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to have fixt a deep degree of guilt upon / My lords take into consideration an Act those who were the principal ringleaders to discontinue, in such manner, and for and abettors of those proceedings, and the such time as are therein mentioned, the measures proper to be taken for inducing landing and discharging, lading and shipthe punishment of such guilt, become a | ping of goods, wares and merchandize, at very necessary part of the present consi- the town and within the harbour of Boston, deration, relative to the state of the pro- in the province of Massachuset's Bay, in vince of Massachuset’s Bay.
. | North America; and being desirous that The King considers the punishment of the provisions of the said Act should be these offenders as a very necessary and carried into execution, with all possible essential example to others, of the ill con- vigilance, dispatch and circumspection, as sequences that must follow from such | far as the same relate to the officers of his open and arbitrary usurpations as tend to Majesty's customs established in the same the subversion of all government, and the town and province, transmit a copy of the rendering civil liberty unsafe and preca- said Act to the commissioners of the cus. rious; and his Majesty's subjects in the toms in America, and direct them forthprovince of Massachuset's Bay in gene- with to take such steps as they shall find ral, cannot give a better test of their love necessary for the removal of their board of justice, and respect for the constitution, from the said town of Boston to the town than in their zealous endeavours to render of Salem, in the said province of Massaeffectual a due prosecution of such of. chuset's Bay, and that as soon as proper fenders.
offices can be prepared for their reception If, however, the prejudices of the peo- and accommodation. ple should appear to you to be such as Direct them, together with all the officers would in all probability prevent a convic belonging to their board, to repair to the tion, however clear and full the evidence said town of Salem, and there to execute might be, in that case it would be better the duties and functions of their commisto desist from prosecution, seeing that an sion, until they shall receive further orders, ineffectual attempt would only be triumph respecting the future residence and esta. to the faction, and disgraceful to governo blishment of their board. ment.
Direct them, at the same time, to give The foregoing is all that I have at pre orders for the removal of the collector, sent in command from the King to say comptroller, surveyor, and such other offito you. I need not suggest to you the cers of the port of Boston as they shall very great advantage that will result from judge necessary, to the town of Plymouth, your obtaining a just and perfect know or to the island of Nantricket, or to such ledge of the characters, inclinations and other town or place within the limits of the tempers of the principal people in the co- said port, as shall appear to them most lody; such information must of necessity proper and most convenient for the trade of be of great benefit, and your own dis his Majesty's subjects; and let the said cretion will point out to you the use that collector, and other officers, be ordered to is to be made of it.
establish themselves in the said town of The last advices from Boston are of Plymouth, or such other town or place as a nature to leave but little room to hope the commissioners shall appoint within the that order and obedience are soon likely limits of the said port of Boston, and to take place of anarchy and usurpation; there to proceed and carry on, in the his Majesty however confides in your for- usual manner, the business of their several titude and discretion, and doubts not that departments in the collection and manageall other officers, civil and military, ani- ment of his Majesty's customs, and in the mated by your example, will exert them execution of the laws of trade. selves in such a manner, in support of the | And in as much as it may be reasonably Constitution, and for enforcing obedience expected, that the trade within the port of to the laws, as will recommend them to Salem and Marblehead will be consi. his Majesty's royal grace and favour. derably increased during the continuance Cory of a Minute of the TREASURY
of the said act of parliament, and may BOARD. Whitehall Treasury Cham
require an additional number of officers to bers, 31st March, 1774.- Present,
be stationed at those places to transact the Lord North, Mr. Townshend, Lord
business of the customs,
Direct the commissioners to take with Beauchamp, Mr. Cornwall.
them to Salem such of the tidesmen and incidental officers, now employed at Boston, commissioned officers of his Majesty's as they shall think the service at Salem and ships of war on that station, to use the Marblehead may demand; and recom- utmost vigilance and activity in the exemend to their particular care and atten-cution of the several provisions of the said tion, that clause of the said Act which act of parliament, and in case any of the relates to vessels carrying coastwise, under officers in any of his Majesty's ships, the restrictions therein mentioned, fuel or sloops of war, shall see occasion to reand victual for the necessary use and suste- quire any officer, or officers of the cusnance of the people of the town of Bos toms, to be put on board any of the vessels ton; and direct them to give express or under their command, direct the commis. ders to the proper officers, to be vigilant sioners to take care that all such requisiand alert in visiting and searching all such tions be duly complied with. vessels laden with fuel and provisions, as Transmit a copy of this Minute to Mr.
