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they had never existed. Have they, said deley, Abergavenny, Wycombe, Torringhis grace, been even so much as read ? | ton, Effingham, Fitzwilliam, Craven, LeinHave they been considered? Have the ster, Stanhope, Archer. parties accused been heard in their own defence Away, then, with such pre- Protest against passing the Bill for retences! Has not the minister in the other straining the Trade and Commerce of the House, and the House itself, been in pos. New England Colonies.] The following session of the same information? Why Protest was entered : then have not they proceeded in the same " Dissentient, manner? No; however willing they might 1st. “ Because the attempt to coerce by be to do it, they plainly saw the insur- famine, the whole body of the inhabitants mountable difficulties which lay in their of great and populous provinces, is withway, and wisely declined it. The pro- out example in the history of this, or pervince of New York was permitted to stand haps of any civilized nation ; and is one in the Bill with the other favoured pro- of those unhappy inventions, to which vinces, though it was well known that parliament is driven by the difficulties they had, in their legislative capacity, de- which daily multiply upon us, from an obnied the right of taxation; and had con- stinate adherence to an unwise plan of formably to those sentiments, transmitted government. We do not know exactly a petition to the King, a memorial to this the extent of the combination against our House, and a remonstrance to the other. commerce in New England, and the other His grace, therefore, desired to know the colonies; but we do know the extent of reason why they were singled out from the punishment we inflict upon it, which the rest, when the offence was the same. is universal, and includes all the inhabitHe had no objection to the indulgence; ants: amongst these, many are admitted but he could not perceive how their lord. to be innocent; and several are alleged by ships could reconcile their conduct on this ministers to be, in their sense, even meoccasion with any rule of consistency what- ritorious. That government which at

tempts to preserve its authority by deThe Earl of Efingham. I have been stroying the trade of its subjects, and by well informed that a ship has arrived at involving the innocent and guilty in a New York, and that the people of that common ruin, if it acts from a choice of colony absolutely and peremptorily re. such means, confesses itself unworthy; if fused to permit any part of the cargo to from inability to find any other, admits be landed. I therefore call on some of itself wholly incompetent to the ends of the noble lords in administration, to con- its institution. tradict this account if false, or confirm it 2dly, “ Because the English merchants if it be true. Should the latter be the are punished without any guilt, real or case, I cannot for my part conceive, on pretended, on their part. The people of what ground the present exemption in fa. the proscribed provinces, though failing in vour of New York can be defended. their duty to government, ought to be

The Earl of Dartmouth. It is not in permitted to discharge their obligations to my power directly to contradict, or affirm, commerce. Without their fishery this is the intelligence of the noble lord. Al i impossible. The merchants of England can say on the subject is, that the last ac- entertain no fears for their debts, except count I received was from a gentleman of from the steps which are said to be taken veracity on the spot, who writing on the in their favour. Eight hundred thousand Saturday, and informing me of the arrival pounds of English property, belonging to of the vessel, assures me, that the goods | London alone, is not to be trifled with, or would be landed on the Monday follow. sacrificed to the projects of those who have

constantly failed in every expectation The House divided : For the amend- / which they have held out to the public, ment 52; Against it 23. The question and who are become more bigotted to methen was put, that the said Bill do pass. thods of violence, in proportion to the ex. The House divided again : For the Bill perience of their inefficacy, and the mis13; Against it 21. The following lords chievous consequences which attend them. divided against the Bill : Camden, Rich 3dly, “ Because the people of New mond, Devonshire, Portland, Rockingham, England, besides the natural claim of manPonsonby, Abingdon, Manchester, Cour kind to the gifts of Providence on their tenay, Tankerville, Scarborough, Cholmon own coast, are specially entitled to the


fishery by their charters, which have never | This is to call for resistance, and to been declared forfeited. These charters, provoke rebellion by the most power. we think, (notwithstanding the contempt ful of all motives, which can act upon with which the idea of public faith has men of any degree of spirit and senbeen treated, to be of material considera- sibility. tion. The Bíll therefore not growing out 6thly, “ Because the interdict from of any judicial process, seems equally a fishing and commerce, is not to be termiviolation of all natural and all civil right. nated by any certain and definite act to be

