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wounded and confined the captain, and I can only say, with certainty, that there thence took away all the King's powder. is still a good majority of the most respecYesterday numbers more assembled, and table people in this place, who promote last night brought off many cannons, &c. peace, and discountenance violence. and about sixty muskets.' This day the town is full of armed men who refuse to
Governor of Pennsylvania to the Earl disperse, but appear determined to com
of Dartmouth, dated Philadelphia, plete the dismantling the fortress entirely.
31st December, 1774. Hitherto the people abstain from private or personal injuries; how long they will I am to inform your lordship, that since be so prevailed on, it is impossible to say. my last, the assembly of this province -I must sincerely lament the present dis have met, agreeable to their adjourn. tractions, which seem to have burst forth ment, and have, to my great surprise, by means of a letter from William Cooper unanimously approved the transactions of to Samuel Cutts, delivered here on Tues the late congress, and appointed deputies day last P. M. by Paul Revere. I have to attend another, proposed to be held at not time to add further on this melancholy this city in May next, as you will perceive subject.
by the printed votes, which I inclose for P. S. The populace threaten to abuse your lordship’s fuller information. There colonel Fenton, because he has to them seems to be too general a disposition declared the folly of their conduct, and every where to adhere strictly to the rethat he will do his duty as a justice in exe- solutions of the congress, and the comcuting the laws. They will never prevail mittees for this city and the adjacent dison him to retract, if all the men in the tricts, have already taken upon them to province attack him. If I had had 200 regulate the disposition of all British such men, the castle and all therein would goods imported since the 1st December. yet have been safe. At this moment the They put up at public auction, in lots, and heavy cannon are not carried off, but how | I am informed it is so managed that they soon they may be, I cannot say.
are struck off to the owners at an advance Extract of a Letter from Lieutenant
of one per cent. above their first costs and Governor Colden, to the Earl of
charges, which, according to the recomDartmouth, dated New York, 4th
mendation of the congress, is to be apJanuary 1775.
plied to the relief of the poor of Boston. My lord; the measures pursued, as well The Clerk having read the Titles of
the moderate and peaceable disposition Mr. Burke observed, there were no which prevails among the majority of the letters from Maryland, and desired the people of this province, daily to the trial. noble lord would inform the House wheEnthusiasm is ever contagious, and when ther any had been received ; or whether propagated by every artifice, becomes they were kept back for political reasons ; almost irresistible. The assembly of this and whether these papers contained all province, as I formerly informed your the intelligence the ministers had relordship, are to meet next Tuesday. If I ceived from America. find that there will not be a majority for Lord North replied, that he had brought prudent measures, I shall incline to pro- the papers, but had not examined them; rogue them for a short time, that the plan neither did he know whether there were of the new parliament may be known any letters from Maryland or not; that if here, before the assembly do any thing. there were any, they should be laid be. On the other hand, there is room to fear, fore the House. As to the papers conthat if the assembly do not meet, an at- | taining all the intelligence from Ametempt will be made to convene a provincial | rica, he would not undertake to say they congress, in imitation of our neighbours, I did, as those he had brought were exwhich may be of worse consequence. Itracts, containing only the facts in the oripropose to take the advice of his Majesty's ginal letters; that the authors' opinions council to-morrow, upon the interesting | were not mentioned, it having been freand important situation of affairs. When quently found, that the private opinions of all depends upon the humour of the popu- people in office being made public, had lace, one can only, my lord, form very un- been attended with bad consequences, certain conjectures of future measures. therefore his Majesty's servants had deter
mined, for the future, never to mention 1 His lordship began with censuring an the private opinion of any person.
eight weeks delay of communicating these Mr. Burke said, that in some cases it papers, and the continuance of ministers might be proper to keep secret the private to delude this country, with misrepresenopinion of a person; yet, in so critical and tations of the state of the colonies. He alarming affair as that of America, the shewed, that the sudden dissolution of opinion of a man in power, on the spot, parliament was upon that principle, of demust be of great service; he therefore was ceiving the people of England; every of opinion, that the whole of the informa- borough in the kingdom labouring under tion received from America ought to be the old delusion. laid before the House, and not extracts of There were, he said, two things which miparticular letters, such as suited the ministry laboured to deceive the people in, and nister's purpose.
had persuaded them to; first, that it was Lord North moved, that the said papers an affair of Boston only, and that the very be referred to the consideration of a com. appearance of one single regiment there, mittee of the whole House, on the 26th. would quiet every thing.
