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scribere quomodo sto, scire debetis, quod nunc fui per duos menses in urbe Roma, & non possum habere Patronum. Unus auditor Romæ voluit me suscipere. tunc fui lætus, & dixi : Bene est, Domine; sed magnificentia vestra velit mihi dicere, quid debeo facere. Respondit quod debeo esse in stabulo, & unum mulum servare in ordine, dando ei comedere & bibere, & strigilando & mundificando. Et quando ipse vult equitare, quod sit paratus, & habeat frenum & sellum & omnia. Et postea debeo currere cum eo ad audientiam, & iterum ad domum. Ego dixi, quod non est pro me, quia sum Magister artium Colon. & non possum talia facere. Respondit ipse : Si non vis facere, tuum damnum. et sic credo, quod volo iterum ad patriam. Deberem strigilare mulum, & purgare stabulum, ego potius vellem, quod diabolus auferret illum mulum cum stabulo. Etiam credo quod esset contra statuta Universitatis nostræ : quia Magister debet se tenere sicut Magister. & esset magnum scandalum Universitatis, quod Magister Coloniensis deberet facere talia. Ego volo redire in patriam propter honorem Universitatis. etiam alias non placet mihi Romæ, quia Copistæ & Curtisani sunt ita superbi, quod non creditis. Unus heri incepit disputare mecum, dicens : Quid est Magister ? Respondi : est persona qualificata, promota & graduata in septem artibus liberalibus, præcedente examine magistrali

, privilegiata, quod potest portare annulum aureum & sericum sub cappa, habens se ad suos discipulos sicut Rex ad suum populum. Et Magister dicitur quatuor modis: Uno modo a magis & ter, quia Magister ter magis debet scire, quam simplex persona. Secundo dicitur a magis & terreo, quia Magister debet esse terribilis in conspectu suorum discipulorum. Tertio à magis & therom, id est, status, quia Magister in suo statu debet esse major, quam sui discipuli. Quarto a magis & sedere, quia Magister debet esse major in sua sede, quam aliquis suorum discipulorum. Tunc ille interrogavit, quis est author ? Respondi, quod legi in Vade mecum. Statim ipse voluit reprehendere illum librum, & dixit, quod non est autenticus. Respondi, tu vis reprehendere illos antiquos, & tamen tu non scis melius. Ego neminem vidi Coloniæ reprehendere talem librum. Non habes verecundiam ? et cum indignatione magna recessi ab eo. Et ergo notetis, quod volo redire in Almaniam, quia ibi Magistri sunt Domini, & merito. Probo per Evangelium : quia Christus etiam vocavit se Magistrum, & non Doctorem, dicens : Vos vocatis me Magister & Dominus, & bene dicitis, sum etenim. Sed non possum plus scribere, quia pro nunc non habeo amplius papyrum, & est longum ad Campum Flore. Valete. Datum in Romana Curia."

The trade of Indulgencies does not escape several jokes. The effect which would be produced upon a man's purgatorial state, by the purchase money for an indulgence being stolen, was a new point, though it seems hard that the purchasershould not be insured from the time of completing his contract.

As you are always desirous to hear news, it is time for me to write, though I grieve to say the news is not good: you must know that the Friars, Preachers here, had a great many indulgencies which they had procured at a great expense from Rome, and they had made a good deal of money by them. Then, one night, there came a thief who broke into the church, and stole more than three hundred forins. These zealous brothers, who are strongly attached to the Christian faith, were much vexed at this, and lodged their complaint against the thief. But the citizens sent every where, and could no where find him, for he was gone off with the money. Now this was a great crime, for such things should not be done with the Papal indulgencies, and in a holy place too. However, he is excommunicated wherever he is. The men who had bought absolution and paid their money think now that they are not absolved, but, mum for that! They are just as well absolved, as if the Friars had the money in the chest still.”

The syllogistic reasoning of these wiseacres is well applied in a letter from “ Magister noster Bartolomæus Kuckuk."

