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mountain near St.Didier. Pliny (xi. 42. s.97) terms' them Alpes Centronicae from the Gaulish tribe of the Ceutrones, who occupied their western slopes.

4. Alpes Penninae, or Poeninae. the Pennine Alps, was the appellation by which the Romans designated the loftiest and most central part of the chain, extending from the Mont Blanc on the W., to the Monte Rosa on the E. The first form of the name is evidently the m^st correct, and was derived from the Celtic " Pen" or " Ben," a height or summit; but the opinion having gained ground that the pass of the Great St. Bernard over these mountains was the route pursued by Hannibal, the name was considered to be connected with that of the Carthaginians (Poeni), and hence the form Poeninae is frequently adopted by later writers. Livy himself points out the error, and adds that the name was really derived, according to the testimony of the inhabitants, from a deity to whom an altar was consecrated on the Bummit of the pass, probably the same who was afterwards worshipped by the Romans themselves as Jupiter Penninus. (Liv. xxi. 38; Plin. Hi. 17. s. 21; Strab. p. 205; Tac. Hist. i. 61, 87; Amm. Marc. xv. 10; Serv. ad Vxrg. A en. x. 13; OrelL Inter, vol. L p. 104.) The limits of the Pennine Alps are nowhere very clearly designated; but it seen*s that the whole upper valley of the Rhone, the modern Valais, was called Vallis Poenina (see Orel!. Inter. 211), and Ammianus expressly places the sources of the Rhone in the Pennine Alps (xv. 11. § 16), so that the term must have been frequently applied to the whole extent of the mountain chain from the Mont Blanc eastward as far as the St. Gothard. The name of Alpes Lepontiae from the Gaulish tribe of the Lepontii, is frequently applied by modern geographers to the part of the range inhabited by them between the Monte Rosa and the Mont St. Gothard, but there is no ancient authority for the name. The "Alpes Graiae et Poeninae," during the later periods of the Roman empire, constituted a separate province, which was united with Transalpine Gaul. Its chief towns were Darantasia and Octodurus. (Amm. Marc. xv. 11. §12; Orel!. Inter. 3888; Aro*. Dign. ii. p. 72; Booking, ad loc. p. 472.) Connected with these we find mentioned the Alpes Atractianae or Atrectianae, a name otherwise wholly unknown.

5. The Alpes Rhaeticae, orRhaetian Alps,may be considered as adjoining the Pennine Alps on the east, and including the greater part of the countries now called the Grisons and the Tyrol. Under this more general appellation appears to have been comprised the mountain mass called Mons Adula, in which both Strabo and Ptolemy place the sources of the Rhine [adula Mons], while Tacitus expressly tells us that that river rises in one of the most inacoessible and lofty mountains of the Rhaetian Alps. (Germ. 1.) The more eastern portion of the Rhaetian Alps, in which the Athesis and Atagis have their sources, is called by Pliny and by various other writers the ALPEsTuiDENTiNAE,froin the important city of Tridentum in the Southern Tyrol. (Plin. iii. 16. s. 20; Dion Cass. liv. 22; Flor. iii. 4.)

6. The eastern portion of the Alps from the valley of the Athesis and the pass of the Brenner to the plains of Pannonia and the sources of the Save appear to have been known by various appellations, of which it is not easy to determine the precise extent or application. The northern arm of the chain, which extends through Noricuin to the neighbourhood of Vienna, was known as the ALrEfl Nokicak (Flor.