He had foretold the falsehood of both ; Lord Chatham's Motion to withdraw the he was conversant with that country Troops from Boston.] Jan. 20. Lord more—more years than perhaps any man ; Dartmouth presented, by his Majesty's | he knew the cause of Boston would be command, the Papers relating to the Dis- | made the cause of America; he knew the turbances in North America. After mode of the military would not be efwhich,
fectual. The Earl of Chatham rose.* The fol The manner of proceeding against Bose. lowing are the outlines of the noble lord's ton, was a proscription of a people, unSpeech :
| heard ;-unheard in any court, either in
* The followiog Report of lord Chatham's celebrated Speech upon this occasion was soon as the rigour of the season, and other taken by Mr. Hugh Boyd, and published
circumstauces indispensable to the safety and by him in the year 1779 in a pamphlet, accommodation of the said troops, may render intitled, " Genuine Abstracts of Two the same practicable.' "Speeches of the late Earl of Chatham,
"I wish, my lords, not to lose a day in this " with a Preface and Notes." See Mis. urgent, pressing crisis; an hour now lost in cellaneous Works of Hugh Boyd, vol. 1,
allaying ferınents in America, may produce pp. 196, 215, 255.
years of calamity : for iny own part, I will not
desert, for a moment, the conduct of this The Earl of Chatham, after strongly con weighty business, from the first to the last; demning the dilatoriness of Administration, &c.
upless nailed to my bed by the extremity of proceeded as follows:
sickness, I will give it unremitted attention; I -" But as I bare not the honour of ac- will knock at the door of this sleeping and conCess to his Majesty, I will endeavour to trans founded toinistry, and will rouse them to a mit to bim, through the constitutional channel sense of their important danger. of this House, my ideas of America, lo rescue " Wben I staie the importance of the colobim from the misadvice of his present minis. | nies to this country, and the magnitude of ters. I congratulate your lordships, that the danger hanging over this country, from the business is at last entered upon by the noble present plan of mis-administration practised lord's.laying the papers before you. As I sup against them, I desire not to be understood to pose your lordships tov well apprized of their argue for a reciprocity of indulgence between contents, I hope I am not premature, in sub England and America. I contend not for in-* mitriog to you my present motion :
dulgence, but justice to America; and I shall "• Thai an bumble Address be presented to ever contend, that the Americans justly owe his Majesty, bumbly to desire and beseecb bis obedience to us in a limited degree-they owe Majesty, that in order to open the way towards a obedience to our ordinances of trade and navihappy settlement of the dangerous troubles in gation ; but let the line be skilfully drawn beAmerica, by beginning to allay ferments and tween the objects of those ordmances, and their soften animosities there; and above all, for private, internal property ; let the sacredness preventing in the mean time any sudden and of their property remain inviolate; let it be fatal catastrophe at Boston, now suffering un- taxable only by their own consent, given in der the daily irritation of an army before their their provincial assemblies, else it will cease to eyes, posted in their town; it may graciously be property. As to the inetaj hysical refineplease bis Majesty that immediate orders be ments, attempting to shew that the Americans Hispatched to general Gage, for removing bis are equally free from obedience and commerMajesty's forces from the town of Boston, as cial restraints, as from taxation for revenue, as
the common courts of justice, or the By whose advice vindictive councils higher, of parliament, in both of which, were pursued; by whose advice false reevidence of facts are stated in proof of presentations were made; by whose adcriminality ; but the Americans were de- / vice malice and ill-will were made prinnied to be heard : the people of America ciples of governing a free people :-all condemned, and not heard, have a right to these are questions that will be asked; he resist.
means no personal charge on any man
farther than his misdoings call for. being unrepresented here, I pronounce them furile, frivolous, and groundless.
for ever. But, admitting that this hope, which “When I urge this measure of recalling the in truth is desperate, should be accomplished, troops from Boston, I urge it on this pressing | what do you gain by the imposition of your principle, that it is necessarily preparatory to victorious amity ?- you will be untrusted and the restoration of your peace, and the establish- unthanked. Adopt, then, the grace, while ment of your prosperity. It will then appear you have the opportunity of reconcilement ; or that you are disposed to treat amicably and at least prepare ihe way. Allay the ferment equitably; and to consider, revise, and repeal, prevailing in America, by removing the ob. if it should be found necessary, as I affirm it noxious hostile cause-obnoxious and noser. will, those violent acts and declarations which viceable; for their merit can be only inaction : have disseminated confusion throughout your Non dimicare et vincere,—their victory can empire.
