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lecture in London or the country; and the following publications can be obtained from the Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clement's Inn, London, W.O. FABIAN ESSAYS IN SOCIALISM. (35th Thousand.) Paper cover, 1/-; plain cloth, 2l-, post free from the Secretary.

FABIAN TRACTS and LEAFLETS. Tracts, each 16 to 32 pp., price ld., or 9d. per doz., unless otherwise stated.

Leaflets, 4 pp. each, price ld. for six copres, 18. per 100, or 8/6 per 1000. The Set of 79, post free 2/3. Bound in Buckram, post free for 3/9.

Boxes for set, 18., post free 1s. 3d. 1.-On General Socialism in its various aspects.

TRACTS.—79. A Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich. By JOHN WOOLMAN. 78. Socialism and the Teaching of Christ. By Dr. JOHN CLIFFORD. 87. The same in Welsh. 42. Christian Socialism. By Rev. S. D. HEADLAM. 75. Labor in the Longest Reign. By SIDNEY WEBB. 72. The Moral Aspects of Socialism. By SIDNEY BALL. 69. Difficulties of Individualism. By SIDNEY WEBB. 51. Socialism: True and False. By S. WEBB. 45. The Impossibilities of Anarchism. By BERNARD SHAW (price 2d.). 15. English Progress towards Social Democracy. By S. WEBB. 7. Capital and Land. A survey of thedistribution of property among the classes in England (5th edn. rovised 1896.) 5. Facts for Socialists. A similar survey of the distribution of income and the condition of the people. (8th edn. revised 1899.) LEAFLETS.

13. What Socialism Is. 1. Why are the Many Poor? 38. The same in Welsh II.-On Application of Socialism to Particular Problems.

TRACTS.-98. State Railways for Ireland. 88. The Growth of Monopoly in English Industry. By H. W. MACROSTY. 86. Municipal Drink Traffic. 85. Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad. By E. R. PEASE, 84. Economics of Direct Employment. 83. State Arbitration and the Living Wage. 80. Shop-life and its Reform. 74. The State and its Functions in New Zealand. 73. Case for State Pensions in Old Age. By Geo. TUBNER. 67. Women and the Factory Acts. By Mrs. SIDNEY WEBB. 50. Sweating : its Cause and Remedy. 48. Eight Hours by Law. 23. Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 47. The Unemployed. By J. BURNS, M.P. LEAFLETS.—89. Old

Age Pensions at Work. 19. What the Farm Laborer Wants. (I1.-On Local Government Powers : How to use them.

TRACTS.—100. Metropolitan Borough Councils: their powers and duties. 99. Local Government in Ireland. 82. Workmen's Compensation Act: what it means and how to make use of it. 77. Municipalization of Tramways. 76. Houses for the People. 62. Parish and District Councils. 61. The London County Council. 55. The Workers' School Board Program. 54. The Humanizing of the Poor Law. By J. F. OAKESHOTT. LEAFLETS.–81. Municipal Water. 68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catech. ism. 71. Same for London. 63. Parish Council Cottages and how to get them. 58. Allotments and how to get them. FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM (Nos. 30-37). The Unearned Increment. London's Heritage in the City Guilds. Municipalization of the Gas Supply. Municipal Tramways. London's Water Tribute. Municipalization of the London Docks. The Scandal of London's Markets. A Labor Policy for Public Authorities. The 8 in a red cover for 1d. (9d. per doz.); separately 1/- per 100. SECOND SERIES (Nos. go to 97). Municipalization of the Milk Supply. Municipal Pawnshops. Municipal Slaughterhouses. Women as Coun

cillors. (The others in preparation.) 6 for 1d., or 1/- per 100. IV.-On Books.

29. What to Read. A List of Books for Social Reformers. Contains the best books and blue-books relating to Economics, Socialism, Labor Movements,

Poverty, etc. 3rd edn.; revised 1896. Stiff cover, 6d. each; or 4/6 per doz. V.-On Fabian Policy.

70. Report on Fabian Policy and Resolutions presented to the Internat. Socialist Congress. 41. The Fabian Society: its Early History.

By BERNARD Shaw. VI.- Question Leaflets, containing Questions for Candidates for the

following bodies :-No. 20, Poor Law Guardians. No. 24, Parliament. No. 25, School Boards. No. 26, London County Council. No. 27, Town Councils. No. 28, County Councils, Rural. No. 56, Parish Councils. No. 57, Rural

District Councils. No. 59, Urban District Councils. Book Boxes lent to Societies, Clubs, Trade Unions, for 6s. a year, or 2/6 a quarter Printed by G. Stardring, 9 Finsbury Street. E.C., and Published by the Fabian Society,

3 Clement's Inn, Strand, London, W.O.

The Gase for an Sight

Hours Bill.




Published for the Fabian Society by JOHN HEYWOOD, Deansgate and

Ridgefield, Manchester, and i Paternoster Buildings, London ; and to be obtained also from the Secretary, at the Fabian Society's Office, 276, Strand, London, W.C.

3RD MAY, 1891.


Price One Shilling.

300 pages, crown 8vo,


Lecturer on Economics at the City of London College

and Working Men's College ; and HAROLD COX, B.A., Late Scholar of Jesus College, Cambridge.

This volume contains an exhaustive account of the Eight Hours Movement. A Description is given of the movement in favor of shorter hours in England, the United States, Australia, and the Continent. Full particulars are stated as to present hours of labor, and factory legislation. The results of previous reductions In the hours of labor are described. Full investigation is made into the economic results of a shortening of hours. The question of Overtime is explicitly dealt with. The hygienic, social, and juristic aspects of the question receive full con. sideration. Every argument for and against an Eight Hours Bill is exhaustively and impartially dealt with. The English, Foreign, and Colonial precedents are fully described. Definite proposals for legislation are critically examined. Exact references to the authorities and a complete Index make this work an indispensable guide to the whole question of the Reduction of the Hours of Labor.

