« السابقةمتابعة »
responsibilities. For instance, the arguments against the unlimited provision of medical attendance on the child-bearing mother and her children disappear. We may presently find the leader of the Opposition, if not the Prime Minister, advocating the municipal supply of milk to all infants, and a free meal on demand (as already provided by a far-seeing philanthropist at Paris) to mothers actually nursing their babies. We shall, indeed, have to face the problem of the systematic "endowment of motherhood," and place this most indispensable of all professions upon an honorable economic basis. The feeding of all the children at school appears in a new light, and we come, at a stride, appreciably nearer to that not very far distant article in the education code making obligatory in the time-table a new subject-namely, "12 to i p.m., table manners (materials provided).” One encouragement to parentage in the best members of the middle and upper artizan classes would be a great multiplication of maintenance scholarships for secondary, technical and university education, and the multiplication of tax-supported higher schools and colleges at nominal fees, or even free.
Such a revolution in the economic incidence of the burden of child-bearing will, of course, be deprecated by the ignorant and unthinking, as calculated to encourage the idle and the thriftless, the drunken and the profligate to increase and multiply. The grave fact that we have to face is that, under our existing social arrangements, it is exactly these people, and practically these only, who at present make full use of their reproductive powers. Such a revolution in the economic incidence of the burden of child-bearing as is here proposed would, as a matter of fact, have exactly the opposite result. It would in no way increase the number of children born to those parents whose marriages are at present unregulated. But in the other section of every class of society, where the birth-rate is now regulated from motives of foresight and prudence, it would leave the way open to the play of the best instincts of mankind. To the vast majority of women, and especially to those of fine type, the rearing of children would be the most attractive occupation, if it offered economic advantages equal to those, say, of school teaching or service in the post office. At present it is ignored as an occupation, unremunerated, and in no way honored by the State. Once the production of healthy, moral and intelligent citizens is revered as a social service and made the subject of deliberate praise and encouragement on the part of the government, it will, we may be sure, attract the best and most patriotic of the citizens. Once set free from the overwhelming economic penalties with which among four-fifths of the population it is at present visited, the rearing of a family may gradually be rendered part of the code of the ordinary citizen's morality. The natural repulsion to interference in marital relations will have free play, The mystic obligations of which the religious-minded feel the force will no longer be confronted by the dead wall of economic necessity. To the present writer it seems that only by some such “sharp turn in our way of dealing with these problems can we avoid degeneration of type-that is, race deterioration, if not race suicide.
FABIAN SOCIETY.–The Fabian Society consists of Socialiste. A state ment of ite Rules
and the following publications can be obtained from the Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clement's Inn, London, W.O. THIS MISERY OF BOOTS. By H. G. WELLS. Paper cover, design
by A. G. Watts. 3d., post free 4d.; 2/3 per doz., post free, 27. FABIANISM AND THE EMPIRE: A Manifesto. 6d. post free. FABIAN ESSAYS IN SOCIALISM. (35th Thousand.) Paper cover, 11-; plain cloth, 2., post free from the Secretary.
FABIAN TRACTS and LEAFLETS. Tracts, each 16 to 52 pp., price ld., or 9d. per dos., unless otherwise stated.
Leaflets, 4 pp. each, price 1d. for six copres, 1s. per 100, or 8.6 per 1000. The Set of 88, 38.; post free 35. Bound in Buckram, 4/6; post free for 55. 1.-General Socialism in its various aspects.
TRACTg.-121. Public Service versus Private Expenditure. By Sir OLIVE3 LODGE. 113. Communism. By Wm. MORRIS. 107. Socialism for Millionaires. By BEBNARD SHAW. 78. Socialism and the Teaching of Christ. By Dr. JOHN CLIFFORD. 87. The same in Welsh. 42. Christian Socialism. By Rev. 8. D. HEADLAM. 79. A Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich. By JOHN WOOLMAN. 75. Labor in the Longest Reigo. By SIDNEY WEBB. 72. The Moral Aspects of Socialism. By SIDNEY BALL. 69. Difficulties of Individualism. By SIDNEY WEBB. 51. Socialism : True and False. By S. WEBB. 45. The Impossibilities of Anarchism. By BERNARD SHAW (price 2d.). 15. Englisb Progress towards Social Demo. cracy. By S. WEBB. 7. Capital and Land (6th edn. revised 1904). 5. Facts for Socialists (10th edn., revised 1906). LEAFLET8—13. What Socialism Is.
1. Why are the Many Poor? 38. The same in Welsh. II.-Applications of Socialism to Particular Problems.
TRACT8.-131. The Decline of the Birth-Rate. By SIDNEY WEBB. 130. Home Work and Sweating. By Miss B. L. HUTCHINS. 128. The Case for a Legal Minimum Wage. 126. The Abolition of Poor Law Guardians. 122. Municipal Milk and Public Health. By Dr. F. LA#SON DODD. 120. “After Bread, Education." 125. Municipalization by Provinces. 119. Public Control of Electrical Power and Transit. 123. The Revival of Agriculture. 118. The Secret of Rural Depopulation. 115. State Aid to Agriculture : an Example._112. Life in the Laundry. 110. Problems of Indian Poverty. 98. State Railways for Ireland. 134. State Control of Trusts. 86. Municipal Drink Traffic. 85. Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad. 84. Economics of Direct Employment. 83. State Arbitration and the Living Wage. 73. Case for State Pensions in Old Age. 48. Eight Hours by Law. 23. Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 47. The Unemployed. By JOHN BURNS, M.P. LEAFLET8.-19. What
the Farm Laborer Wants. 104. How Trade Unions benefit Workmen. III.-Local Government Powers : How to use them.