never be by exertions. Their force would be " Resistance to your acts was necessary as most disproportionately exerted against a brave, it was just; and your vain declarations of the generous, and united people, with arms in tbeir omnipotence of parliament, and your imperious hands, and courage in their hearts : three mildoctrines of the necessity of submission, will lions of people, the genuine descendants of a be found equally impotent to convince, or to valiant and pious ancestry, driven to tbose deenslave your fellow.subjects in America, who serts by the narrow maxims of a superstifeel that tyranny, whether ambitioned by an tious tyranny. And is the spirit of persecu. individual part of the legislature, or the bodies tion never to be appeased ? Are the brave who compose it, is equally intolerable to British sons of those brave forefathers to inherit their subjects,
sufferings, as they have inherited their virtues ? “ The means of enforcing this thraldom are Are they to sustain the infliction of the most found to be as ridiculous and weak in practice, oppressive and unexampled severity, beyond as they are unjust in principle. Indeed I can the accounts of history, or description of poetry : not but feel the most anxious sensibility for the Rhadamanthus habet durissima regna, castisituation of general Gage, and the troops under 'gatque, auditque.' So says the wisest poet, his command ; thinking hiin, as I do, a man and perhaps the wisest statesman and politis of humanity and understanding; and enter-cian. But our ministers say, the Americans taiping, as I ever will, the highest respect, the must not be heard. They have been conwarmest love, for the British troops. Their demned unbeard. The indiscriminate hand of situation is truly unworthy; penned up-pining vengeance has Juinped together innocent and in inglorious inactivity. They are an army of guilty; with all the formalities of hostility, bas impotence. You may call them an army of blocked up the town (Boston), and reduced to safety and of guard ; but they are in truth an beggary and famine thirty thousand inbahiarmy of impotence and contempt: and, to make tants. the folly equal to the disgrace, they are an " But his majesty is advised, that the union army of irritation and vexation.
in America cannot last. Ministers have more “But I find a report creeping abroad, that | eyes than I, and should have more ears; but ministers censure general Gage's inactivity: with all the information I have been able to let them censure bim-it becomes tbem-it be procure, I can pronounce it-an union, solid, comes their justice and their honour. I mean permanent, and effectual. Ministers may sa. pot to censure bis inactivity; it is a prudeut tisfy themselves, aod delude the public, with and necessary inaction: but it is a miserable the report of wbat they call commercial bodies condition, where disgrace is prudence, and in America. They are not commercial; they where it is necessary to be contemptible. This are your packers and factors: they live upon tameness, however contemptible, cannot be nothing-for ( call commission nothing. I censured ; for the first drop of blood shed in mean the ministerial authority for this Amecivil and unnatural war might be immedicabile rican intelligence; the runners for government, pulnus.
who are paid for their intelligence. But these “ I therefore urge and conjure your Jord. are not the men, nor this the influence, to be ships, immediately to adopt ihis conciliating considered in America, when we estimate the measure. I will pledge myself for its imme firmuess of their union. Even to extend the diately producing conciliatory effects, by its question, and to take in the really mercantile being thus well-timed: but if you delay till circle, will be totally inadequate to the consiyour vain hope shall be accomplished, of tri-deration. Trade indeed increases the wealth umphantly dictating reconciliation, you delay and glory of a country; but its real strength
There ought to be some instant pro-, will attend this business throughout, till ceeding towards a settlement before the he sees America obtain what he thinks sameeting of the delegates; his object was tisfaction for her injuries ; still attentive to put his foot on the threshold of peace, that it shall own the supremacy of this to shew an intention of reconciling; he country. will, unless he is fixed to a sick-bed-he It would be his advice to his Majesty to
and stamina are to be looked for among the now resists your taxation in America, is the cultivators of the land: in their simplicity of same which formerly opposed loans, benevokte is found the simpleness of virtue-thé in lences, and ship-money, in England: the same tegrity and courage of freedom. These true spirit which called all Englaod on its legs, and genuine sons of the earth are invincible: and by ibe Bill of Rights vindicated the English they surround and hem in the mercantile bo- constitution : the same spirit wbicb established dies; even if these bodies, wbich supposition il the great fundamental, essential maxim of your totally disclaim, could be supposed disaffected | liberties—that no subject of England shall be ta tbe cause of liberty of this general spirit tared but by his own consent. Existing in the British nativn; (for so I wish 10 “ This glorious spirit of Wbiggism animates distinguish the real and genuine Americans three millions in America ; who prefer poverty from ibe pseudo-traders I have described)-of with liberty, to gilded chains and sordid af. this spirit of independence, animating the na- fluence; and who will die jo defence of their tion of America, I have the most authentic in- righis as men, as freemen. What shall oppose formation. Jt is not new among them; it is, this spirit, aided by the congenial fame glowand has ever be. O, their established principle, / ing in the breasts of every Whig in England, their confirmed persuasion: it is their nature, to the amount, I hope, of double the American and tbeir doctrine.