] iii. 4; Plin. iii. 25. s. 28), while the more southern range, which bounds the plains of Venetia, and curvns round the modern Frioul to the neighbourhood of Trieste, was variously known as the Alpes Ca RNicae and Juliae. The former designation, employed by Pliny (/. c.)f they derived from the Carni who inhabited their mountain fastnesses: the latter, which appears to have become customary in later times (Tac. ffisL iii. 8; Amm. Marc. xxi. 9, xxxi. 16; Itin. Hier. p. 560; Sex. Ruf. Breviar. 7), from Julius Caesar, who first reduced the Carni to subjection, and founded in their territory the towns of Julium Carnicum and Forum Julii, of which the latter has given to the province its modern name of the Frwul. We find also this part of the Alps sometimes termed Alpes Venetae (Amm. Marc. xxxi. 16. § 7) from their bordering on the province of Venetia. The mountain ridge immediately above Trieste, which separates the waters of the Adriatic from the valley of the Save, and connects the Alps, properly so called, with the mountains of Dalmatia and Illyricum, was known to the Romans as Mons Ocra (Oicpti, Strab. p. 207; PtoL iii. 1. §1), from whence one of the petty tribes in the neighbourhood of Tergeste was called the SubocrinL (PJin. iii. 20. s. 24.) Strabo justly observes that this is the lowest part of the whole Alpine range: in consequence of which it was from a very early period traversed by a much frequented pass, that became the medium of active commercial intercourse from the Roman colony of Aquileia with the valleys of the <Sdre and Drave, and by means of those rivers with the plains on the banks of the Danube.

7. We also find, as already mentioned, the name of the Alps sometimes extended to the mountain ranges of Illyricum and Dalmatia: thus Pliny (xi. 42. s. 97) speaks of the Alpes Dalmaticae, and Tacitus of the Alpes Pannonicae {Hist. ii. 98, iii. 1), by which however he perhaps means little more than the Julian Alps. But this extensive use of the term does not seem to have ever been generally adopted.

The physical characters of the Alps, and those natural phenomena which, though not peculiar to them, they yet exhibit on a greater scale than any other mountains of Europe, must have early attracted the attention of travellers and geographers: and the difficulties and dangers of the passes over them were, as was natural, greatly exaggerated. Polybius was the first to give a rational account of them, and has described their characteristic features on occasion of the passage of Hannibal in a manner of which the accuracy has been attested by all modern writers. Strabo also gives a very good account of them, noticing particularly the danger arising from the avalanches or sudden falls of snow and ice, which detached themselves from the vast frozen masses above, and hurried the traveller over the side of the precipice (p. 204). Few attempts appear to have been made to estimate their actual height; but Polybius remarks that it greatly exceeds that of the highest mountainsof Greece and Thrace,01ympus,Ossa, Athos &c: for that almost any of these mountains mipht bo ascended by an active walker in a single day while he would scarcely ascend the Alps in five: a statement greatly exaggerated. (Polyb. ap. Strab. p. 209.) Strabo on the contrary tells us, that the direct ascent of the highest summits of the mountains in the territory of the Medulli, did not exceed 100 stadia, and the same distance for the descent rm the other dido into Italy (p. 203), while PHny

[graphic]

reader may consult Walekenacr, Geographic de* Gaules vol. ii. pp. 43—66.

The eternal snows and glaciers of the Alps arc the sources from which flow several of the largest rivers of Europe: the Rhone, the Rhine, and the Po, as well as the great tributaries of the Danube, the inn, the Drave and the Save. It would be useless here to enter into a geographical or detailed enumeration of the countless minor streams which derive their sources from the Alps, and which will be found under the countries to which they severally belong.

Passes of the Alps.

Many of the passes across the great central chain of the Alps are so clearly indicated by the course of the rivers which rise in them, and the vallies through which these flow, that they must probably have been known to the neighbouring tribes from a very early period. Long before the passage of the western Alps by Hannibal, we know that these mountains were crossed by successive swarms of Gaulish invaders (Polyb. iii. 48; Liv. v. 33), and there is every reason to suppose that the more easily accessible passes of the Rhaetian and Julian Alps had afforded a way for the migrations of nations in still earlier ages. The particular route taken by Hannibal is still a subject of controversy.* But it is clear from the whole narrative of Polybius, that it was one already previously known and frequented by the mountaineers that guided him: and a few years later his brother Hasdrubal appears to have crossed the same pass with comparatively little difficulty. Polybius, according to Strabo, was acquainted with only four passes, viz.: 1. that through Liguriaby the Maritime Alps; 2. that through the Taurini, which was the one traversed by Hannibal; 3. that through the Salassi; and 4. that through the Khaetians. (Polyb. ap. Strab. p. 209.) At a later period Pompey, on his march into Spain (n. c. 77), opened out a passage for his army, which he describes as " different from that of Hannibal, but more convenient for the Romans." (Pompeii Epist, ap. Sallust. Hist. iii. p. 230, ed. Gerlach.) Shortly after this time Varro (in a passage in which there appears to be much confusion) speaks of fire passes across the Alps (without including the more easterly ones), which he enumerates as follows: "Una, quae est juxta mare per Liguras; altera qua Hannibal transiit | tenia qua Pompeius ad Hispaniense bellum profectus est: quarta qua Hasdrubal de Gallia in Italiam venit: quinta, quae quondam a Graecis possessa est, quae exinde Alpes Graeciae appellantur." (Varr. ap. Serv. ad Aen. x. 13.) From the time of the reduction of the Transalpine Gauls by J. Caesar, and that of the Alpine tribes by Augustus, the passes over the Alps came to be well known, and were traversed by high roads, several of which, however, on account of the natural difficulties of the mountains, were not practicable for carriages. These passes were the following: —