of Marblehead. for the purpose of obtain of the Admiralty, and to Mr. Pownal, for ing a transire, or let pass, pursuant to the the information of the earl of Dartmouth. late act of parliament; and, in case it
Extract of a Letter from the hon. Goshall appear to the officers employed in
vernor Gage to the Earl of Dartthat service, by information, or by any
mouth, dated Boston, 19th May, probable cause of suspicion, that there are concealed on board any such vessels, any
1774. [Received 22d June.] goods, wares, or merchandize, other than His Majesty's ship the Lively, in which such fuel or victual, that then, and in I embarked at Plymouth on the 16th of every such case, such officers should be April, arrived here on the 13th of this directed to oblige the master, or com- | month. The late governor Hutchinson, mander, of such vessel so informed against, the chief justice, the commissioners of the or suspected, to unlade his cargo before customs, and the consignees, were either he obtains such transire or let pass, in at the castle, or dispersed in the country,
Let the commissioners take care, that, Mr. Hutchinson, and remained with him after the first day of June, 1774, and dur-at Castle William till preparations were ing the continuance of the said Act, no made for my reception in Boston, where officers of the customs whatsoever be suf- / my commission was read and published, fered to reside within the town or harbour in the usual forms, on the 17th instant. of Boston.
The Act for shutting up the port, got In consideration of the losses which the here before me; and a town meeting was collector, comptroller, and other officers holding to consider of it, at the time of upon the establishment, within the said my arrival in the harbour. They deterport of Boston, must inevitably suffer by mined to invite the other colonies to stop the diminution of the fees and perquisites all exports and imports to and from Great of the respective offices, during the conti- Britain and Ireland, and every part of the nuance of the said Act,
West Indies, till the Act be repealed, and My lords direct the commissioners to appointed persons to go to Marblehead report to their lordships, as soon as they and Salem to communicate their sentican form any opinion of the matter, how ments to the people there, and bring them much it may be reasonable to allow to into like measures; which persons were such officers respectively, as a compensa- | to make their report at the adjouroment, tion for such their losses. Direct them, on the 18th, when the meeting was again from time to time, by every opportunity, held, and, I am told, received little ento inform my lords of the several steps | couragement from Salem and Marblethey shall have taken in the execution of head, and transacted nothing of consethe said Act, and of their lordships' orders. quence.
Acquaint them, that they, and all the I do not propose laying any thing beofficers under their authority, may depend fore the new assembly at their meeting, on being supported and protected in the except the common business of the proexecution of the duties of their respective vince, if any occurs. I hear from many, offices.
that the Act has staggered the most preInform them, that the lords commis. sumptuous; but minds so inflamed cannot sioners of the Admiralty have dispatched cool at once; so it may be better to give orders to the admiral, commanders, and the shock they have received, time to ope. rate, and I may find the assembly in atillerists and eight pieces of ordnance from better temper than usual, and more in- New York to Castle William, which I clined to comply with the King's expec- propo e to encamp with the troops, tations at Salem, to which place they will
Extract of a Letter from the Earl of be removed after the first of June.
Dartmouth to the Hon. Govenor Extract of a Letter from the Hon. Go- Gage, dated Whitehall, 3d June, vernor Gage to the Earl of Dart
1774. mouth, dated Boston, 31st May,
Since you left England, the parliament 1774.
has made a very considerable progress in I wish I had met with a ready disposi- the American business, and I send you tion to comply with the terms of the act herewith, by the King's command, two of parliament, instead of a resolution to Acts, to which his Majesty gave the royal ask assistance from the other colonies; assent a few days ago. but I do not find there is any inclination. These Acts close the consideration of in the rest to shut up their ports, which what relates to the state of your governwas not to be expected, considering what ment, and it is hoped that they will have they before suffered from their non-impor- the good effect to give vigour and activity tation agreements. If they intend, or not, to civil authority; to prevent those unwarto take any resolutions in behalf of Bos- rantable assemblings of the people, for ton, farther than giving good words, is not factious purposes, which have been the known here.