TRACT8.—117. The London Education Act, 1903: how to make the best of it, III. Reform of Reformatories and Industrial Schools. By H. T. HOLMEs. 109. Cottage Plans and Common Sense. By RAYMOND UNWIX. 103. Overcrowding in London and its Remedy. By W. C. STEADMAN, L.C.C. 76. Houses for the People. 100. Metropolitan Borough Councils. 99. Local Government in Ireland 82. W'orkmen's Compensation Act. 62. Parish and District Councils. 61. The London County Council. 54. The Humanizing of the Poor Law. By J. F. QAKESHOTT. LEAFLETS.68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catechism., 71. Same for London. 63. Parish Council Cottages and how to get them. 58. Allotments and how to get them. FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM, FIRST SERIES (Nos. 32, 36, 37). Municipalization of the Gas Supply. The Scandal of London's Markets. A Labor Policy for Public Authorities. SECOND SERIES (Nos. go to 97). Municipalization of Milk Supply. Municipal Pawnshops. Municipal Slaughterhouses. Women as Councillors. Municipal Bakeries. Municipal Hospitals. Municipal Fire Insurance. Municipal Steamboats.- Second Series in a red cover for id. (9d. per doz.); separate
leaflets, 1/- per 100. IV.-Books. 29. What to Read on social and economic subjects. 6d. net.
129. More Books to Read. Supplement to October, 1906. V.-General Politics and Fabian Policy.
127. Socialism and Labor Policy. 116. Fabianism and the Fiscal Question : an alternative policy. 108. Twentieth Century Politics. By SIDNEY WEBB. 70. Report on Fabian Policy. 41. The Fabian Society:
its Early History. By BERNARD SHAW. VI.-Question Leaflets. Questions for Candidates : 20. Poor Law Guard.
ians. 24, Parliament. 28, County Councils, Rural. 102, Metropolitan
Borough Councils. Book Boxes lent to Societies, Clubs, Trade Unions, for 68. & year, or 2/6 a quarter
A GUIDE TO BOOKS FOR SOCIALISTS
PUBLISHED AND SOLD BY
THE FABIAN SOCIETY.
PRICE ONE PENNY.
THE FABIAN SOCIETY, 3 CLEMENT'S INN, STRAND, W.C.
A Guide to Books for Socialists.
During recent years the output of Socialist books in this country has been considerable, and the conscientious enquirer who desires to get a thorough knowledge of Socialism as it stands to-day finds himself confronted with a literature of great range and diversity. If he chances to be already a Socialist and in touch with other Socialists of more experience than himself, he may be able to obtain some guidance as to what must be read and what may safely be passed by. But in any case such guidance obtained from individuals is apt to be limited and biassed by individual preferences and tastes, and generally will not lead the enquirer to a catholic acquaintance with the subject.
This guide, although it does not claim to be in any way exhaustive, is designed to help enquirers to select the really vital and indispensable books relating to modern Socialism. It has been compiled with the object of representing as far as possible all sides and phases of the Socialist movement, and it may safely be said that the student who reads every book mentioned below will have a thoroughly wide and fairly complete working knowledge of Socialist activities and aspirations.
Socialism is concerned with every branch of human activity, and for this reason there are few books which attempt to cover even the general groundwork of the subject. Britain for the British, by Robert Blatchford, is the most popular and the Fabian Essays perhaps the most adequate summary in English. Socialism: its Nature, Strength and Weakness, by Professor Ely, is an impartial survey by a non-Socialist, and Socialism and Society, by J. Ramsay MacDonald, is important as a general account of Socialist theory by a prominent member of the Parliamentary Labor Party. Mr. H. G. Wells is now (February, 1907) engaged upon “a plain account of Socialism,” which will appear this year.
On the historical side, the History of Socialism, by Thomas Kirkup, and an article on “Socialism” by the same author in the ninth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, give a useful account of the development of Socialist ideas. Socialism, Utopian and Scientific, by Frederick Engels, is an important work, and the Communist Manifesto, issued in 1848 by Marx and Engels, is a document which, although in some respects out of date, no Socialist should fail to read, if only for its literary and historical value.
In the new adherent to Socialism the spirit of propaganda is customarily at its strongest, and at an early stage in his reading he finds himself seeking solutions and answers to the various controversial objections which are raised by the unconverted. He realizes that he is apt to be nonplussed by arguments which are sprung on him suddenly, however trite and worn out they may be, and he feels a need to be familiar with books bearing on SOCIALISM IN ITS PARTICULAR ASPECTS.
One of the commonest and most obvious forms of attack is that from the so-called scientific point of view, in which Socialism is accused of being opposed to the principle of natural selection or to the "survival of the fittest.” On this subject Kropotkin's Mutual Aid is a classic, while Socialism and Positive Science, by Enrico Ferri, is more recent, and fully disposes of all the “scientific" objections that have been raised. Other works of value are Socialism and Individualism, by E. Kelly, Darwinism and Politics, by D. G. Ritchie, and the essays on Socialism in Karl Pearson's Ethic of Freethought and in his Chances of Death, vol. 1.
To meet successfully economic objections to Socialism the student will need to acquire a wide knowledge of economic facts (and there are unfortunately no adequate works on Descriptive Economics) or else to devote a considerable time to the study of economic theory.