1. "Per Alpes Maritimas," along the coa^t of Liguria, at the foot of the Maritime Alps from Genua to the mouth of the Varus. Though the line of sea-coast must always have offered a natural means of communication, it could hardly have been frequented by the Romans until the wild tribes of the Ligurians had been effectually subdued; and it appears certain that no regular road was constructed

* See the article Hannibal,in the Diet, of Bintjr vol. ii. p. 333, and the works there referred to.

along it till the time of Augustus. The monument which thatemperorerectedover the highest part of the pass (just above the Portus Monoeci), to commemorate the reduction of the Alpine tribes, is still extant, and the Roman road may be distinctly traced for several miles on each side of it. [tbopara Augusti.] It did not follow the same line as the modem road, but, after ascending from near Mentorn to the summit of the pass at Turbia, descended a side valley to Cemenelion (Cimiez), and proceeded from thence direct to the mouth of the Varus, leaving Nicaea on the left. The stations along this road from Vada Sabbata (Na) to Antipolis are thus given in the Itin. Ant p. 296: —

M.P. M.P. Pullopice - xii. Lumone - x.

Albingauno Alps Summa(7'orJto) vi.

(Albenga) - viii. Cemenelo (Cindee) - viii. Luco Bormard - an Varum flumeu - vi.

Costa Balenae - xvi. Antipolis (Antibei) - x. Albintimiho ( Vm

timiglia) - xvi.

This line of road is given in the Itinerary as a part of the Via Aurelia, of which it was undoubtedly a continuation; but we learn from the inscriptions of the mile-stones discovered near Turbia that it was properly called the Via Julia.

2. "Per Alpes Cottias," by the pass now called the Mont Genevre, from Augusta Taurinorum to Brigantio (Briancon) and Ebrodunum (Embrun) in Gaul. This was the most direct line of communication from the north of Italy to Transalpine Gaul: it is evidently that followed by Caesar when he hastened to oppose the Helvetii, "qua proximurn iter in ultcriorem Galliam per Alpes erat" (B. G. i. 10), and is probably the same already mentioned as having been first explored by Pompey. It was afterwards one of the passes most frequented by the Romans, and is termed by Ammianus (xv. 10) " via media et compendiaria." That writer has given a detailed account of the pass, the highest ridge of which was known by the name of Matronak Mons, a name retained in the middle ages, and found in the Itin. Hierosol. p. 556. Just at its foot, on the Italian side, was the station Ad Mabtis, probably near the modern village of Ovlx. The distances given in the Itin. Ant. (p. 341) are, from Taurini (Augusta Taurinorum) to Segu-ao (Saso) 51 M. P. (a great overstatement: the correct distance would be 36)j thence —

Ad Martis - xvi. Ramae - xviii.

Brigantio - xviii. Eburodono xviii. Though now little frequented, this pass is one of the lowest and easiest of those over the main chain.

3. "Per Alpes Gbaias," by the Little St. Bernard. This route, which led from Milan and the plains of the Po by the valley of the Salassi to Augusta Praetoria (Aorta), and from thence across the mountain pass into the valley of the Isara (Isere), and through the Tarentaite to Vienna and Lugdunum, is supposed by many writers to have been that followed by Hannibal. It was certainly crossed by D. Brutus with his army after the battle of Mutina, B. c. 43. But though it presents much less natural difficulties than its neighbour the Great St. Bernard, it appears to have been little frequented, on account of the predatory habits of the Salassians, until Augustus, after having completely subdued that people, constructed a carriage road over the Graian Alps, which thenceforward became one of the most important and frequented lines of communi

cation between Italy and Gaul (Strab p. 208; Tac. Hiit. ii. 66, iv. 68.)

