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FABIAN SOCIETY.-The Fabian Sootety consists of Socialists. A stato

ment of its Rules and the following publications can be obtained from the Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clement's Inn, London, W.O. FABIANISM AND THE EMPIRE: A Manifesto. 4d. post free. FABIAN ESSAYS IN SOCIALISM. (35th Thousand.) Paper cover, 1/-; plain oloth, 2l-, post free from the Sooretary.

FABIAN TRACTS and LEAFLETS. Tracts, each 16 to 52 pp., price 1d., or 9d. per dos., unless otherwise stated.

Leaflets, 4 pp. each, price ld. for six copres, 18. per 100, or 8/6 per 1000. The Set of 88, 38.; post free 3/5. Bound in Buckram, 4/6; post free for 1.-General Socialism in its various aspects.

TRACTS.—121. Public Service versus Private Expenditure. By Sir OLIY LODGE. 113. Communism. By WM. MORRIS. 107. Socialism for Millio aires. By BERNARD SHAW. 78. Socialism and the Teaching of Chri By Dr. JOHN CLIFFORD. 87. The same in Welsh. 42. Christian Socie ism. By Rev. 8. D. HEADLAM. 75. Labor in the Longest Reign. SIDNEY WEBB. 72. The Moral Aspects of Socialism. By SIDNEY BAR 69. Difficulties of Individualism. By SIDNEY WEBB. 51. Socialism: Tr and False. By S. WEBB. 45. The Impossibilities of Anarchism. BERNARD SHAW (price 2d.). 15. English Progress towards Social Demo cracy. By S. WEBB. 7. Capital and Land (6th edn. revised 1904). 5. Fac for Socialists (10th edn., revised 1906). LEAFLETS—13. What Socialism

1. Why are the Many Poor? 38. The same in Welsh. II.-Applications of Socialism to Particular Problems.

TRACT8.—128. The Case for a Legal Minimum, Wage. 126. The Abo tion of Poor Law Guardians. 122. Municipal Milk and Public Healt By Dr. F. LAWSON DODD. 120. “After Bread, Education." 125. Munic palization by Provinces. 119. Public Control of Electrical Power Transit. 123. The Revival of Agriculture. 118. The Secret of Run Depopulation. 115. State Aid to Agriculture : an Example. 112. LE in the Laundry. 110. Problems of Indian Poverty. 98. State Ra. ways for Ireland. 124. State Control of Trusts. 86. Municipal Dri Traffic. 85. Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad. 84. Economi of Direct Employment. 83. State Arbitration and the Living Wage 73. Case for State Pensions in Old Age. 67. Women and the Facto Acts. 50. Sweating : its Cause and Remedy. 48. Eight Hours by La 23. Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 47. The Unemployed. By JOR BURNS, M.P. LEAFLETB.-89. Old Age Pensions at Work. 19. What the

Farm Laborer Wants. 104. How Trade Unions benefit Workmen. III.-Local Government Powers : How to use them.

TRACTS.—117. The London Education Act, 1903 : how to make the best of it, 114. The Education Act, 1902. III. Reform of Reformatories and Industrial Schools. By H. T. HOLMES. 109. Cottage Plans and Common Sense. By RAYMOND Unwin. 103. Overcrowding in London and its Remedy. By W. C. STEADMAN, L.C.C. 10r. The House Famine and How to Relieve it. 52 pp. 76. Houses for the People. 100. Metropolitan Borougb Councils. 99. Local Government in Ireland 82. Workmen's Compensation Act. 62. Parish and District Councils. 61. The London County Council. 54. The Humanizing of the Poor Law. By J. F. OAKESHOTT. LEAFLET8.-68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catechism. 71. Same for London. 63. Parish Council Cottages and how to get them. 58. Allotments and how to get them. FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM, FIRST SERIES (Nos. 32, 36, 37). Municipalization of the Gas Supply. The Scandal of London's Markets. A Labor Policy for Public Authorities. SECOND SERIES (Nos. 90 to 97). Municipalization of Milk Supply. Municipal Pawnshops. Municipal Slaughterhouses. Women as Councillors. Municipal Bakeries. Municipal Hospitals. Municipal Fire Insurance. Municipal Steamboats.

Second Series in a red cover for 1d. (9d. per doz.); separate leaflets, 1/- per 100. IV.-Books. 29. What to Read on social and economic subjects. 6d. net. V.-General Politics and Fabian Policy.