4thly, “ Because we conceive that the done by the party interdicted, but its duattempt which has been made to bribe the ration depends solely on the will of the nation into an acquiescence in this arbi- governors and majority of the council in trary Act, by holding out to them, (by some of the provinces ; upon their mere evidence at the bar), the spoils of the arbitrary opinion of the state of commerce. New England fishery, worth upwards of In two of the proscribed provinces, the in300,0001. a year, to be a scheme full of terdict is made to depend on the same ar. weakness and indecency; of indecency, bitrary will in much worse hands, those of because it may be suspected that the mere custom-house officers. A power of desire of the confiscation has created such magnitude is not fit to be delegated the guilt; weak, because it supposes that to any man, however wise or however whatever is taken from the colonies, is of exalted. course to be transferred to ourselves. We « But to deliver over several hundred may trample on the rules of justice'; but thousands of our fellow creatures to be we cannot alter the nature of things. We starved at the mere pleasure of persons cannot convey to Great Britain the advan- in certain subordinate situations, and some tages of situation which New England pos- of them in an office always more or less sesses for the fishery. If the value of the suspicious and obnoxious, and necessary commodity should be enhanced at the fo- to be watched and guarded, rather than reign market by the exclusion of so large vested with absolute power over all ; and a part of the supply, it may either greatly this without any rule to guide their disinjure the sale of the commodity itself, or cretion, without any penalty to deter from put the consumers on new articles of con an abuse of it; is a strain of such ty. sumption, or new methods of supply, to ranny, oppression, and absurdity, as we the just ruin of those who, deluded by believe never was deliberately entertained avarice, have chosen, from the vain hope by any grave assembly. of an enhanced market, to disturb the na- Lastly, “ Because the Bill, though in tural, settled, and beneficial course of appearance a measure of retaliation only, traffic.

upon a supposition that the colonies have 5thly, “ Because we do not apprehend been the first aggressors by their associa. that the topic so much insisted upon by a tion not to import goods from Great Brilord high in office, in favour of this pro- tain, yet is in truth a most cruel enforceject, namely, the cowardice of his Majes- ment of former oppressions; and that as. ty's American subjects, to have any weight sociation is no more than a natural consein itself, or to be at all agreeable to the quence of antecedent and repeated injuries. dignity of sentiment which ought to cha. | And since the restraint of this Bill is not to racterise this House. We do not think it be taken off till the several colonies shall true, that any part of the subjects of this agree to receive again all goods whatsoempire are defective in bravery. It is to ever from Great Britain, and to pay all the last degree improper to act upon such the duties imposed by parliament, not exa supposition; as it must highly disgrace cepting those upon tea; and since three of our arms in case of misfortune, and must them must apply through the medium of take away all honour from them in case of the new council of Massachuset's Bay, success. Nothing can tend more effec- and the last mentioned province is obliged tually to defeat the purposes of all our not only to acknowledge the new charter, coercive measures, than to let the people but submit in all respects to the severe against whom they are intended know, conditions of the Port Bill, before they that we think our authority founded in can be released from their hardships ; their baseness; that their resistance will since these are the terms, and the only give them some credit, even in our own terms, upon which this proscription is to eyes; and that we attribute their obe-/ cease, and the colonies must therefore dience only to their want of courage. submit to be the slaves instead of the sub

jects of Great Britain ; this Bill in its | Europe the same weapons, the same disciprinciple is both arbitrary and unjust. pline, the same military arts are in pracAnd as we do not conceive any ground of tice; war is attended with a profusion of expectation that the provinces will yield expence; and the deepest purse is the to such hard conditions, a civil war, which best assurance of success. Hence the may probably end in the total separation encouragement of manufacture and trade of the colonies from the mother country, is the pursuit of every nation in this quarwill too naturally be the consequence of ter of the globe, except two; who derive this Bill; in respect of which, as well as the treasure, which Europe wants, from for the other reasons hereby assigned, we distant mines, with a facility, enervating do most solemnly and heartily protest their own industry, while the rest are against the same. (Signed)- Abing- exerting theirs, each for a share in that

don, Craven, Abergavenny, Stan- wealth, which the other two introduce, hope, Leinster, Wycombe, Rich- and can only be obtained through the mond, Devonshire, Torrington, commercial channel. By this, Holland, Rockingham, Camden, Effingham, with a territory insufficient to nourish her Ponsonby, Cholmondeley, Fitz- / inhabitants, hath in her day stood forth a william, Manchester.”

bulwark against tyranny and superstition.

An artificial strength, created by comMr. Glover's Speech at the Bar of the merce, enabled her to make head, with House of Commons in behalf of the West numerous fleets and armies, against powers India Merchants and Planters.] March | immensely her superiors in natural force. 16. The House resolved itself into a | Above all in commercial arts and advanCommittee of the whole House, to consider tage is Great Britain. Her purse, kept further of the Petition of the merchants, full by her credit, the resource of a tradtraders, and others, of the city of London, | ing nation, an annual expenditure at least concerned in the commerce of North of 16 to 18 millions recently supported so America, and of the several other Peti- I long, so extensive, and so vigorous a war. tions referred to the consideration of the Had her purse been scanty, she never said Committee. Evidence was heard in would have seen a navy, which bore little support of the Petition of the West India short of 90,000 men, could never have Planters, (See p. 219.) Mr. Glover ap- engaged a potent ally, nor furnished such peared as agent for the petitioners, and troops, as acted so efficiently, and at the manager of the evidence in support of the same time in such different parts of the Petition. After Mr. George Walker, and globe. Hence it is evident her system is Mr. John Ellis, had been examined, commercial; her strength and resources Mr. Glover* summed up the evidence

are wholly derived from trade. I allow,

the first interest in rank among us is the in the following Speech : .

