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might maintain themselves against the Cherusci and Sigambri. It was situated at the point where the Eliso empties itself into the Lupia (Lippe, Dion Cass. lir. 33.) There can be no doubt that the place thus described by Dion Cassias under the name 'EKlauv, is the same as the Aliso mentioned by Velleius (ii. 120) and Tacitus (Ann. ii. 7), and which in A. D. 9, after the defeat of Varus, was taken by the Germans. In A. D. 15 it was reconquered by the Romans; but being, the year after, besieged by the Germans, it was relieved by Germanicus. So long as the Romans were involved in wars with the Germans in their own country, Aliso was a place of the highest importance, and a military road with st.ong fortifications kept up the connection between Auso and the Rhine. The name of the place was probably taken from the little river Eliso, on whose bank it stood. The *AAf Ioov (in Ptolemy ii. 11) is probably only another form of the name of this fortress. Much has been written in modem times upon the site of the ancient Aliso, and different results have been arrived at; but from the accurate description of Dion Cassius, there can be little doubt that the village of Elsen, about two miles from Paderborn, situated at the confluence of the Alms (Eliso) and Lippe (Lupia), is the site of the ancient Aliso. (Ledebur, Dot Land u. Volk der Bructerer, p. 209, foil.; W. E. Giefers, Be Alisons Castello Commentatio, Crefeld, 1844, 8vo.) [L.S.] A'LIUM. [acroreia.]

ALLA'RIA('AAAapla: Eth. 'KSXapiirn j), a city of Crete of uncertain site, of which coins are extant, bearing on the obverse the head of Pallas, and on the reverse a figure of Heracles standing. (Polyb. ap. Steph. B. s. v.)

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AXLIA or A'LIA* (4 'A\(os, Plut.) a small river which flows into the Tiber, on its left bank, about 11 miles N. of Rome. It was on its banks that the Romans sustained the memorable defeat by the Gauls under Brennus in B. c. 390, which led to the capture and destruction of the city by the barbarians. On this account the day on which the battle was fought, the 16th of July (xv. Kal. Sextiles), called the Bies AUicntit, was ever after regarded as disastrous, and it was forbidden to transact any public business on it. (Liv. vi. 1, 28; Virg. Aen. vii. 717; Tac. Hist. ii. 91; Varr. oh L.L. vi. §32; Lucan. vii. 408; Cic. Ep. ad Alt. ix. 5; Kal. Amitern. ap. OreU. Inter, vol. ii. p. 394.) A few years later, B.C. 377, the Praenestines and their allies, during a war with Rome, took up a position on the Allia, trusting that it would prove of evil omen to their adversaries; but their hopes

* According to Niebuhr (vol. ii. p. 533, not.) the correct form is Aua, but the ordinary form Allia is supported by many good MSS., and retained by the most recent editor of Livy. The note of Serviua (ad Aen. vii. 717) is certainly founded on a misconception.

