صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني
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PLATE II. View in Quadrangle No. 1, Plate I. Showing Common Room at the angle.

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PLATE III. View in Quadrangle No. 2, Plate l. N.B.—The fronts of some cottages

and the backs of others are shown.

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Ground pre hase, including 50 o streets : 224 yos: Total cube. 126500


en soos


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study. For the less the accommodation it is possible to give, the more important it is that what is given shall be so carefully apportioned that the house may approach as far as possible to the ideal. Although we all probably hope and strive for some change in one or other of the restricting conditions, for the time being it is needful to remember that a certain limited rent will only pay for a certain limited space. Except by a very careful study of the life which that space is to shelter, it is not possible to design the house so as to properly fit and accommodate that life. And it is only by making the house fit the life of its occupants that a right and economical use of the space can be obtained. The available room must be most liberally given where it will be most thoroughly and continuously used. When mankind first took to living in houses these consisted of one room ; perhaps the most important fact to be remembered in designing cottages is that the cottager still lives during the day-time

in one room, which for the sake of clearness is best Living-room. called the living-room. In the vast majority of cases

the housewife has neither time nor energy to keep more than one room in constant use, and, during the greater part of the year, the cost of a second fire effectually prevents another room from being occupied. This living-room, then, will be the most thoroughly used and in all ways the chief room of the house ; here the bulk of the domestic work will be done, meals will be prepared and eaten, and children will play, while the whole family will often spend long evenings there together. The first consideration in planning any cottage should be to provide a roomy, convenient, and comfortable living-room, having a sunny aspect and a cheerful outlook. In it there should be space to breathe freely, room to move freely, convenience for work, and comfort for rest. It must contain the cooking stove, some good cupboards, and a working dresser in a light and convenient place. * No box 11 or 12 feet square should be provided for this purpose. Such a place cannot be healthy when occupied by a whole family, nor can it be other than inconvenient and uncomfortable.t In a very small room neither door nor window will be kept open except in very hot weather, because there can be no avoiding the direct draught. It is very important to plan a livingroom so that the doors or stairs may not destroy the comfort, or even the sense of comfort. They should be kept away from the fire, and, above all, should not open across either the fire or the window. By far the most comfortable arrangement is to have the outer door set inwards a little, in a shallow porch, leaving a window-recess on the same wall; if the room is a fair length, say not less than 15 feet, the door can then be wide open, and yet the light side of the room be free from draught. The common arrangement of an inside porch with the inner door opening at right angles to the outer one, directs the draught straight across the window to the fire, and largely destroys the sense of comfort in the room, while cutting it off more effectually from the fresh air. The chimney extracts a very large volume of air continuously from the room, and this must be made good

* See Plates VII. and IX.

† See Plate VI.; also VIII.

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