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and not be misled by those who have overlaid her teaching with their own selfishness. And to those who are not conscious Socialists I say, Why not? Have you any reason except a selfish one? Why hold back and be half-hearted ? You and we are at one. For Christianity is not Individualism. Neither is it Socialism and water. It is Socialism and fire—the practical religion of those whose inspirais “comfort, life, and fire of love."*
And to those Socialists who are not consciously Christian, I also say, Why not? You are serving Christ. You and we are at one. We are fighting against the same evils. Look at our devotional books, and you will find at the beginning the ancient tabulated lists of virtues and vices. You will see that we love the same things that you love, Justice, Love, Hope, Fortitude ; that we are commanded to do the same "Corporal Works," to feed, give drink, and clothe. Nay, that we have to fight the same things. There are four “Sins crying to Heaven for Vengeance"; only four, but two of these are Murder and the Sin of Sodom, and the other two are Oppression of the poor and Defrauding the laborers of their wages. You will find, moreover, “Seven Deadly Sins" which you will see at once are just the anti-social sins which you are fighting-Pride, Covetousness, Lust, Anger, Gluttony, Envy, Sloth; and you will observe that, with one exception, none of these seven shock the respectable public, though Socialism does. You will further observe that four of these sins-Pride, Covetousness, Envy and Sloth, and often Gluttony as well—are popularly regarded as very gentlemanlike qualities.
Will you, then, realize—and it is time you did !—that what you and every good man are fighting, is nothing else than wickedness, and none the less wickedness because it is embodied in statute-books and economic formulæ ? Beneath all your political work you have to convert the heart of man. And it is a tough job. You won't convert him by pointing to his interests. He is singularly blind about them, and always has been. You will only convert him by giving him a moral ideal. Is there a better one than Christ? If so, how is it that Socialism can only be spread in those countries where the people have professed the Christian faith for many hundreds of years? The Church has made plenty of mistakes, and its members have committed ruinous sins like other people, and always there have been many Judases within the camp selling the Christ for pieces of silver ; but its united voice, its official documents, its pattern saints have never faltered ; and at least it has driven into men's hard hearts some touch of brotherly love, and has made Socialism already almost possible in Christian countries.
This Socialism is its own old teaching revived. It is getting to understand that ; and the age of social lethargy and religious competition is passing away. Every Socialist who understands how deeply religion has been concerned in every movement that has ever won the enthusiasm of men, every Socialist who realizes how
* The Veni Creator in the Prayer Book translation.
enormous is the work before him, must welcome the assistance of this ancient and imperishable organ of love and justice. And every Christian who rejoices in the singular growth of religious zeal in recent years must long to see all that huge force given to the service of the Humanity which Jesus Christ has taken up into the Godhead.
For the man that loves much is a Socialist, and the man that loves most is a Saint, and every man that truly loves the brotherhood is in a state of salvation.
We know that we have passed from death unto life,
ABIAN SOCIETY.-The Fabian Boolety consists of soolaliste. A state
ment of its Rules and the following publications can be obtained from the
Seoretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clement's Inn, London, W.O.
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FABIAN TRACTS and LEAFLETS.
Leaflets, 4 pp. each, price ld. for six copres, 18. per 100, or 8/6 per 1000. The Set of 81, 35.; post free 3/5. Bound in Buckram, 4/6; post free for 55. 1.--General Socialism in its various aspects.
TRACT8.—121. Public Service versus Private Expenditure. By Sir OLIVES LODGE. 113. Communism. By Wm. MORRIS. 107. Socialism for Millionaires. By BERNARD SHAW. 133. Socialism and Christianity. By Rer. PERCY DEARMER. 78. Socialism and the Teaching of Christ. By Dr. JOHN CLIFFORD. 87. The same in Welsh. 42. Christian Socialism. By Rev. S. D. HEADLAM. 79. A Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich. By JOHN WOOLMAN. 75. Labor in the Longest Reign. By SIDNEY WEBB. 72. The Moral Aspects of Socialism. By SIDNEY BALL. 69. Difficulties of Individualism. By SIDNEY WEBB. 51. Socialism: True and False. By 8. WEBB. 45. The Impossibilities of Anarchism. By BERNARD SHAW (price 2d.). 15. English Progress towards Social Democracy. By S. WEBB. 7. Capital and Land (6th edn. revised 1904). 5. Facts for Socialists (10th edn., revised 1906). LEAFLETS—!3. What Socialism Is.
1. Why are the Many Poor? 38. The same in Welsh. 11.-Applications of Socialism to Particular Problems.
TRACTS.—131. The Decline in the Birth-Rate. By SIDNEY WEBB. 130. Home Work and Sweating. By Miss B. L. HUTCHINS. 128. The Case for a Legal Minimum Wage. 126. The Abolition of Poor Law Guardians. 122. Municipal Milk and Public Health. By Dr. F. LAF. SON DODD. 120. “After Bread, Education.” 125. Municipalization by Provinces. 119. Public Control of Electrical Power and Transit. 123. The Revival of Agriculture. 118. The Secret of Rural Depopulation. 115. State Aid to Agriculture : an Example. 112. Life in the Laundry. 98. State Railways for Ireland. 124. State Control of Trusts. 86. Municipal Drink Traffic. 85. Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad. 84. Economics of Direct Employment. 83. State Arbitration and the Living Wage. 48. Eight Hours by Law. 23. Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 47. The Unemployed. By JOHN BURNS, M.P. LEAFLET.—104. How
Trade Unions benefit Workmen.