landed, but interwoven altogether with I begin with investigating the general trade. Pay no regard to a doctrine from system of the British empire, not only in me, but pay all to the supreme authority description, but illustration by comparison. I of the clearest luminary this country ever Ancient nations were possessed of the produced, the great Mr. Locke. His widest dominion, not with commercial words are these, “ The decays that come helps. To be brief, I shall confine the upon, and bring to ruin any country, do enquiry to one, to the Romans in their constantly first fall upon the land; and ages of purity. Cultivation of their soil, , though the country gentleman is not very rude manufacture just adequate to their forward to think so, yet this nevertheless necessities, severity of manners, supe- is an undoubted truth, that he is more riority in martial discipline, enthusiasm for concerned in trade, and ought to take a the very name of Rome, and the dulce et greater care that it be well managed and decorum pro patria mori made them mas- preserved, than even the merchant him. ters of the world. War was conducted self.” with little expence, and the weightiest. On the firm ground of such authority arms in the most skilful hands prevailed. let enquiry be made, whether we should Commerce flourished among others, whose not remain content with the lot assigned atiluence submitted to the steel of Rome. us, which hath raised us so high among What is the system now? All over the modern nations, where all are in rivalry

for manufacture and trade; whether we * The celebrated author of Leonidas. should degrade our refinements by a pa.


rallel with an unpolished and rugged race end at Christmas 1773, and renders of old, and contaminate the delicacy of total of more than 19 millions, and more modern sensations with those primitive than 1,100,0001. at the annual medium and stern principles, which imposed such I only observe in this place, that the in a yoke on mankind as the majestas populi crease of the latter upon the former is in Romani :' or whether, confining our spe- the proportion of eleven to seven ; and o culations to the placid sphere of enjoy the value in both two-thirds are British ments with more quiet, and less hazard, goods, and one-third only foreign. than the restless pursuits of their ambition, 1 A second set of accounts contain the we should not have in contemplation upon exports to North America. The first 17 all extraordinary convulsions, how far the years yield more than 17 millions in the means of those enjoyments may be affected, whole, and than one million at the annua that influx of wealth, the creature of com- medium. The last period renders more merce, which solely constitutes our envied than 40 millions in the whole, and largely power and rank in the present world. more than 2,300,0001. at the annual me

To elucidate by facts a system so essen-dium; an increase upon the former in tial to our being, your petitioners have a proportion of 23 to 10, with a value in appeared at this tremendous crisis ; when both of three-fourths British goods to oneGreat Britain and America, the parent fourth foreign.

nd the child, with equal irritation are The third account relates to Africa, menacing at least, what barely in words, whose commerce with England owes its what barely in thought, is horror--to un existence to her colonies. The first 17 sheathe the sword of parricide, and sever years reach nearly to three millions, and the dearest ties of consanguinity, of mu- to an annual medium something short of tual aids, and general prosperity.

180,0001. the last 17 years nearly to eight Your petitioners preferred but one sup- millions, and an annual medium of 470,000 plication to the All-merciful Being; their an increase upon the first in a proportion own reason' suggested no other, than to of 47 to 18, with a value in each of twobe heard by you. He hath inclined you thirds British goods to one-third foreign. to hear, truth enables us to speak. Truth On this augmentation of exports to your in its nature is healing, and productive of colonies, irrefragable proof is founded, reflection: reflection leads to composure that through whatever channels riches of mind, and strengthens in our breasts a have flowed among them, that influx hath hope, that an hour may come, when this made a passage from them to the mother humble application may not be found al. country, and in the most wholesome mode; together ineffectual: if too, for that auspi- not like the dash of an oriental torrent, cious purpose, it may prove my good for- / but in salubrious, various, placid, and cotune so to collect and combine the various pious streams, refreshing and augmenting evidence from your bar, and from the sober industry by additional employment copied records of office upon your table, to thousands, and ten thousands of famias to establish a system of the whole, and lies, and lightening the burthen upon rents, found that whole upon truth; whose effi- by reducing the contribution of parishes cacy upon the mind I have described be-to poverty unemployed. fore, and with some fervour of hope anti-! But this requires a further explanation, cipate now.

