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PAUL, an apostle, (not from men, nor by man, but

by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from 2 the dead*,) and all the brethren that are with me, to the 3 churches of Galatia : favour be to you, and peace, from 4 God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ; who

gave himself for our sinst, that he might deliver us from

this present evil aget, according to the will of our God 5 and Father ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 6 I wonder that ye are so soon removed from him who

called you into [the] favour [of Christ II,] to a different

* Not deriving my mission from other apostles, nor even from God by their appointment, but from Jesus Christ himself; and, consequently, from God his Father. Here, observe, Jesus Christ is distinguished from God, to whom he was subordinate, and by whose power, and not his own, he was raised from the dead." Dr. Priestley. It may also be observed ; that the apostle's distinction here is not between a man and a being of a superior order ; but between men now living in the world, and who were themselves servants and messengers of Christ, and Jesus Christ himself, who had been raised from the dead, and exalted to be the head and governor of the church.

+ for our sins; kles, not Uttel, is the true reading. The expression is very general, q.d. in relation to our sins. This is explained by the next clause.

To deliver us from this present evil age, is to deliver us from the bondage of hea. then idolatry, the Mosaic ritual, and Pharisaje superstition. The apostle's expression is general, and will include all, though the latter sense is chiefly intended. See Locke.

1 “Into the gracious covenant of the gospel," Newcome. Q. d. from the gospel of Christ to another gospel

7 gospel : which indeed is not* another; but there are some

who trouble you, and desire to altert the gospel of Christ. 8 But though we, or an angelf from heaven, preach any

gospel unto you, besides that which we have preached 9 unto you, let him be accursed. As we have said already,

so I now say again ; If any one preach any gospel unto

you besides that which ye have received, let him be ac10 cursed. For do I now approve myself to men, or to God?

or do I seek to please men ? (for) if I still pleased menll.

I should not be a servant of Christ. 11 But I declare to you, brethren, that the gospel preach12 ed by me is not according to man. For I neither received

it from man, nor was I taught it but by the revelation of 13 Jesus Christ. For ye have heard of my former beha

viour in the Jewish religion, that I exceedingly perse14 cuted the church of God, and laid it waste; and made a

proficiency in the Jewish religion above many of the

same age in mine own nation, being more exceedingly 15 zealous of the traditions of my fathers : but when it

pleased God, who separated me to the gospel from my 16 mother's womb, and called me by his favour, to reveal his

son by me, that I might preach the glad tidings of him

among the gentiles ; I did not confer immediately with 17 flesh and bloodtt ; nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those

that were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and 18 returned to Damascus. Then, after three years, I went

up to Jerusalem, that I might see Peter; and abode with 19 him fifteen days. But I saw none other of the apostles, 20 except James, the Lord's brother. (Now.concerning the

things which I write unto you, behold, as in the presence 21 of God, I speak not falsely.) Afterward I went into the

* N. supplies one and another.

+ pervert, N. See Wakefield. Or, a messenger from heaven. 1 Or, if indeed I were attempting to please men, Wakefield. & q. d. from no man living upon earth, but from Christ in his exalted state. See note on ver. 1.

i.e. I did not consult with any man, nor derive instruction from any. See Loeke. * After fourteen years, N.

22 regions of Syria and Cilicia ; and I was unknown by face 23 to the churches of Judea, which were in Christ : but they

had only heard, that he, who formerly persecuted us,

now preached the faith which, formerly he laid waste. 24 And they glorified God because of me. Ch.11. Then, fourteen years after*, I went up again to Jeru2 salem with Barnabas, and took with me Titus also. And

I went up by revelation, and communicated to themt that gospel which I preach among the gentiles; but pri

vately to those that were of reputation, lest I might run, 3 or might have run, in vain. But not even Titus, that

was with me, being a gentile, was compelled to be cir4 cumcised : and that because of false brethren brought in

privily, who came in privily to spy out our freedom which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us 5 into slavery: to whom we yielded by subjection, no not

for an hour ; that the truth of the gospel might conti6 nue with you. But concerning those who appeared to

be considerable, (whatsoever they were, it maketh no difference to me : God accepteth nó man's person :)

those, I say, that appeared to be considerable , in confe7 rence added nothing to me. But, on the contrary, when

they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision was com

mitted to me, as the gospel of the circumcision was to 8 Peter: (for he who wrought powerfully in Peter to the

apostleship of the circumcision, wrought powerfully in 9 me also toward the gentiles ;) and when James, and Pe-ter, and John, that appeared to be pillars, perceived the favour which was bestowed on me, they gave to me and

Barnabas the right hands of fellowship ; that we should 10 go to the gentiles, and they to the circumcision : only

desiring that we should remember the poor ; which very thing I was earnest also to do.