127. Socialism and Labor Policy. 116. Pabianism and the Fiscal Question: an alternative policy. 108. Twentieth Century Politics. By SIDNEY WEBB. 70. Report on Fabian Policy. 41. The Fabian Society:

its Early History. By BERNARD SHAW. VI.-Question Leaflets. Questions for Candidates : 20, Poor Law Guard

ans. 24, Parliament. 28, County Councils, Rural. 56, Parish Councils. 57,

Rural District Councils. 102, Metropolitan Borough Councils. Book Boxes lent to Societies, Clubs, Trade Unions, for 68. a year, or 2/6 a quarter

Printed by G. Standring, 7 Finsbury St., London, E.C., and pablished by the Fabian Society,

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LONDON :
31AN SOCIETY, 3 CLEMENT'S INN, STRAND, W.C.
OCT. 1898. FOURTH EDITION REPRINTED JULY 1908.

Society.-The Fabian Society consists of Socialista ment of ite Rules

and the following publications can be obtaine
Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clemens's Inn, London, W.O.
FABIANISM AND THE EMPIRE: A M
FABIAN ESSAYS IN each
Paper cover, 11-

FABIAI
Tracts, each 18

Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE FOURTH EDITION. This Tract was published in 1898, and the second and revised edition was issued in 1899. The present (fourth) edition is a reprint from stereo plates of the 1899 edition, with the exception of the first and last pages. The reader must therefore take note

В. that certain statements in the text are no longer correct. The complaint on page 5

T (last paragraph) that accurate information about Continental licensing laws is inaccessible is not now just. The phrases on page 6,"for fifteen years past," " In 1896, the last year for which the figures are available," must be read as from 1899 and not 1908. Pac Much fuller information about the Russian system can be found in The Case for Municipal Drink Trade and other books named in the appendix.

The Licensing Act, 1904.
This Act modifies the account of the law on pages 11 and 12. The power to refuse Aboli

. to renew licences except on account of offences is taken from the justices in petty

lealth. sessions and given to the quarter sessions ; but refusals to renew now carry compensa

unici. tion payable out of a fund raised by a charge made on all the other licences in the area.

rand New licences can only be granted

by quarter sessions ; may be limited to a term not ural exceeding seven years; and the monopoly value of all such licences must be secured

Life for public purposes by such conditions attached to the licence as the justices think bestRail

. fitted to attain this end. Thus the old scandal of conferring valuable privileges on private persons has been brought to an end. At the time of writing a far-reaching

nics Bill to amend the law further is before Parliament.

The law which determines what the people have to pay for thei
drink, and when and where they can get drunk, is necessarily
interest to all; and as, in the nature of things, such a law mu
be wholly satisfactory to few, it is certain to be the subject of ma
schemes for reform. But no scheme can be wisely prepared exc
in the light of the history which recounts how the law came inden
being and what caused it to take its present form. Moreover, alnaine
every sort of device for organizing the liquor traffic has already
tried; and in social science one experiment is worth a dozen the
and one valid precedent outweighs invincible arguments.

The growth of social reforms depends upon light even more upon heat. It is vain to form societies and to hold demonstrat to pass resolutions and to draft bills, if the promoters of these prises have no thorough understanding of the problem the indertaking to solve.

Early English History. The earliest English temperance reformer of whom I 'ecord is Archbishop Dunstan. In the year 958 King Edgad.

on his advice, suppressed all alehouses except one in every v Then comes that long period vaguely called the Mid Plan

uring which the price of ale seems to have been fixed b ces, chiefly in accordance with what is known as the

clot BoBread and Ale. But, as the title of the Act indicate Quant

-nrely part of the mediaval system of fixing prices as well.

Selling "corrupt” wines was penalized by statute in quan 1494 power was given to any two justices to stop the co

odle

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-ge 5

6, the

Muni

refuse

petty apensa

secured hink bests

01

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No temperance legislation is recorded during the reign of Henry VIII., and drinking appears to have grown apace. His son, Edward

VI., has the credit of establishing the existing licensing system. 11.

Licensing Established. It was enacted by 6 Edwd. VI., cap. 25, in the year 1552. Forasmuch," says the preamble of this Act, “as intolerable hurts nd troubles to the commonwealth of this realm doth daily grow and acrease through such abuses and disorders as are had and caused A common alehouses and other houses called tippling houses,"

herefore it was enacted that the justices should have direct control acces- pver the said houses by means of licences.