“There is a jurist here, called Martin Groningen, a Doctor, who thinks very highly of himself, and is about to translate the Speculum Oculare (one of Reuchlin's tracts in the controversy.) Some speak very highly of him, so I asked them what it is he knows more than other people? Then they said he is a good Greek scholar; so that you see he is not worth notice, for Greek is not of the essence of the Holy Scripture. And I don't believe that he knows one point in the Book of Sentences, or that he could make a syllogism in Baroco or Celarent, for he knows nothing of logic. He lately called me an ass; then I said to him, if you are so bold, dispute with me; my proposition is, that you are an ass, first thus, whatever carries burthens is an ass; you carry burdens; ergo, you are an ass. I prove my minor because you carry a book, and it was true, for he was carrying a book against our Master Jacobus de Hochstrat, which J. Questenberg gave him to study. Then he was not cunning enough to deny my major; if he had I could not have proved that: but I am sure he knows nothing of logic. So I said to him, My good doctor, you want to interfere in theological matters, which are quite out of your line; let me per

*« Sicut semper cupivistis à me habere novitates, jam est tempus, quod debeo & possum vobis nova scribere, quamvis doleo, quia non sunt bona. Sciatis quod fratres de ordine Prædicatorum, habuerunt hic indulgentias, quas impetraverunt in Curia Romana magnis expensis, & collegerunt etiam satis magnam pecuniam : tunc de nocte venit quidam fur in Ecclesiam, & accepit plus quam trecentos florenos, & furatus est eos, & isti fratres zelosi, & in fide Christiana valde bene affectionati, tristes fuerunt, & conqueruntur de illo fure. Sed cives miserunt undique, & non possunt reperire eum, quia aufugit, & habet secum pecuniam. Et est magna nequitia, quod hoc debet fieri in indulgentiis Papalibus, & in loco sacro. ipse est excommunicatus, sit ubi sit. Homines qui sunt absoluti & dederunt pecuniam suam ad illam cistam, nunc putant, quod non sunt absoluti, sed nihil est: ipsi sunt ita bene absoluti, ut si fratres Prædicatores haberent adhuc

pecuniam suam.”

suade you to give over, for you don't understand such things, and you may get into a scrape; for the Theologians will not allow you Jurists to handle matters of faith. Then he was angry and said, I not only know very well what I am about, but I know you are a great fool.' This put me in a great passion, and I got up and went away, and there has been a great quarrel between us ever since."*

We will not bear so hard upon our “ Gravissimus” friend Ortuinus and his correspondents, as to draw much attention to their poetry. It will suffice to dismiss them to their slumbers, in the words of their illustrious brother, Joannes Grapp.

Ergo vos valete, necnon bonam noctem habete.

ART.IV.-Les Arrets d' Amours, avec l'Amant rendu Cordelier à

l'Observance d'Amours. Par Martial d'Auvergne, dit de Paris, Procureur au Parlement. Accompagnez des Commentaires Juridiques et Joyeur, de Benoit de Court, Jurisconsulte. Dernière Edition, revuë, corregié, & augmentée de plusiers Arrets, de Notes, & d'un Glossaire des anciens termes. Amsterdam, 1731.

We certainly live in a very degenerate age. The irregular feelings of the days of chivalry are nearly worn down to

*“ Et est hic unus Jurista, qui vocatur Martinus Groningen, Doctor Senensis, ut ipse dicit, satis prætensus & superbus. Ipse debet latinisare Speculum Oculare & est valde præsumptuosus, quia cupit videri. Aliqui laudant eum, & quæsivi nuper ex eis, quid plus scit, quam alius? Tunc dixerunt, quod habet bonam notitiam in Græco. Et sic videtis, quod non est curandum de eo, quod Græcum non est de essentia Sacræ Scripturæ. Et credo, quod non scit unum punctum in libris Sententiarum, nec ipse possit mihi formare unum Syllogismum in Baroco aut Celarent, quia non est logicus. Ipse nuper vocavit me asinum. Et dixi ei, si es ita audax, tunc disputa mecnm. & tibisavi eum, & dixi : Ego arguo, quod tu sis asinus. Primo sic : Quicquid portat onera, est asinus : Tu portas onera : ergo es asinus. Minorem probo, quia ut portas istum librum. Et fuit verum : quia ipse portavit unum librum, quem dedit Jacob Questenberg ad studendum intus, contra M. nostrum Jacobum de Hochstrate. Tunc non fuit ita prudens, quod negaret mihi Majorem : quia non potuissem probare. Sed scio, quod nihil scit in logica. Dixi ergo ad eum : Domine Doctor, vos vultis vos intromittere in negotia Theologorum, quod non est in facultate vestra. Ego suaderem vobis, quod dimitteretis, quia vos non intelligitis materiam istam, alias potestis venire ad damnum. Quia Theologi non volunt, quod Juristæ debent tractare causas fidei. Et statim ille iratus dixit: Ego non solum intelligo istam materiam, sed etiam video, quod tu es una maledicta bestia. Tunc fui etiam commotus, & surrexi, & fuit inter nos magna rixa in die illa."

the level of common sense.