source of so much mischief; and to secure The violent party seems to break, and an impartial administration of justice in all people fall off from them, but no means cases where the authority of this kingdom are yet adopted to comply with the Act. may be in question. The assembly has shewn no disposition to The Act for the better regulation of begin upon it, but were hurrying the busi- the government of the province of Massaness of supplies through their house, to chuset's Bay, provides, that from the first throw it off themselves, and to avoid of August next, all elections of the counmeeting at Salem, by adjourning them-cil under the authority of the charter, selves when the supplies had passed their shall be void, and that, for the future, the house; but receiving intelligence of their council shall be appointed by the King. designs, I adjourned them on a sudden to In consequence of that provision, his the 7th of June, and then to meet at Salem. Majesty has, with the advice of his privy
They as yet have only presented me council, nominated 36 persons, qualified with a petition to proclaim a day of fasting as the Act directs, to be the council of and prayer; but as they have lately had Massachuset's Bay, from and after the time a day of the kind, according to custom, limited for the continuance of the present and as I saw no cause for an extraordinary council; and enclosed herewith Í send day of humiliation, I have judged it best you bis Majesty's additional instruction, not to comply.
under the sign manual, authorizing and I had a meeting with the late governor, requiring you to assemble the said counthe admiral, and commissioners of the cus-cil, and containing such further directions toms, on the subject of putting the Act in as are thought necessary and incident to force, in which, after putting some ques- this new establishment, and as correspond tions to the attorney general, the chief with the provisions of the Act in relation justice being absent, they appeared to thereto. agree in the manner of it. The officers | It would perhaps have been in some reof the customs remove to-morrow, when I spects desirable, that it might have been also propose to leave Boston, and the ad. left to the King's discretion, to have dimiral has stationed his ships.
rected that, in case of the death or absence No design has appeared of opposing of both governor and lieutenant governor, the execution of the Act, nor do I see the administration of government should any possibility of doing it with effect; have been devolved upon the senior counbut many are impatient for the arrival of sellor, as in other governments, but as the the troops; and I am told that people Act reserves to the new council all the will then speak and act openly, which they | liberties, privileges, and immunities enDow dare not do. General Haldimand joyed by the other, except in the cases took the opportunity of a vessel in the provided for, it is apprehended that such service, to send a detachment of sixty ar. direction cannot be given, and for the (VOL. XVIII.]
same reason it has appeared at least doubt- solution, but it is much to be wished, that ful, whether the crown could delegate to if possible such a measure may be avoided, you the powers of suspension and appoint- The letters received from Mr. Hutchinment to vacancies pro tempore, exercised son since you sailed froń Plymouth, con. in the other royal governments. In this si- tain an account of the public proceedings tuation it became the more necessary that a down to the 5th of April, at which time it lieutenant governor should be immediately does not appear that any intelligence had appointed; and the King having, upon been received in the province of the steps Mr. Hutchinson's recommendation, no- that were taking here. It was therefore minated Mr. Oliver of Cambridge to that reasonable to suppose that the conduct office, inclosed I send you his Majesty's and measures of tbe faction would be, as sign manual, containing his appointment. they actually were, of the same colour
There is little room to hope that every and complexion with those they had beone of the persons whom his Majesty has fore pursued. appointed to be of his council, will be in- The impeachment of the chief justice duced to accept that honour, for there seems to have been the favourite object of can be no doubt that every art will be both council and assembly; but as Mr. practised to intimidate and prejudice. I Hutchinson had with equal firmness and trust, however, that the number of those discretion defeated that measure by prowho decline will not be so considerable rogation, it is not necessary for me to say as to involve you in any difficulty on that more upon so extravagant a proceeding, account, or to create any cmbarrassment in than that it was altogether an unwarrantthe execution of a measure upon which so able assumption of power, to which that
government is not, I conceive, either in Whatever vacancies may be created, by the nature or principles of it, in any deany of the present members refusing to gree competent. act, ought to be filled up as soon as possi. To what further extravagance the peoble, and therefore you will transmit to ple may be driven it is difficult to say: me, by the first opportunity, the names of whatever violences are committed must such persons as you think best qualified / be resisted with firmness; the constitufor that trust, and the most likely to give tional authority of this kingdom over its weight and authority to the measures of colonies must be vindicated, and its laws government, taking care, at the same obeyed throughout the whole empire. time, not to propose any from whom you It is not only its dignity and reputation, have not received assurances of their but its power, nay its very existence dereadiness to accept the office.