were deceived, and they were totally defeated by the dictator Cincinnatus. (Liv. vi. 28; Eutrop. ii. 2.) The situation of this celebrated, but insignificant, stream is marked with unusual precision by Livy: 11 Aegre (hostibus) ad undecimum lapidem occursum est, qua flumen Allia Crustuminis montibus praealto defluens alveo, haud multum infra viam Tiberino amni miscetur." (v. 37.) The Gauls were advancing upon Rome by the left bank of the Tiber, so that there can be no doubt that the " via" here mentioned is the Via Salaria, and the correctness of the distance is confirmed by Plutarch(Comtfl.l8), who reckons it at 90 stadia, and by Eutropius (i. 20), while Vibius Sequester, who places it at 14 miles from Rome (p. 3), is an authority of no value on such a point. Notwithstanding this accurate description, the identification of the river designated has been the subject of much doubt and discussion, principally arising from the circumstance that there is no stream which actually crosses the Via Salaria at the required distance from Rome. Indeed the only two streams which can in any degree deserve the title of rivers, that flow into this part of the Tiber, are the Bio del Motto, which crosses the modern road at the Osteria del Grilio about 18 miles from Rome, and the Fosto di Conca, which rises at a place called Conca (near the site of Ficuiea), about 13 miles from Rome, but flows in a southerly direction and crosses the Via Salaria at Malpasso, not quite 7 miles from the city. The former of these, though supposed by Cluverius to be the Allia, is not only much too distant from Rome, but does not correspond with the description of Livy, as it flows through a nearly flat country, and its banks are low and defenceless. The Fotso di Conca on the contrary is too near to Rome, where it crosses the road and enters the Tiber; on which account Nibby and Gell have supposed the battle to have been fought higher up its course, above 7orre di S. Giovanni. But the expressions of Livy above cited and his whole narrative clearly prove that he conceived the battle to have been fought close to the Tiber, so that the Romans rested their left wing on that river, and their right on the Crustumian hills, protected by the reserve force which was posted on one of those hills, and against which Brennus directed his first attack. Both these two rivers must therefore be rejected; but between them are two smaller streams which, though little more than ditches in appearance, flow through deep and narrow ravines, where they issue from the hills; the first of these, which rises not far from the Fotso di Conca, crosses the road about a mile beyond La Marcigliana, and rather more than 9 from Rome; the second, called the Scolo del Casale, about 3 miles further on, at a spot named the Fonts di Papa, which is just more than 12 miles from Rome. The choice must lie between these two, rjf which the former has been adopted by Holstenius and Westphal, but the latter has on the whole the best claim to be regarded as the true Allia. It coincides in all respects with Livy's description, except that the distance is a mile too great; but the difference in the other case is greater, and the correspondence in no other respect more satisfactory. If it be objected that the little brook at Fante di Papa is too trifling a stream to have earned such an immortal name, it may be observed that the very particular manner in which Livy describes the locality, sufficiently shows that it was not one necessarily familiar to his readers, nor does any Nibby's notes; Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. p. 130; Gell, Top. of Rome, p. 48; Burgess, Antiquities of Rome, vol. L p. 107.) From this spot, which is about half a mile from the church of 5. Sebastiano, and two miles from the gates of Home, the Almo has a course of between 3 and 4 miles to its confluence with the Tiber, crossing on the way both the Via Appia and the Via Ostiensis. It was at the spot where it joins the Tiber that the celebrated statue of Cybele was landed, when it was brought from Pessinus in Phrygia to Borne in B. c. 204; and in memory of this circumstance the singular ceremony was observed of washing the image of the goddess herself, as well as her sacred implements, in the waters of the Almo, on a certain day (6 Kal. Apr., or the 27th of March) in every year: a superstition which subsisted down to the final extinction of paganism. (Ov. Feat. iv. 337—340; Lucan. i. 600; Martial, iii. 47. 2; Stat. Silv. v. 1. 222; Sil. Ital. viii. 365; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 3. § 7.) The little stream appears to have retained the name of Almo as late as the seventh century: it is now commonly called the Acquataccia, a name which is supposed by some to be a corruption of Acqua dAppia, from its crossing the Via Appia. The spot where it is traversed by that road was about 1J mile from the ancient Porta Capena; but the first region of the city, according to the arrangement of Augustus, was extended to the very bank of the Almo. (Preller, Die Regional Romt, p. 2.) [E. H. B.]

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ALMO'PIA ('AAjuairia), a district in Macedonia inhabited by the Almopes ('aa/xot«), is said to have been one of the early conquests of the Argive colony of the Temenidae. Leake supposes it to be the same country now called Moglena, which bordered upon the ancient EJe-sa to the NE. Ptolemy assigns to the Almopes three towns, Horma ("Op^ia), Europus (Ef»p«Tos), and Apsalus ("A^oAos). (Thuc. ii. 99; Steph. B. ».».; Lycophr. 1238; Ptol. iii. 13. §24; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p.444.)

ALONTA ('AAoVra: Terek), one of the chief rivers of Sarmatia Asiatica, flowing into the W. side of the Caspian, 5. of the Udon (OtfoW, Kouma), which is S. of the Rha ( Volga). This order, given by Ptolemy (v. 9. § 12), seems sufficient to identify the rivers; as the Rha is certainly the Volga, and the Kouma and Terei are the only large rivers that can answer to the other two. The Terek rises in M. Elbrouz, the highest summit of the Caucasus, and after a rapid course nearly due E. for 350 miles, falls into the Caspian by several mouths near 44° N. lat. ' [P. 8.]