The stations on this route are thus given in the Itinerary, beginning from Eporedia, at the entrance of the Void1 Aotta:

M.P.

Vitricium ( Verrez) - xxi.

Augusta Praetoria (Aotta) - xxv.

Arebrigium (47. LHdier) - - xxv.

Rergintrum (Bourg. S. Maurice) xxiv.

Darantasia (Momtiert) - - xviii.

Obilinum - xiii.

Ad Publicanos (Confiant) - hi. From thence there branched off two lines of road, the one by Lemincum (Chambery) and Augusta Allobrogum to Vienna, the other northwards to Geneva and the Lacus Lemannus.

4. "Peb Alpes Pehninas," by the Great St. Bernard. This route, which branched off from the former at Augusta Praetoria, and led direct across the mountain, from thence to Octodurus (Martigny) in the valley of the Rhone, and the head of the Lake Lemannus, appears to have been known and frequented from very early times, though it was never rendered practicable for carriages. Caesar speaks of it as being used to a considerable extent by merchants and traders, notwithstanding the exactions to which they were subjected by the wild tribes that then occupied this part of the Alps. (B. G. iii. 1.) The numerous inscriptions and votive tablets that have been discovered sufficiently attest how much this pass was frequented in later times: and it was repeatedly traversed by Roman armies. (Orell. Inter, vol. L p. 104; Tac. HitL i. 61, iv. 68.) The distances by this road are thus given in the Itinerary. From Augusta Praetoria to the summit of the pass, Summo Pennine., where stood a temple of Jupiter — M. P. xxv.; thence to Octodorus (Martigny) xxv.; and from thence to Viviscum (Vevay) 34 miles, passing two obscure stations, the names of which are probably corrupt.

5. The next pass, for which we find no appro priate name, led from the head of the Lacus Larius to Brigantia (Bregenz), on the Lake of Constance. We find no mention of this route in early times; but it must have been that taken by Sulicbo, in the depth of winter, when he proceeded from Mediolanum through the Rhaetian Alps to summon the Vindelicians and Noricans to the relief of Honorius. (Claudian. B. Get. v. 320—360.) The Itineraries give two routes across this part of the Alps; the one apparently following the line of the modem pass of the Splugen, by Clavenna (Chiaverma) and Tarvessedo (?) to Curia (Coire): the other crossing the pass of the Septimer, by Mums and Tinnetio ( Tinzen) to Curia, where it rejoined the preceding route.

6. "Peb Alpes Rhakticas or Tbidentdsas." through the modem Tyrol, which, from the natural facilities it presents, must always have been one of the most obvious means of communication between Italy and the countries on the S. of the Danube. The high road led from Verona to Tridentum (where it was joined by a cross road from Opitergium through the Vol Sugojuj), and thence up the valley of the Athesis as far as Botzen, from which point it followed the Atagis or Eitach to its source, and crossed the pass of the Brenner to Veldidana ( Wilden, near Intbruck), and from thence across another mountain pass to Augusta Vindeliconim. [rhaetia.]

7. A road led from Aquileia to JoJium Camicnm (Zuglio), and from thence across the Julian Alps to Loocimn in the valley of the Gail, and by that valley and the Putter Thai to join the preceding rood at Vipitenum, near the foot of the Bremer. The stations (few of which can be determined with any certainty) are thus given (Itin. Ant. p. 279): —

M.P.

From Aqnileia Ad Tricesimum - xxx.