TRACT8.—117. The London Education Act, 1903: how to make the best of it, 10g. Cottage Plans and Common Sense. By RAYMOND UNWIX. 103. Overcrowding in London and its Remedy. By W. C. STEADMAS. 76. Houses for the People. 99. Local Government in Ireland. 82. Workmen's Compensation Act. New edition for the Act of 1906. 62. Parish and District Councils. 54. The Humanizing of the Poor Law. By J. F. RAKESHOTT. LEAFLETS.-68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catechism. zi. Same for London. 63. Parish Council Cottages and how to get them. 134. Small Holdings, Allotments and Common Pastures: and how to get them. FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM, FIRST SERIES (Nos. 32, 36, 37). Municipalization of the Gas Supply. The Scandal of London's Markets. A Labor Policy for Public Authorities. SECOND SERIES (Nos. 90 to 97). Municipalization of Milk Supply. Municipal Pawnshops. Municipal Slaughterhouses. Women as Councillors. Municipal Bakeries. Municipal Hospitals. Municipal Fire Insurance. Municipal Steamboats.-Second Series in a red cover for 1d. (9d. per dos.);
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Supplement to October, 1906.
127. Socialism and Labor Policy. 116. Fabianisms and the Fiscal
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SMALL HOLDINGS, ALLOTMENTS, AND
COMMON PASTURES :
What is the use of an allotment to a working man? It has many uses. In the first place, if he puts good labor into it, and if he keeps a pig to eat some of the produce and to supply manure, an acre allotment is worth three or four shillings a week to him, and often more.
Secondly, he is always sure of having a good supply of vegetables and potatoes for his family.
When he is out of work, too, he can spend some of the time that would otherwise be wasted, in improving his own piece of land.
Allotments make the laborers more independent when they have to deal with the farmers and landlords. "Undoubted!y one of the chief things needed at the present time is an independent and sturdy spirit amongst the farm laborers. In our midland and southern villages they suffer constantly from low wages and harsh treatment, but the majority of them dare not say a single outspoken word to help to make things better. They take whatever wages are offered them and they put up with every tyranny without protest. Why is this ? Chiefly because they depend on others for work and food, and seldom have any Trade Union to look after their interests. But if a laborer has a sack or two of flour in his cottage, and a couple of good sides of bacon, and a stock of potatoes to tide him over the winter, he does not feel nearly so helpless and humble. And an allotment can provide him with these things.
How to make an Allotment Profitable. But allotments are not found to succeed everywhere and always. Certain things are necessary before they are likely to be of real use The allotment must be
NEAR THE LABORER's own Home. It is absurd to expect a man to walk out a mile or so and walk back again, after he has done a heavy day's work, in order to spend an liour on his allotment. And as an allotment always requires conştant care and attention if it is to give the best results, it is absolutely necessary that it should be near the worker's home.
A FAIR RENT. Often the laborers grow such good crops on their allotments and make them pay so well that the landlord takes the opportunity to charge them a much higher rent than he asks the farmer for the neighboring land of the same quality. Why should working men pay a penalty for cultivating their land well? And why should they work hard and constantly in order that the landlord may get an extra rent? The rent must certainly be a fair one.
Small Holdings. It is not only the laborer who finds it profitable to work a plot of land if he can get it at a fair rent and on reasonable conditions. Working as he does chiefly in his spare time, the allotment is large enough for his needs. But there is an increasing demand for land for another class of agriculturists, the men who wish to devote their whole time to a farm, the men who want a small holding up to fifty acres. Here, again, it is not always possible to bargain with the landlords for suitable farms at a fair price or on fair terms that will protect the tenant against loss of his improvements at the end of the tenancy.
Common Pasture. There is another kind of land which is urgently needed by both laborers and small holders. In the olden days, before Englishmen allowed their land to be seized by a few landlords under the Enclosure Acts, there were many large commons, whereon the villagers had the right to feed their cattle and pigs. Many a cottager or small farmer would more easily be able to keep his cows, or his horse, or pigs, if he had a right to use ample common pasture. It is the loss of ihe old rights of grazing animals and gathering fuel on the common lands of the village which has done so much to put the people at the mercy of the landlords. How to Get Allotments, Small Holdings, and Common
Pasture. Now the law of England says that it is the duty of local government councils to provide all these things-allotments, small holdings, and common pastures—if the people desire them, and cannot otherwise obtain them from the landlords on reasonable terms.
ALLOTMENTS. In the case of allotments it is the business of the Borough Council, the Urban District Council, or the Parish Council (or the Pari h Meeting in parishes where there is no Parish Council) to find che and for those who wish to work it. These Councils may purchase or hire land either by a voluntary agreement with the landlord or, if he refuses to come to reasonable terms, the Council can ask the Board of Agriculture to make an order compelling the landlord to accept the terms, which are to be settled by an arbitrator appointed by the Board ; and this arbitrator must not add to the price because of the compulsion. However, if the land is only to be leased, then the lease must be for not less than fourteen or for more than thirty-five years; but this term can be renewed at the will of the Council. In the case of a Parish, the Council or Meeting, instead of proceeding itself, must ask the County Council to apply for the compulsory order ; it hands over the land, when acquired, to the Parish, which must pay all expenses. If the County Council will not move, the Parish can appeal to the Board direct.