numbers ? Treland they have to a man. Jo "Tremember some years ago, when the re that country, joined as it is with the cause of peal of the Stamp Act was in agitation, con colonies, and placed at their bead, ibe distincversing in a friendly confidence with a person tion I contend for is and must be observed. of undoubted respect apd authenticity, on that This country superintends and controuls their sobject; and he assured me with a certainty trade and pavigation ; but they tax themselves. which bis judgment and opportunity gave bim, And this distinction between external and inthat these were the prevalent and steady printernal controul is sacred and insurmountable; ciples of America - that you might destroy it is involved in the abstract nature of things. their towns, and cut them off from the super | Property is private, individual, absolute. Trade fuities, perhaps the conveniences of life; but is an extended and complicated consideration : that they were prepared to despise your power, it reaches as far as ships can sail or winds can and would not lament their loss, whilst they blow: it is a great and various machine. To hare-what, my lords !--their woods and their regulate tbe numberless movements of its seliberty. The name of my authority, if I am veral parts, and combine them into effect, for called upon, will authenticate the opinion irre- the good of the whole, requires the superintend. fragably. [It was Dr. Franklio.)
| ing wisdom and energy of the supreme power "If illegal violences have been, as it is said, in the empire. Bat this supreme power bas cornmitted in America ; prepare the way, open no effect towards internal taxation; for it does the door of possibility, for ackoowledgment and not exist in that relation; there is no such satisfaction: but proceed not to such coercion, thing, no such idea in this constitution, as a such proscription; cease your indiscriminate supreme power operating upon property. Let indictions, amerce pot thirty thousand ; op. | this distinction then renain for ever ascertainpress not three millions, for the fault of forty ed; taxation is theirs, commercial regulation or fifty individuals. Sucb severity of injustice is ours. As an American I would recognize must for ever render incurable the wounds you to England ber supreme right of regulating have already given your colonies; you irritate cominerce and navigation : as an Englishman them to unappeasable rancour. What thouyb by birth aod principle, I recognize to the Ameyou march from town tu town, and from pro. ricans ibeir supreme unalienable right in their Fibee to province; though you should be able property ; a right which they are justified in to eoforce a temporary and local submission, ibe defence of to the last extremity. To mainWhich I only suppose, pot admit-how shall | tain this principle is the common cause of the you be able to secure the obedience of the Whigs on the other side of the Atlantic, and Country you leave behind you in your progress, on this. " 'Tis liberty to liberty engaged,' 16 grasp the dominion of eighteen hundred that they will defend themselves, their families, miles of continent, populous in numbers, pos. and their country. In this great cause they dessing palour, liberty and resistance ?
| are inmoveably allied: it is the alliance of ." This resistance to your arbitrary system | God and nature-immutable, eternal-fixed as
taxation might have been foreseen : it was the firmament of heaven. obvious from the nature of things, and of man “ To such united force, what force shall be sied; and above all, from the Wbiggisb spirit opposed ?-Wbat, my lords ?-A few Join wjurisbing in that country. The spirit which ments in America, and seventeen aghteen
end this quarrel, the soonest possible;| America means only to have safety in prohis repose was their duty ; who by misad-perty; and personal liberty. Those, and vice had planted the thorn in his side, those only were her object; independency by a contest with a people determined on was falsely charged on her. their purpose.
| He disclaims all metaphysical distincWishes to offer himself, mean as he is— tions. but he has a plan; a plan of a settlement; The Declaratory Act leaves you a solid, honourable, and lasting.