Julium Camicum xxx. Loncio - - xxii. Agunto - - xviii. Litt&mo - - xxiii. Sebato - - xxiii. Vipiteno - - xxxiii. 8. Another high road led from Aqnileia eastward op the valley of the Wippach, and from thence across the barren mountainous tract of comparatively email elevation (the Mons Ocra), which separates it from the valley of the Savus, to Aemona in Pannonia. There can be no doubt that this pass, which presents no considerable natural difficulties, was from the earliest ages the highway of nations from the banks of the Danube into Italy, as it again became after the fall of the Roman empire. (P. Diac. ii. 10.) The distance from Aqnileia to Aemona is given by the Itin. Ant. at 76 Roman miles, which cannot be far from the truth; but the intermediate stations are very uncertain. [E. H. B.J

ALPHEIUS CAA^nii: Rufea, Rvfid or Rqfid, and Hirer of Karitena), the chief river of Peloponnesus, rises in the SK. of Arcadia on the frontiers of Laconia, flows in a westerly direction through Arcadia and Elis, and after passing Olympia falls into the Ionian Sea. The Alpheius, like several other rivers and lakes in Arcadia, disappears more than once in the limestone mountains of the country, and then emerges again, after flowing some distance underground. Pausanias (viii. 54. § 1, seq., 44. § 4) relates that the source of the Alpheius is at Phylace, on the frontiers of Arcadia and Laconia; and that, after receiving a stream rising from many small fountains, at a place called Symbola, it flows into the territory of Tegea, where it sinks underground. It rises again at the distance of 5 stadia from Asea, close to the fountain of the Eurotas. The two rivers then mix their waters, and after flowing in a common channel for the distance of nearly 20 stadia, they again sink underground, and reappear, — the Eurotas in Laconia, the Alpheius at Pegae, the Fountains, in the territory of Megalopolis in Arcadia. Strabo (p. 343) also states that the Alpheius and Eurotas rise from two fountains near Asea, and that, after flowing several stadia underground, the Eurotas reappears in the fileminatis in Laconia, and the Alpheius in Arcadia. In another passage (p. 275) Strabo relates, that it was a common belief that if two cbaplets dedicated to the Alpheius and the Eurotas were thrown into the stream near Asea, each would reappear at the sources of the river to which it was destined. This story accords with the statement of Pausanias as to the union of the waters from the two fountains, and their course in a common channel. The account of Pausanias is confirmed in many particulars by the observations of Colonel Leake and others. The river, in the first part of its course, is now called the Saranda, which rises at A'rya Vryti, the ancient Phylace, and which receives, a little below Krya Vryti, a stream formed of several small mountain torrents, by which the ancient Symbola is recogmW. On entering the Tegeatic plain, the Saranda Bow fknrs to the ME.; bat there are strong reasons

for believing that it anciently flowed to the NW., and disappeared in the Katavdthra of the marsh of Taki.* (Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 112, seq;) The two reputed sources of the Alpheius and Eurotas are found near the remains of Asea, at the copious source of water called Frangovryti; bat whether the source of the Alpheius be really the vent of the lake of Taki, cannot be decided with certainty. These two fountains unite their waters, as Pausanias describes, and again sink into the earth. After passing under a mountain called Trimbanu, the Alpheius reappears at Marmara, probably Pegae. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 37, seq.)

Below Pegae, the Alpheius receives the Hklisson {'EKuraiiv: River of Davia), on wliich Megalopolis was situated, 30 stadia from the confluence. Below this, and near the town of Brenthe (A'nrt'reno), the Alpheius flows through a defile in the mountains, called the pass of Lavdha. This pass is the only opening in the mountains, by which the waters of central Arcadia find their way to the western sea. It divides the upper plain of the Alpheius, of which Megalopolis was the chief place, from the lower plain, in which Heraea was situated. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 19, seq.) Below Heraea, the Alpheius receives the Ladoh (Adowi/), which rises near Cleitor, and is celebrated in mythology as the father of Daphne. The Ladon is now cailed Rufea, Rufia or Rofia, by which name the Alpheius is called below its junction with the Ladon. In the upper part of its course the Alpheius is usually called the River of Karitena. Below the Ladon, at the distance of 20 stadia, the Alpheius receives the Erymanthus ('Epi/umSos), rising in the mountain of the same name, and forming the boundary between Elis and the territories of Heraea in Arcadia, After entering Elis, it flows past Olympia, forming the boundary between Pisatis and Triphylia, and falls into the Cyparissian gulf in the Ionian sea. At the mouth of the river was a temple and grove of Artemis Alpheionia. From the pass of Lavdha to the sea, the Alpheius is wide and shallow: in summer it is divided into several torrents, flowing between islands or sandbanks over a wide gravelly bed, while in winter it is full, rapid, and turbid. Its banks produce a great number of large plane-trees. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 67, Pelo ponnesiaca, p. 8.)