How different from the times when the spirit was left to its own guidance, and grew and flourished in all the luxuriance of its native wildness. Where shall we now look for the high and honourable sentiments of chivalrous faith and valour which animated the breasts of our forefathers; and, more especially, for that ennobling devotion to lady-love, which conferred equal lustre and dignity on him who paid it, and on her to whom it was paid. Alas! in the nineteenth century, a Lover's cares and fears have " dwindled to the smallest span.” How different is the conduct of a modern lover from that of an inamorato in the days of chivalry, when it was the most supreme delight, to be allowed

To kneel whole ages at a beauty's feet; and even, in spite of all her disdain, “ to think such sufferings sweet?” But in those ages the fair sex stood on a loftier eminence, and happy was he who was allowed to approach them, even though in the most respectful manner. Even in the coldest nights of winter, the true lover walked till sun-rise before his mistress's door-his sole reward, to be allowed to kiss the latch or the knocker of the door. Sometimes, indeed, through some cranny, or, perchance, through the key-hole, he had the rapture of beholding her form, and as she passed he would sing some tender love-song. Nay, at times he was admitted to the honour of kissing the hem of her garment;-at other times, gallantry required greater exertions from him, and, at the hazard of his neck, he would fearlessly scale the loftiest walls, and even descend the longest chimnies, for one glance of his beloved.* Occasionally he stained his face with certain herbs, that he might appear more pitiable in her eyes; and even death became desirable to him for her sake. The gallant Troubadour, Pierre Vidal, furnishes a fine example of chivalrous enthusiasm. Being passionately enamoured of a lady called Louve de Penautier, he called himself Loup, or Wolf, in her honour, and submitted, as such, to be hunted in a wolf's skin. He was pursued by the shepherds and their dogs into the mountains, where, being overtaken, he was, like Actæon, cruelly mangled by the hounds, and carried home to his mistress, as dead. He recovered, however, to felicitate himself on the perils he had endured for his lady's sake.

It was in sentiments and feelings like these, that the institution of the Courts or Parliaments of Love originated. It is

* See the advertisement to the “ Arrets d'Amours." It does not appear that Mr. Edgeworth’s machine for riding over stone walls was known at this time.

surprising that such a jurisdiction should never before have been exercised, and that it should have passed away with the age of chivalry. Even in our own country, and in the nineteenth century, the necessity for such a tribunal is tacitly confessed, by submitting many of the causes which would properly fall within the jurisdiction of the Court of Love, to the cognizance of the Ecclesiastical and Common Law Courts. Where could an action for a breach of promise of marriage be so properly decided as before lady judges, and according to the law amatory; in which case, it seems to be only common justice to allow a jury to be impannelled de medietate lingue, half ladies and half gentlemen.' Were this the case, we might reasonably expect not to have all our most refined and delicate feelings shocked with the degrading exhibition of the judge, the jury, the counsel, and the audience, indulging in the most boisterous and unfeeling mirth, when a correspondence of the most tender and confidential kind is given in evidence. The advantages of these institutions would not stop here; they would take cognizance of a thousand cases, which our heavy laws can never reach, and gradually recal amongst us that exquisite refinement of feeling which now seems lost for ever.

It will, perhaps, be advisable to enter a little more in detail into the nature and spirit of the ancient Courts of Love, that our readers may more readily perceive the truth and justice of the few observations we have just made. The existence of these Courts may be traced almost as far back as the earliest periods of the Troubadour history, and they, probably, had their origin in the contentions of rival poets, who submitted their productions to the judgement of certain fair ladies, who undertook to decide upon their merits. In all probability, the origin of the Courts of Love may be dated about the twelfth century, at the time when the Gay science was approaching its meridian.*

These tribunals soon became frequent in many parts of France; but the minute particulars of their composition, their power, and their mode of proceeding, are lost in the lapse of time. It appears, however, that even in the courts which received their appellation from the individual naine of some noble patroness, and from which we might suppose that she alone exercised the judicial power, there was yet a bench of lady

The slight sketch here given of the ancient Courts of Love, is on the authority of an old author called André, who was chaplain to the Royal Court of France. The title of the work is, “ Livre de l'Art d'Aimer, et de la reprobation de l'Amour.” We have availed ourselves of the extracts from this book, (which we believe is very scarce), contained in that elegant and interesting work, Choix des Poesies Originales des Troubadours, par M. Raynouard. Paris, 3 vols. 1817, &c.

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