pends upon the present moment; for It is to be expected that every artifice should those ideas of independence, which which has been hitherto used with so much some dangerous and ill-designing persons success, to keep alive a spirit of sedition here are artfully endeavouring to instill and opposition in the people, will be exert- | into the minds of the King's American ed on the present occasion, to entangle subjects, once take root, that relation beand embarrass; but the King trusts that tween this kingdom and its colonies, which by temper and prudence on the one hand, is the bond of peace and power, will soon and by firmness and resolution on the cease to exist, and destruction must follow other, you will be able to surmount all the disunion. It is not the mere claim of exobstacles that can be thrown in your way. emption from the authority of parliament
It is impossible to foresee what those in a particular case that has brought on obstacles may be. If the general court the present crisis ; it is actual disobedi. should happen to be sitting, at the time ence and open resistance that have com. when the new constitution of the council is pelled coercive measures, and I have no to take place, every advantage will proba- longer any other confidence in the hopes bly be taken that such a situation affords, I had entertained that the public peace to create difficulties and throw the busi- ) and tranquillity would be restored, but ness into perplexity; but however that that which I derive from your abilities, may be, and whatever may be urged, there and the reliance I have on your prudence, can be no doubt that a prorogation at for a wise and discreet exercise of the au. least will become absolutely necessary, in thorities given to you by the Acts which order to put an end to any business that now send you. may be depending before the old council. The powers contained in the Act for Perhaps circumstances may require a dis- the more impartial administration of juktice do, in particular, deserve your atten- 1 he was obliged to do it by proclamation, tion, for it is hardly possible to conceive on the outside of the door. I transmit a situation of greater difficulty and deli your lordship the resolves they have pubcacy than that which a governor would be lished. in, if reduced to the necessity of exercis- The council'sent me the inclosed libel, ing his discretion in the case provided for; on my predecessors in this government, but it is a case that I trust will never in an address ; on which account, I reoccur, and I will hope, that notwithstand- | fused to receive it, sending them the reaing all the endeavours, equally flagitious sons for my refusal, which I also send your and contenuptible, used by a few desperate | lordship men to create in the people ideas of more If the dissolution will be productive of general resistance, the thinking part of good, or not, remains to be known; but them will be awakened to such a sense of the contrivers of all the mischief in the their true interests, and of the miseries town of Boston, I am informed, are now that await a further continuance of these spiriting up the people throughout the unhappy disputes, as to exert their best province to resistance, as well to the Port endeavours for a preservation of the pub- Bill, as to three other Acts daily expected, lic peace, and thereby give such effect and rough draughts of which were printed countenance to the civil authority, as to here about the 4th instant, and the render any other interposition than that of speeches made upon them in the House the ordinary civil magistrate unnecessary. of Commons, published in the newspapers.
There is another American Bill for Sensible and well-affected people have making more effectual provision for quar. told me, they have no doubt that their intering of his Majesty's troops, that has tention is to try to raise the province to passed both Houses, and waits for the arms; but I hope they suspect and fear royal assent, which although of general too much; and, however prone their inpurport, is founded principally on a case clinations may be to so wicked a project, I that occurred in the province of Massa- trust they want power to effect it. chuset's Bay.
In Boston the greatest pains have been, You will remember what happened at and are taking, to oppose all measures Boston in 1770, respecting the quartering tending to open the port, by flattering the the two regiments sent thither from Hali- people with assistance from the other profax, and the artifices used by forced con- vinces, promises of collections, and prestructions of the act of parliament to elude sents to enable them to subsist, and the the execution of it, and to embarrass the happy effects of a general congress, which, King's service. In order therefore to they make no doubt, will force Great Bri. prevent the like in future, the present Bill tain into their own terms. On the other is adopted, and inclosed I send you a hand, several gentlemen who, through fear printed copy of it, hoping to be able to of the tyranny under which they have send the Act itself by the first ship. lived, dared not to act or speak, encouragExtract of a LETTER from the Hon. Go
ed now, by the late resolutions of govern
ment, have ventured to step forth, and vernor Gage, to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Salem, 26th June,
are endeavouring to persuade the people 1774.
to comply with the act of parliament, as
the only means to save their town from My lord; the general court met here ruin. Till they are pinched, and find they on the 7th instant, and, after the inclosed are deceived in their hopes of support, by protest, proceeded to business, and sent presents and collections, the affair will me the inclosed address. During the probably rest in this situation ; but the short sessions, several private Bills, and a Act must certainly, sooner or later, work tax Bill were passed.
its own way. A committee of the house sat for some They will not agree to non-importation, days, keeping their business very secret; either at New York or Philadelphia, or but giving out, they were upon moderate even in this province, though I believe a and conciliating measures. They made congress, of some sort, may be obtained ; their report, I am informed, on the 17th but when, or how it will be composed, is instant, when the door was ordered to be yet at a distance: and, after all, Boston locked; but their proceedings getting | may get little more than fair words. abroad, I sent the secretary to dissolve I got the consent of council to my no. Shem. They would not admit him, and mination of Mr. Justice Brown, of the in.