The artistic and literary talents of the Tudor period found an 1908. Jutlet even in Acts of Parliament, and one is almost inclined to

urmise that excuses were invented for passing and repassing these Icts in order to afford the opportunity for composing their icturesque and graphic preambles. Anyway, in 1554, less than wo years later, a new law was enacted, "for the avoiding of many

iconveniences, much evil rule, and common resort of misruled up area. Irsons used and frequented in many taverns newly set up in very cm noi feat numbers in back lanes, corners, and suspicious places within

e city of London and divers towns and villages within this realm."

he law provided that no wine should be sold without a licence -reachingd that no licence should be granted except in cities, boroughs and

rket towns. Moreover, in no case was any wine sold to be drunk the premises. The distribution of these licences is interesting.

place was to have more than two, except Bristol, which had six, For theirk eight, Westminster three and London forty. It would appear -sarily at this legislation was not without effect; for, according to Camden, aw milo wrote in 1581, Englishmen were "of all the northern nations of mae most commended for their sobriety," and in the reign of Elizaed excth drunkenness was regarded as disgraceful. The only liquor Act

i Parliament in her reign which need be recorded is one forbidding er, alnishmen to distil whisky in Pembrokeshire ! a thececky,* that the wars in the Netherlands taught Englishmen a habit. cady ! But it seems certain, according to several authorities quoted by

and admiration for, excess in drinking. And the great Queen was

trcely buried when Parliament undertook a new attempt at represOnstrate legislation. The preamble of this Act, passed by the first Parlia. hese cent of James I. in 1603, is worth quoting: m the. "Whereas the ancient true and principal se of inns, alehouses,

d other victualling houses was the receipt, ry ef, and lodging of waying persons travelling from place to plar and for such supply of wants of such people as are not able by 'eater quantities to make ir provision of victuals, and not meant r the entertainments and bouring of lewd and idle people, to spe'c and consume their money their time in lewd and drunken ma:rier," it is enacted that a penof 10%- shall be paid by any publican suffering “an inhabitant to fand tipple in his house," and a fine of 40/- shall be paid to the

History of England in the Eie leenth Century, pp. 476, etc. Other statements in LISBELT are derived from this source

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FA

ABIAN SOCIETY.-The Fabian Society oonsists of Sooialista, A state.

ment of its Rules and the followina
Seoratary, at the Fabian Office. 31

NISM

Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad.

INTRODUCTION TO THE FOURTH EDITION. This Tract was published in 1898, and the second and revised edition was issued in 1899. The present (fourth) edition is a reprint from stereo plates of the 1899 edition, with the exception of the first and last pages. The reader must therefore take note that certain statements in the text are no longer correct. The complaint on page 5 (last paragraph) that accurate information about Continental licensing laws is inaccessible is not now just. The phrases on page 6, " for fifteen years past, " In 1896, the last year for which the figures are available," must be read as from 1899 and not 1908. Much fuller information about the Russian system can be found in The Case for Municipal Drink Trade and other books named in the appendix.

The Licensing Act, 1904. This Act modifies the account of the law on pages 11 and 12. The power to refuse to renew licences except on account of offences is taken from the justices in petty sessions and given to the quarter sessions ; but refusals to renew now carry compensation payable out of a fund raised by a charge made on all the other licences in the area. New licences can only be granted by quarter sessions ; may be limited to a term not exceeding seven years; and the monopoly value of all such licences must be secured for public purposes by such conditions attached to the licence as the justices think best fitted to attain this end. Thus the old scandal of conferring valuable privileges or private persons has been brought to an end. At the time of writing a far-reaching, Bill to amend the law further is before Parliament.

nto

The law which determines what the people have to pay for theist drink, and when and where they can get drunk, is necessarily my interest to all ; and as, in the nature of things, such a law myept be wholly satisfactory to few, it is certain to be the subject of ma schemes for reform. But no scheme can be wisely prepared exc

nost in the light of the history which recounts how the law came

peen being and what caused it to take its present form. Moreover, alngries. every sort of device for organizing the liquor traffic has already tdi tried; and in social science one experiment is worth a dozen thecaihan and one valid precedent outweighs invincible arguments. fions,

The growth of social reforms depends upon light even more Interupon heat. It is vain to form societies and to hold demonstraty are to pass resolutions and to draft bills, if the promoters of these e prises have no thorough understanding of the problem the indertaking to solve. Early English History.

can find

ir, acting The earliest English temperance reformer of whom I Sillage. 'ecord is Archbishop Dunstan. In the year 958 King Edgadle Ages, on his advice, suppressed all alehouses except one in every y the Jus!! Then comes that long period vaguely called the Mid Assize of V uring which the price of ale seems to have been fixed bs, this was

ces, chiefly in accordance with what is known as the 11 as wages Bread and Ale. But, as the title of the Act indicate merely part of the mediaeval system of fixing prices as w!331 ; and in by legal enactment.

nmon selling Selling "corrupt" wines was penalized by statute in s of scarcity. 1494 power was given to any two justices to stop the Priale, probably to prevent the misuse of barley'i

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