration; but it is possible. It has been said, by some eminent composer ; and the

performance of

written every year for the occasion, and set to music again, though all mankind should persuade me, un- that the top of St. Paul's is on a level with that of considering puppies !’t The being forced by richer Hampstead.

it was followed by a grand dinner. In 1687, Dryden people than one's self to spend money at a tavern, We look back a moment between Paternoster Row

contributed his first ode, entitled, " A Song for Saint

Cecilia's Day,” in which there are finer things than in might reasonably be lamented; but from the top of and the churchyard, to observe, that the only memoSt. Paul's, Swift beheld a spectacle, which surely was rial remaining of the residence of the Bishop of

any part of the other, though as a whole it is not so nit unworthy of this attention; perhaps it affected London, is a tablet in London-House Yard, let into striking. Ten years afterwards it was followed by him too much. The author of Gulliver might have the wall of the public house called the Goose and

Alexander's Feast,” the dinner perhaps being a part taken from it his notions of little bustling human- Gridiron. The Goose and Gridiron is said by tradition

of the inspiration. Poor Jeremiah Clarke, who shot

himself for love, was the composer. This is the ode, kind.

to have been what was called in the last century a Dr. Johnson frequently attended public worship “music house;" that is to say, a place of entertainment with music. When it ceased to be musical, a

* Pennant's London, as above, p. 377. * Unless, indeed, we are to suppose, as has been suggested,

+ Of W'illiam III. that Sermon Lane is a corruption of Sheremoniers Lane, that

landlord, in ridicule of its former pretensions, chose is the lane of the money clippers, or such as cut and rounded

for his sign

a goose stroking the bars of a gridiron • The genius of Clerke, which, agreeably to his unhappy end, the metal which was to be coined or stamped into money. There with his foot," and called it the Swan and Harp. I

was tender and melancholy, was unsuited to the livelier intoxi. was anciently a place in this lane for melting silver, called the

cation of Dryden's Feast, afterwards gloriously set by Handel

. Blackloft-and the Mint was in the street now called Old

Clarke has been styled the musical Otway of his time. He Change, in the immediate neighbourhood. See Maitland, ii.

* Boswell's Life of Johnson, eighth edition, vol. iv. p. 93.

was organist at St. Paul's, and shot himself at his house in St. 880 (Edit. of 1756).

Hästory of London, ii. 925.

Paul's Churchyard. Mr. John Reading, organist of St. Dun.

stan's, who was intimately acquainted with him, was going by # Letters to Stella. in the duodecimo edition of his works,

The Tatler. With notes historical, biographical, and cri.

at the moment the pistol went off, and upon entering the 775. Letter vi, p. 43. tical. 8vo., 1797. Vol. iv. p. 200.

house “found his friend and fellor 'student in the agonies of

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