- and wisdom of conclusion, under such a comthousand men at bome!- The idea is too ridi- plication of difficult circumstances, no pation, culous to take up a moment of your lordships' or body of men, can stand in preference to the time. Nor can such a pational and principled general Congress at Philadelphia. I trust it union be resisted by the tricks of office, or mi- is obvious to your lordships, ihat all attempts nisterial maneuvre. Laying of papers on your to impose servitude upon such men, to estatable, or counting numbers on a division, will blish despotism over such a mighty continental not avert or postpone the hour of daoger: it nation, must be vain, must be fatal. We shall must arrive, my lords, unless these fatal acts be forced ultimately to retract; let us retract are done away; it must arrive in all its bor- wbile we can, not wben we must. I say we rors, and then these boastful ministers, spite of must necessarily undo these violent oppressive all their confidence, and all their mapeuvres, acts : they must be repealed you will repeal shall be forced to hide their heads. They shall them; I pledge myself for it, that you will in be forced to a disgraceful abandonment of their the end repeal them; I stake my reputation present measures and principles, which they | on it:-1 will consent to be taken for an idiot, avow, but cannot defend ; measures which if they are not finally repealed.--Avoid, then, they presume to attempt, but cannot bope to this humiliating, disgraceful necessity. With effectuate. They cannot, my lords, they can- a dignity becoming your exalted situation, not stir a step; they have not a move left; they make the first advances to concord, to peace are check-mated.
and bappiness : for tbat is your true dignity, * But it is not repealing this act of parlia. to act with prudence and justice. That you ment, it is not repealing a piece of parchment, should first concede, is obvious, from souod that can restore America to our bosom: you and rational policy. Concession comes with must repeal her fears and her resentments; better grace and more salutary effect from and you may then hope for her love and gra superior power; it reconciles superiority of titude. But now, insulted with an armed force, power with the feelings of men; and establishes posted at Boston ; irritated with an hostile ar- solid confidence ou the foundations of affection ray before her eyes, her concessions, if you, and gratitude. could force them, would be suspicious and in So thought a wise poet and a wise man in secure; they will be irato animo; they will political sagacity; the friend of Mecænas, and not be the sound honourable passions of free. the eulogist of Augustus.—To him, the adopted men, they will be the dictates of fear, and ex- son and successor, the first Cæsar, to bim, the tortions of force. But it is more than evident, i master of the world, he wisely urged this con that you cannot force them, united as they are, duct of prudence and dignity ; • Tuque prior to your unworthy terms of submission—it is | tu parce ;-projice tela manu.' impossible: and when I hear general Gage “Every motive, therefore, of justice and o censored for inactivity, I must retort with in- | policy, of dignity and of prudence, urges you dignation on those, whose intemperate mea- to allay the ferment in America-by a remova sures and ita provident councils have betrayed of your troops from Boston-by a repeal o him into bis present situation. His situation your acts of parliament-and by demonsiratio reminds me, my lords, of the answer of a of amicable dispositions towards your colonies French general in the civil wars of France. On the other hand, every danger and every Monsieur Condé opposed to Monsieur Turenne: bazard impend, to deter you from perseveranc he was asked, how it happened that he did not in your present ruinous measures.-Foreig take his adversary prisoner, as he was often war hanging over your heads by a sligbt au very near him: j'ai peur,' replied Condé, brittle thread : France and Spain watchio very honestly, “ J'ai peur qu'il ne me prenne;' your conduct, and waiting for the maturity LI'm afraid he'll take me.
your errors ;-with a vigilant eye to America “ When your lordships look at the papers and the temper of your colonies, more than transmitted us from America; when you con- their own concerns, be they what they may. sider their decency, firmness, and wisdom, you " To conclude, my lords; if the minister cannot but respect their cause, and wish to thus persevere in misadvising and misleadin make it your own. For myself, I must de- | the King, I will not say, that they can alienaf clare and avow, that in all my reading and ob- the affections of his subjects from his crown servation—and it has been my favourite stody but I will affirm, that they will make th I have read Thucydides, and have studied crown not worth his wearing- I will not sa
admired the master-states of the world that the King is betrayed; but I will pro that for slidity of reasoning, force of sagacity, noupce,-that the kingdom is undone."