| The date of the last period is the con Here, Sir, I entreat your acceptance of mencement of the last war. The expen a clue through the seeming labyrinth of diture of public money was one source o accounts. The ways indeed are all un- wealth to the West Indies. That tempo adorned, but the least perplexed of any rary acquisition being soon exhausted, by to a little attention; and to make them its return to England, sufficient sums wen short shall be mine.

procured upon credit after the peace, y You have before you official accounts of cultivate new land and improve the old the exports from England to the West still further enlarging the consumption Indies, from Christmas 1739 to Christmas / our commodities there and in Africa, this 1773. Of these 34 years, the first 17, from the year of the peace to Christma ending at Christmas, 1756, form a period, 1773, the import of sugar only to England which closes in the first year of the last who, without her West Indies, must pur war; the whole value exceeds 12 millions, chase that immense article from foreigners and gives an annual medium of more than hath risen from 130,000 to 170,000 hog 700,0001. The last period of 17 years heads, an augmentation in value of 800,004

The public expenditure, being much ports during that period, which renders a larger in North America, produced a pro medium of 16 millions. What part is the portionate effect on the consumption of colony branch? Five and a half is rather our manufactures through that continent. | more than a third. Does the magnitude This money returned from its peregrina- appear in a stronger light by the compation to the mother country by 1764, or rison? Or hath it been admitted in this 1765 at the furthest. But, as the West view, before it was stated ? Be it so. I Indies had a succedaneum, so had North | have something behind, perhaps enough America through a new opening of trade, for the keenest appetite of admission to which converted the misfortune of Eng-1 digest. land into a blessing. Though I am con. Sir, one part of our exports to foreigners vinced, that the same number of hands at is supplied by colony produce, tobacco, least is devoted to agriculture here, and rice, sugar, &c. through Great Britain, that the earth at a medium of years hath for a million sterling at a low estimation. yielded the same increase; as we have | Add 2 millions more, exported of all kinds been disposed to consume it all among from England to her principal colony, ourselves, or as our presumption may im- | Ireland, and both to the former 5 millions pute the scarcity to Providence restrain and a half; your whole colony branch will ing the fertility of our soil for ten years then exceed the half of your whole export past, in either case we could not spare, as in the proportion of eight and a half to heretofore, our grain to the foreigner; a sixteen. reduction in our exports one year with an- Thanks to the care and forecast of our other of more than 600,0001. The Ame- forefathers one hundred and twenty years rican subject took place of the British in 1 since. In the circle of ancient trade, markets we could no longer supply, ex- narrow in comparison with the modern, tended their vent from season to season, the great trading states, Carthage preand from port to port, and by a circuition eminent to all, suffered but little from ri. of fresh money, thus acquired by them- valship. All in Europe are our rivals, all selves, added fresh numbers to your ma- devoted to manufacture and traffic, as nufactures, the rents of land increasing capital pursuits of policy: while we, strugat the same time, till the amount of ex- gling with such competition, have in some ports to North America for the last three instances already experienced its hurtful years, ending at Christmas 1773, stand effects, and must prepare for more; we upon your papers at 10 millions and a had always one consolation left, that our half, or 3 millions and a half at the annual colony trade, kept to ourselves by old and medium ; add 1,300,0001. the medium of / salutary regulations, hath been augment. the same three years for the West Indies, ing from period to period, till at present it and 700,0001. for Africa, and the total constitutes more than half of the whole, value of exports to the colonies, nearly in with a prospect of further growth, rather a proportion of three fourths British to than diminution, unless we create our own one fourth foreign goods, is 5 millions and rivals. a half at the medium of these three years, One more observation remains, of all ending at Christmas, 1773. A slight the most important, so far as safety to a matter this to the great question before state is a consideration above all others, you, says the general voice without doors, | Of this trade, the part which depends on and readily admitted without the cere. the associated provinces, contributes in mony of proof. This I inention by way of naval stores, in other low priced and preparation to introduce the most material bulky commodities more to the British account of all, which will demonstrate, marine, than triple the present exports in that the magnitude of 5 millions and a commodities of such higher value, and if half, exported in the colony branches, the shipped so largely in foreign bottoms to West Indian, North American, and the foreign market. Such was your situaAfrican, is not to be considered as an ob- tion. ject so striking in itself, as in comparison Upon the present question I will not with the whole export of England to all take that larger half before-mentioned for countries whatsoever. The annual me- my ground. I will deduct the 2 millions dium for twelve years back stands on to Ireland, and the odd 500,000t. furthese papers at less than 15 millions; but | nished to provinces not of the combinaas I have limited the colony branch to tion, though they did not receive more 1771, 2 and 3. I shall take the general ex- | than 400,0001. in value, at the medium of EVOL. XVIII.]

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