Alpheius appears as a celebrated river-god in mythology; and it was apparently the subterranean passage of the river in the upper part of its course which gave rise to the fable that the Alpheius flowed beneath the sea, and attempted to mingle its waters with the fountain of Arethusa in the island of Ortygia in Syracnse. (Diet, of Biogr. art. Alpheius.) Hence Ovid calls the nymph Arethusa, Alphelat. (Met. v. 487.) Virgil (Aen. x. 179) gives the epithet of Alpheae to the Etruscan city of Pisae,because the latter was said to have been founded by colonists from Pisa in Elis, near which the Alpheius flowed.

ALSA, a small river of Venetia (Plin. iii. 18. s.22) still called the^usa, which flows into the lagnnes of Marano, a few miles W. of Aqnileia. A battle was fought on its banks in A. D. 340, between the younger Constantine and the generals of his brother Constans, in which Constantine himself was slain, and his body thrown into the river Alsa. (Victor, Epit. 41. § 21; Hieron. CArofl. ad ann. 2356.)

* The preceding account will be mode clearer by referring to the map under Mantiiikia.

ALSIETI'NUS LACUS, a small lake in Etruria, about 2 miles distant from the Lacus Sabatinus, between it and tie basin or crater of Baccano, now called the Logo di Martignano. Its ancient name is preserved to us only by Frontinus, from whom we learn that Augustus conveyed the water from thence to Rome by an aqueduct, named the Aqua Alsietina, more than 22 miles in length. The water was, however, of inferior quality, and served only to supply a Naumachia, and for purposes of irrigation. It was joined at Careiae, a station on the Via Claudia, 15 miles from Rome, by another branch bringing water from the Lacus Sabatinus. (Frontin. de Aguaed. §§ 11, 71.) The channel of the aqueduct is still in good preservation, where it issues from the lake, and may be traced for many miles of its course. (Nibby, Dintorni, vol i. pp. 133 —137.) " [E.H.B.]

A'LSIUMfAA.o-ioi': Eth. Alsiensis: Palo), a city on the coast of Etruria,between Pyrgi and Fregenae, at the distance of 18 miles from the Portus Augusti (Porto) at the mouth of the Tiber. (Itin. Ant. p. 301.) Its name is mentioned by Dionysius (i. 20) among the cities which were founded by the Pelasgians in connection with the aborigines, and afterwards wrested from them by the Tyrrhenians (Etruscans). But no mention of it occurs in history as an Etruscan city, or during the wars of that people with Rome. In B. c. 245 a Roman colony was established there, which was placed on the same footing with the other " coloniae maritimae;" and in common with these claimed exemption from all military service, a claim which was, however, overruled during the exigencies of the Second Punic War. (Veil Pat. L 14; Liv. xxvii. 38.) No subsequent notice of it occurs in history, but its name is mentioned by Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, and we learn from an inscription of the time of CaracaUa that it still retained its colonial rank, and corresponding municipal organisation. (Strab. pp. 225, 226; Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Ptol. iii. 1. § 4; Gruter, Inner. p. 271. 3.) It appears to have early become a favourite resort with the wealthy Romans as a place of retirement and pleasure (" maritimut et eoluptariuM locua:" Fronto, Ep. p. 207, ed. Rom.); thus we find that Pompey the Great had a villa there, and Caesar also, where he landed on his return from Africa, and at which all the nobles of Rome hastened to greet hiin. (Cic. pro Milan. 20, ad Fam. ix. 6, ad Alt. xiii. 50.) Another is mentioned as belonging to Verginius Rufus, the guardian of Pliny, and we learn from Fronto that the emperor M. Aurelius had a villa there, to which several of his epistles are addressed. (Vtin.Ep. vi. 10; Fronto, Ep. p. 205— 215.) At a later period the town itself had fallen into utter decay, but the site was still occupied by villas, as well as that of the neighbouring Pyrgi. (Rutil. Itin. i. 223.)