Demy 8vo, Cloth, 420 pages, price 78. 60.

A Short History Anglo-Saxon Freedom

THE POLITY OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING RACE. By JAMES K. HOSMER, Professor in Washington University; Author of

A Life of Young Sir Harry Vane," etc. “A volume in which Professor Hosmer ably propounds and justifies his wellknown views. ... The work might very properly be used in schools, but is also interesting to grown people, and may be strongly recommended to mechanics' institutes, workmen's clubs, and public libraries." — Athencum.


Crown 8vo, cloth. Second Edition, with Preface, 3s. 6d.

“One expects a Nihilist romance by Stepniak to be full of the actualities of the situation, to display the genuine and intimate sentiments of revolutionary society in Russia, and to correct not a few of the impressions formerly gathered from novelists who only know that society by hearsay ard at-second-hand, The reader will not be disappointed in this expectation. No one can read this story ... without deep : nterest.-Athenæum. LONDON: WALTER SCOTT, 24 WARWICK LANE, PATERNOSTER Row.


The Case for an Eight Hours Bill.*


The one demand of the laboring masses which to-day forces itself on the attention alike of the willing and the unwilling, is the rapidly growing international movement in favor of an Eight Hours Day.

In England and Scotland, in Australia and America, and throughout the Continent of Europe, the wage-earners are quickly coming to be unanimous on this point.

This has come about, not so much from the conviction that the present hours are injurious to health-though that in many cases is the fact—not so much from the theory that shorter hours mean higher wages – though that theory is in the main sound,-but from the strongly-felt desire for additional opportunities for self-cultivation and the enjoyment of life.

Men and women who toil for wages are everywhere growing tired of being only working animals. They wish to enjoy, as well as to labor ; to pluck the fruits, as well as dig the soil ; to wear as well as to weave. They are eager for opportunity to see more of the great world in which they live—a world of which many of them now for the first time hear from. books. On all sides there is an expansion of life. New possibilities of enjoyment, physical, emotional, intellectual, are daily opening for the masses. New aspirations are daily surging up. We need not wonder then that this generation is no longer content to live as its fathers and mothers lived. Hence in all classes the demand for leisure grows keener and keener. Both men and women are growing daily more conscious of the cruelty of a system which condemns them to a barely broken round of monotonous toil. Everywhere they begin fiercely to rebel against this system, and nerve themselves to prepare for its overthrow.

“Work we will,” they say in effect, not in words, know that work is the condition of life. But we demand in return the wage for our work. Not mere money wage—for that by itself is useless--but the power and opportunity to enjoy the advantages which the labor of all of us has created.”

THE NEED FOR A SHORTER Day. This power and opportunity to enjoy the civilisation which labor creates is now denied to the great mass of the workers. In

" for we

* Fabian Tract No. 9, An Eight Hours Bill in the form of an amendment of the Factory Acts, gives practicable proposals for Eight Hours legislation. A brief summary of the arguments is contained in Fabian Tract No. 16, A Plea for an Eight Hours Bill. The whole subject is dealt with at length in the book entitled “The Eight Hours Day," by Sidney Webb and Harold Cox (London, Walter Scott, price one shilling), which gives full particulars of the history of the Eight Hours Movement in all parts of the world, description of Foreign and Colonial Factory Laws, authentic accounts of the results where the Eight Hours Day has been tried, and an extensire list of publications on the subject.

many industries, practically the whole of their waking life is taken up in the mere struggle to live. Many thousands of them never see their little children out of bed. Nearly all of them are worked too. long for physical health.

Here are some cases of the hours of labor now being worked in Great Britain.


The men who work on the tramcars in our cities are on duty for at least fourteen hours a day, without including meal times.. Many of them work longer even than this, and seven days a week. One conductor in Bradford was found to be working regularly 115 hours a week, with no intervals for meals, at wages of three shillings a day. One town * in England works its own tramways. free from the control of profit-making shareholders. On this tram-way the workers enjoy an Eight Hours Day.


The great Scotch strike of 1890-1 has made us all familiar with the monstrously excessive hours of nearly all grades of railway men. Particulars of their overwork are to be found in the Railway Companies' own returns to the Board of Trade.t

Nearly all the great Railway Companies have thousands of men at work for fifteen, and even eighteen hours at a stretch. Nor is. this made necessary by fogs or pressure of business. The London and South-Western Railway suffers from as many fogs as the rest, and is no less liable to sudden increase of traffic. But the London and South-Western Railway hardly ever keeps any engine-driver or signalman at work for more than twelve hours at a stretch. What one company can do, the others could imitate if they liked; but they prefer to work with an inadequate staff.

This is how the North British Railway Company worked one of its firemen during the latter part of 1890 :1st fortnight 174 hours 9th fortnight

168 hours 2nd


193 3rd


190 4th


192 5th


198 6th


155 7th


167 8th

194 Average, 1854 hours per fortnight. No wonder that during 1889, one in seventeen of the brakesmen and goods guards, and one in eighteen of the shunters, employed in the United Kingdom, were injured by accidents. I

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• Huddersfield. The Town Council nevertheless loses nothing by its generosity ; its tramways yield full interest on cost and show no deficit.

+ See Parliamentary Paper, c. 6158 of 1891.

Report to the Board of Trade, c. 6155 of 1890.

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