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SWANN, ANNIE S. The outsiders. A sketch of the social work

of the salvation army. 1906, S. A. Headquarters, is. n.

London unemployed fund. Preliminary statement by the cen

tral executive committee, April 1905. Cd. 2561, 1905, 6d. London unemployed fund, 1904-5. Report of central executive

committee to September 30th. 1905, King, is. n. Agencies and methods of dealing with the unemployed in

certain foreign countries.' Board of trade. Cd. 2304, 1905,

Vagrancy. Report of the departmental committee on. Vol. i.

Cd. 2852, 1906, 1/1.
Labor bureaux. Report on, made to the president of the local

government board, with appendix. S.P. 86, 1906, 3d,

Russell, T. BARON. A hundred years hence. The expectations

of an optimist. 1906, Unwin, 76.
TARDE, GABRIEL. Underground man. 1905, Duckworth, 3/6 n.
Wells, H. G. A modern utopia. 1905, Chapman, 7/6.

Anticipations of the reaction of mechanical and scientific progress upon human life and thought: 1902, Chapman, 3.6.

Mankind in the making. 1904, Chapman and Hall, 3/6. In the days of the comet. 1906, Macmillan, 6s.


Women's Questions.
BLACKBURN, HELEN. Women's suffrage. A record of the

women's suffrage movement in the British Isles. 1902,

Williams and Norgate, 6s.
CADBURY, E., M. C. MATHESON, and G. SHANN. Women's work

and wages [in Birmingham]. 1906, Unwin, 6s.
COLLET, Clara E. Educated working women. Essays on the

economic position of women workers in the middle classes.

1902, King, 2/6 n. and 2s. n. HARRISON, A. Women's industries in Liverpool. 1904, Liver

pool University Press, 3s. MACDONALD, J. Ramsay. Women in the printing trades. A

sociological study. 1904, P. S. King, 106 n. Smith, W. Sidney. Outlines of the women's franchise more

ment in New Zealand. 1905, Whitcomb and Tombs. SOUTHWARK, The BISHOP OF. Women as barmaids. Published

by the joint committee on the employment of barmaids. 1906, King, is. n.


ABIAN SOCIETY.-TheFabian Soolety consists of Socialists. A state

ment of ite Rules and the following publications can be obtained from the Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clement's Inn, London, W.C. FABIANISM AND THE EMPIRE: A Manifesto. 4d. post free. FABIAN ESSAYS IN SOCIALISM. (35th Thousand.) Paper cover, 1/-; plain cloth, 2/-, post free from the Secretary.

FABIAN TRACTS and LEAFLETS. Tracts, each 16 to 52 pp., price 1d., or 9d. per dos., unless otherwise stated.

Leaflets, 4 pp. each, price ld. for six copres, 18. per 100, or 86 per 1000. The Set of 88, 38.; post free 3/5.. Bound in Buckram, 4/6; post free for 55. 1.-General Socialism in its various aspects.

TRACT8.—121. Public Service versus Private Expenditure. By Sir OLIVEB LODGE. 113. Communism. By Wm. MORRIS. 107. Socialism for Millionaires. By BERNARD SHAW. 78. Socialism and the Teaching of Christ. By Dr. JOHN CLIFFORD. 87. The same in Welsh. 42. Christian Social. ism. By Rev. 8. D. HEADLAM. 75. Labor in the Longest Reign. By SIDNEY WEBB. 72. The Moral Aspects of Socialism. By SIDNEY BALL. 69. Difficulties of Individualism. By SIDNEY WEBB. 51. Socialism: True and False. By 8. WEBB. 45. The Impossibilities of Anarchism. By BERNARD SHAW (price 2d.). 15. English Progress towards Social Democracy. By S. WEBB. 7. Capital and Land (6th edn. revised 1904). 5. Facts for Socialists (10th edn., revised 1906). LEAFLETS-13. What Socialism Is.

1. Why are the Many Poor? 38. The same in Welsh. 11.-Applications of Socialism to Particular Problems.

TRACTS.—128. The Case for a Legal Minimum Wage. 126. The Aboli. tion of Poor Law Guardians. 122. Municipal Milk and Public Health, By Dr. F. LAWSON DODD. 120.“ After Bread, Education." 125. Munici. palization by Provinces. 119. Public Control of Electrical Power and Transit. 123. The Revival of Agriculture. 118. The Secret of Rural Depopulation. 115. State Aid to Agriculture : an Example. 112. Life in the Laundry. 110. Problems of Indian Poverty. 98. State Rail. ways for Ireland. 124. State Control of Trusts. 86. Municipal Drink Traffic. 85. Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad. 84. Economics of Direct Employment. 83. State Arbitration and the Living Wage. 73. Case for State Pensions in Old Age. 67. Women and the Factory Acts. 50. Sweating: its Cause and Remedy. 48. Eight Hours by Law. 23. Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 47. The Unemployed. By John BURNS, M.P. LEAFLETS.–89. Old Age Pensions at Work. 19. What the

Farm Laborer Wants. 104. How Trade Unions benefit Workmen. III.-Local Government Powers: How to use them.