The site of Alsium is clearly fixed by the distance from Porto, at the modern village of Palo, a poor place with a fort and mole of the 17th centnry, in the construction of which many ancient materials have been used. Besides these, the whole shore to the E. of the village, for the space of more than a mile, is occupied by the remains of buildings which appear to have belonged to a Roman villa of imperial date, and of the most magnificent scale and style of construction. These ruins are described in detail by Nibby (Dintorni di Roma, vol. iii. pp. 527, 528).' [E. H. 15.]

ALTHAEA ('AA9a(o: Etli. '\\9ahs), the chief |

city of the Olcades in Spain, not far from Carthago Nova. Its capture was Hannibal's first exploit in Spain. (Polyb. iii. 13; Steph. Byz. s. v.) Its position is unknown. Livy calls it Carteia (xxi. 5). [P. S.] ALTI'NUM ("aatitoi': Altino), a city of Venetia situated on the border of the lagunes, and on the right bank of the little river SUis (Stle) near its mouth. We learn from the Itineraries that it was distant 32 Roman miles from Patavium, and 31 from Concordia. (Itin. Ant. pp. 128, 281.) Strabo describes it as situated in a marsh or lagune, like Ravenna, and we learn that travellers were in the habit of proceeding by water along the lngunes from Ravenna to Altinum. Tacitus also speaks of it as open to attack by sea; but at the present day it is distant about 2 miles from the lagunes. (Strab. p. 214; Vitruv. i. 4. § 11; Itin. Ant. p. 126; Tac. Bitt. iii. 6.) The first historical mention of Altinum is found in Velleius Paterculus (ii. 76) during the wars of the Second Triumvirate, and it appears to have been then, as it continued under the Roman Empire, one of the most considerable places in this part of Italy. Pliny assigns it only the rank of a municipium; but we leam from inscriptions that it subsequently became a colony, probably in the time of Trajan. (Plin. iii. 18. s. 22 ; Orell. Inser. 4082; Zumpt de Colon. p. 402.) Besides its municipal importance, the shores of the adjoining lagunes became a favourite residence of the wealthy Romans, and were gradually lined with villas which are described by Martial (iv. 25) as rivalling those of Baiae. The adjoining plains were celebrated for the excellence of their wool, while the lagunes abounded in fish of all kinds, especially shell-fish. (Mart. xiv. 155; Plin. xxxii. 11. s. 53; Cassiod. Ep. Varr. xii. 22.) It was here that the emperor L. Verus died of apoplexy in A. D. 169. (Eutrop. viii. 10; Jul. Capit. Ver. 9; Vict, de Caes. 15.) The modern village of Altino is a very poor place; the period of the decay or destruction of the ancient city is unknown, but its inhabitants are supposed to have fled for refuge from the invasions of the barbarians to Torcello, an island in the lagunes about 4 miles distant, to which the episcopal see was transferred in A. O. 635. [E.H.U.] ALTIS. [olympia.]

ALU'NTIUM or HALU'NTIUM ('mowot, Ptol.; 'AXoimtov, Dion. Hal.: Eth. 'AAorrtvos, Halunrinus), a city on the N. coast of Sicily, between Tyndaris and Calocta. Its foundation was ascribed by some authors to a portion of the companions of Aeneas, who remained behind in :Sicily under a leader named Patron (Dianys. i. 51); bnt it probably was, in reality, a Sicelian town. No mention of it is found in Diodorus, nor is it noticed in history prior to the Roman conquest of Sicily. But in the time of Cicero it appears to have been a place of some importance. He mentions it as having suffered severely from the exactions of Verres, who, not content with ruinous extortions of corn, compelled the inhabitants to give up all their ornamental plate. (Cic. Kerr. iii. 43, iv. 23.) We learn from inscriptions that it retained the rank of a municipium, and was a flourishing town at least as Uie as the reign of Augustus.

Its site has been a matter of much dispute, but there are very strong arguments to prove that it occupied the same situation as the modern town of San Marco, which rises on a lofty hill of steep and j difficult ascent, about 3 miles from the Tyrrhenian

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