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for a certain number of years, exercising their several callings in the towns and cities of foreign countries as well as in their own. On first setting out, each apprentice receives a book, bestowed upon him by the corporation to which he belongs. This book becomes his character, for in it every master workman who employs him, in the various towns in which he labours during his years of peregrination, must make an entry of his conduct, as a certificate that it has been good, before he quits his service for another place. When the time of his wandering expires, the apprentice returns home, produces his book of conduct, gives examples of his skill in his craft, and receives his freedom to become a master in his own person. Mr. Murray says, that, when work is scarce, these poor wandering youths are, of necessity, often reduced to a state of great distress in their journeys-a circumstance sufficient in itself to show the impropriety of a system which thus, by exposing youth in its most perilous age to absolute poverty, exposes it also to the petty
shifts and the temptations that follow in its train. Many of these lads, he informs us, have visited the principal cities of Europe in the course of their errant career; and if they are naturally possessed of good parts, they frequently speak three or four languages with fluency, and acquire vast stores of useful knowledge, that they are enabled to turn to account in their after-lives at home.
If we may judge by appearance, I should say that the peasantry of Baden, of whom we met so many in the journey of this day, are at once a gay, happy, and numerous race. They are unquestionably very superstitious; and you every where meet those miserable temples of idolatry that skirt the wayside, containing the most wretched and grotesque images, before which these poor creatures devoutly kneel and say their prayers. I must, however, except the statues to be found on every bridge. These are always of stone; some very ancient, and here and there well sculptured. They represent, for the most part, the figure of a bishop, a warrior, or a saint, of the feudal ages, clad in
armour, and bearing in his arms a crucifix, also of stone.
The effect of these statues, thus seen on the old bridges, is extremely picturesque. They give even to the most insignificant that venerable air that connects objects of antiquity with the most interesting associations of the past. The spirit of history seems to breathe and to speak in every monument of the olden time; and the present generation may never be said so well or so entirely to make their forefathers live again in themselves, as when they live under the wise regulation of their institutions and their laws, acknowledge their propriety, and improve without overthrowing the fabric of their policy, be it moral or political. To look on their works, therefore, with an eye of reverence, is calculated to awaken that salutary feeling of gratitude and respect towards the dead, which induces us to spare and to cherish whatever may remain as memorials of their arts, their industry, and their fame.
I told you but now that I could not describe seenery. It would be vain, therefore, did I dwell
on that presented to us by this evening's drive. I rather mention the little I have noted down for my own sake, than for yours. To me such notes are hints to memory, to unfold and look upon the page in the mind's eye, in which I see scene after scene arise with all its particularity of detail. To you these accounts are but words; for what will you be the better when I say that the mountains of the Black Forest, with the intersections of their bold, abrupt, and beautiful forms and outlines, now seen of the deepest purple, or of a glowing gold, as they were, more or less, under the influence or the absence of the rays of the setting sun, formed pictures such as no art could pourtray with the full power and harmony of their effects.
The quiet, the repose of the evening was perfect. The villages already seemed to be sunk into their rest: there was no stir among them. The solitary toll of a bell from some church, whose spire pointed towards the heaven to which the house of prayer is the way, was often the only sound that met our
The valleys opened upon us; at almost every turn of the road we came upon new combinations of scenery, new outlets among the mountains. Yet we were on a road perfectly level, and these heights formed our side screen, and a beautiful one indeed. I was charmed by observing the effects of the clouds that floated around them, or rested on their summits, as the day drew nearer and nearer towards its close. Sometimes these veils of vapour dropped upon and wholly concealed them from our sight; then they shifted, rose gradually, or passed on, alternately discovering or concealing the sides and summits of the mountains, or now partially disclosing some beautiful valley, enriched with woods, that appeared of the deepest purple against a sky of liquid gold. Here and there might be seen some bright spot of verdure, that might not inaptly be compared to an emerald set in the diadem of the mountain's brow. Indeed, never, till I travelled in these elevated regions, more especially in Switzerland, did I see effects in