TRACTS.—117. The London Education Act, 1903 : how to make the best of it. 114. The Education Act, 1902. 111. Reform of Reformatories and Industrial Schools. By H. T. HOLMES. 10g. Cottage Plans and Common Sense. By RAYMOND UNWIN. 103. Overcrowding in London and its Remedy. By W. C. STEADMAN, L.O.C. 76. Houses for the People. 100. Metropolitan Borough Councils. 99. Local Government in Ireland. 82. Workmen's Compensation Act. 62. Parish and District Councils. 61. The London County Council. 54. The Humanizing of the Poor Law. By J. F. QAKESHOTT. LEAFLETS.—68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catechism. 71. Same for London. 63. Parish Council Cottages and how to get them. 58. Allotments and how to get them. FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM, FIRST SERIES (Nos. 32, 36, 37). Municipalization of the Gas Supply. The Scandal of London's Markets. A Labor Policy for Public Authorities. SECOND SERIES (Nos. go to 97). Municipalization of Milk Supply. Municipal Pawnshops. Municipal Slaughterhouses. Women as Councillors. Municipal Bakeries. Municipal Hospitals. Municipal Fire Insurance. Municipal Steamboats.

Second Series in a red cover for 1d. (9d. per doz.); separate leaflets, 1/- per 100. IV.-Books. 29. What to Read on social and economic subjects. 6d. net.

129. More Books to Read. Supplement to October, 1906. V.-General Politics and Fabian Policy.

127. Socialism and Labor Policy. 116. Fabianism and the Fiscal Question: an alternative policy. 108. Twentieth Century Politics. By SIDNEY WEBB. 70. Report on Fabian Policy. 41. The Fabian Society:

its Early History. By BERNARD SHAW. VI.—Question Leaflets. Questions for Candidates : 20, Poor Law Guard

ians. 24, Parliament. 28, County Councils, Rural. 56, Parish Councils. 57,

Rural District Councils. 102, Metropolitan Borough Councils. Bɔok Boxes lent to Societies, Clubs, Trade Unions, for 68. a year, or 2/6 a quarter Printed by G. Standring, 7 Finsbury St., London, E.C., and published by the Fabian Society,

3 Clement's Inn, Strand, London W.C.


The Causes and the Remedies.





THE Fabian Society, 3 CLEMENT'S INN, STRAND, W.C.


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BETWEEN 1886 and 1889 the public became very much excited over the horrors of the “Sweating System." The revelations of hidecus suffering, overwork and want brought home for a brief space to the minds of the middle and upper classes“ how the poor live." Gradually the excitement died away : new topics absorbed the interest of the public; and of Sweating and the Sweating System we heard little. In 1906, however, the Daily News, following the example of a philanthropic society at Berlin, arranged an exhibition of sweated industries. Workers were shewn, in a London hall, actually manufacturing match-boxes, blouses, etc., or carding hooks and eyes, and so forth; and though for obvious reasons neither the long hours of work nor the insanitary conditions which too generally characterize similar employments, could be permitted or represented in an exhibition, full explanatory details of rates of pay, cost of materials, etc., were given to visitors, and each day there was a lecture by some person qualified to describe and illustrate not only the seen but the unseen side of sweating. The show attracted a vast deal of attention. Pity and sympathy were freely expressed ; bụt along with the pity was mingled a note of sheer bewilderment, and almost daily, when question-time followed the lecture, came the cry, "What can be done? what can we ourselves do, to stop it?" The present Tract is an attempt, not to revive the useless public excitement, but to set plainly before the workers themselves—and especially before the organized Trade Unionists, who can do most to bring about a reform

-the actual facts as to Sweating, and the way in which it can be abolished.

What is meant by the Sweating System, The phrase, the Sweating System is misleading. All experts agree that there is no one industrial system co-extensive with, or invari. ably present in, the Sweated Trades. Mr. Booth expresses this by saying that it is not with one but many sweating systems we have to deal : Mr. Schloss says that no sweating system whatever is discoverable; and the House of Lords Committee, whilst reporting that the evils complained of could "scarcely be exaggerated," said that they had been unable to find any precise meaning attached to the phrase. An enquiry into sweating resolves itself, therefore, into an enquiry into the conditions under which the sweated industries " are worked. Here at least a painful and striking uniformity is met with, and accepting it as a starting point, the Lords Committee defined Sweating as :

1.-Unduly low rates of wages.
2.-Excessive hours of labor.
3.-Insanitary state of the workplaces.

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