+ Or, laid before them, Wakefield. “Who were really men of eminence; the Greek being eqniralent (o TWY OTW TI." Newcome.

11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I withstood him to 12 his face, because he was to be blamed*. For before some

came from James, he ate with the gentiles : but, when

they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fear13 ing those of the circumcision. And the other Jews also

dissembled with him ; so that Barnabas likewise was car14 ried away with them by their dissimulation. But when I

saw that they walked not uprightly, according to the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter in the presence of them all, “ If thou, being a Jew, live according to the man. ner of the gentiles, and not according to that of the Jews,

howt compellest thou the gentiles to live like the Jews? 15 We, who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the gen16 tilest, since we know that a man is not justified by the

works of the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ; even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified

by faith in Christ, and not by the works of the law : for 17 by the works of the law no man can be justified. But if,

while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also

* Or, condemned, Chandler.

+ why, N. TI. The true reading is ws:--How is it that thou compellest, etc. Griesbach.

The Jews by birth, were in a state of privilege and under the Mosaic covenant, and therefore they were holy, and possessed many valuable means of virtue, whether they improved them or not. The gentiles by birth, were in an uncovenanted state, and as such were unholy, and ceremonially sinners, whatever their moral character might be. The Jews, having violated the terms of their covenant, became sinners, like the gentiles, and, by faith in Christ, again became holy. The gentiles, by faith in Christ, also became ho ly, were admitted into the same cast, and became entitled to the same privileges; and this withont submitting to the yoke of the ceremonial law. This was the liberal doo trine which Paul taught, but which the judaizing bigots every where opposed; insisting upon the indispensable necessity, or, at least, the great advantage, of submission to the ceremonial law. See Acts xv. It is of great importance to the clear understanding of the apostle's writings, and particularly of this epistle, to be apprised and to recolleet, that sin, in the apostle's argument, often expresses merely an unprivileged or uneore nanted state : holiness, is separation from the rest of the world by being in a state of privilege or covenant with God: to be justified, is to pass out of a state of sin into a state of holiness; or, in other words, from an unprivileged, into a privileged and covenant state. This is produced by faith, that is, the public profession of christianity; without the works of the law, that is, without submission to the Mosaic ritual. All this has relation to an external rather than to a moral state. See Locke, and Taylor on the Romans, and Taylor's Key.

be found sinners, is Christ the minister of sin ? By no 18 means. For if I build again the things which I have 19 destroyed, I make myself a transgressor. For I, through

the law, have died to the law, that I might live to God. 20 I have been crucified with Christ : nevertheless I live"; *** yet not I, but Christ liveth in me : and the life which I

now live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, 21 who loved me, and delivered up himself for me. I do

not make void the favour of God : for if justification *

come by the law, then Christ died in vain.” CH. II. O unwise Galatians, who hath bewitched you, t

before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been heretofore 2 clearly set forth [among you) as crucified I? This only I

desire to learn from you : Received ye the spirit by the 3 works of the law, or by the hearing of faith ? Are ye se

unwise ? having begun with the spirit, are ye now made 4 perfect by the flesh ? Have ye suffered so many things in 5 vain ? if indeed it must be even in vain. He therefore

who ministered to you the spirit, and wrought miracles

among you, did he thus by the works of the law, or by the 6 hearing of faith? even as “ Abraham believed God, and 7 it was counted to him for righteousness.” Know there

fore, that those who are of faith are the sons of Abraham. 8 And the scripture, having foreseen that God would jus

tify the gentiles by faith, proclaimed before glad tidings

to Abraham, saying, “ Through thee all nations shall be 9 blessed.” So those that are of faith are blessed with faith10 ful Abraham ; (for as many as are of the works of the

law, are under a curse : for it is written, “ Cursed is every

one who continueth not in all the things which are writ11 ten in the book of the law, to do them.” But that no

man is justified by the law in the sight of God, is evident : 12 for “ the just shall live by faith.” Now the law is not of

* acquittal, Wakefield.

† that ye should not obey the truth, R. T. 1 Jesus Christ crucified was set forth among you. Chandler.

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