A'LOPE ('AXoVij: Eth. 'AAowinjs, 'hXmrtvs). 1. A town of Phthiotis in Thessaly, placed by Stephanus between Larissa Cremaste and Echinus. There was a dispute among the ancient critics whether this town was the same as the Alope in Homer(//.ii.682; Strab. pp. 427,432; Steph. B.s.tr.).

2. A town of the Opuntian Locrians on the coast between Daphnus and Cynus. Its ruins have been discovered by Gell on an insulated hill near the shore. (Thuc ii. 26; Strab. p. 426; ScyL p. 23; Gell, /finer, p. 233.)

3. A town of the Ozolian Locrians of uncertain site. (Strab. p. 427.)

ALO'PECE. [attica.]

ALOPECONNE'SUS (,AA(»irnco'i'i<7i<ros), a town on the western coast of the Thracian Chersonesus. It was an Aeolian colony, and was believed to have derived its name from the fiict that the settlers were directed by an oracle to establish the colony, where

they should first meet a fox with its cnb. (Sleph. U.S. v.; Scymnus, 29; Liv. xxxi. 16; Pomp. Mela, ii. 2.) In the time of the Macedonian ascendancy, it was allied with, and under the protection of Athens. (Dem. de Coron. p. 256, c. Aristocr. p. 675.) [L. S.]

ALO'KUS ("AAoipot: Eth. 'AAwpf-rnr), a town of Macedonia in the district Bottiaea, is placed by Stephanns in the innermost recess of the Thermaie gulf. According to Scylax it was situated between the Haliacmon and Lydias. Leake supposes it to have occupied the site of Palcd-khora, near Kapsokhdri. The town is chiefly known on account of its being the birthplace of Ptolemy, who usurped the Macedonian throne after the murder of Alexander II., son of Amyntas, and who is usually called Ptolcmacus Alorites. (Scyl. p. 26; Steph. B.s. r.; Strab. p. 330; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii, p. 435, seq.; Diet, of Biogr. vol. iii. p. 568.)

ALPE'NI ('AATrnrol, Herod, vii. 176; Aawijfos Wo'ais, Herod, vii. 216- Eth. AATjjrdi), a town of the Epicneroidii Locri at the E. entrance of the pass of Thermopylae. For details, see Thermopylae.

ALPES («u "AAir«s; sometimes also, but rarely T4 'AAireira Son and Td'AAirio Upri), was the name given in ancient as well as modern times to the great chain of mountains—the most extensive and loftiest in Europe,— which forms the northern boundary of Italy, separating that country from Gaul and Germany. They extend without interruption from the coast of the Mediterranean between Massilia and Genua, to that of the Adriatic near Trieste, but their boundaries are imperfectly defined, it being almost impossible to fix on any point of demarcation between the Alps and the Apennines, while at the opposite extremity, the eastern ridges of the Alps, which separate the Adriatic from the vallies of the Save and the Drove, are closely connected with the Illyrian ranges of mountains, which continue almost without interruption to the Black Sea. Hence Pliny speaks of the ridges of the Alps as softening as they descend into Illyricum (" mitesccntia Alpium juga per medium Illyricum," iii. 25. s. 28), and Mela goes so far as to assert that the Alps extend into Thrace (Mela, ii. 4). But though there is much plausibility in this view considered as a question of geographical theory, it is not probable that the term was ever familiarly employed in so extensive a sense. On the other hand Strabo seems to consider the Jura and even the mountains of the Black Forest in Swabia, in which the Danube takes its rise, as mere offsets of the Alps (p. 207). The name is probably derived from a Celtic word Alb or Alp, signifying " a height:" though others derive it from an adjective Alb "white," which is connected with the Latin Albus, and is the root of the name of Albion. (Strab. p. 202; and see Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary.)

It was not till a late period that the Greeks appear to have obtained any distinct knowledge of the Alps, which were probably in early times regarded as a part of the Rhipacan mountains, a general appellation for the great mountain chain, which formed the extreme limit of their geographical knowledge to the north. Lycophron is the earliest extant author who has mentioned their name, which he however erroneously writes 2aAma (Alex. 1361): and the account given by Apollonius Bhodius (iv. 630, fol.), of the sources of the Rhodanus and the Eridanus proves his entire ignorance of the geography of these regions. The conquest of Cisalpine Gaul by the Romans, And still more the passage of Hannibal over the Alps,

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