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ait. (Smyth's Sicilg, p. 97.) This position exactly accords with that described by Cicero, who tells us that Verres would not take the trouble to visit the town himself M quod erat difficili ascensu atque arduo," but remained on the beach below while he sent Archagathus to execute his behests (iv. 23). Various inscriptions also are preserved at 5. Marco, or have been discovered there, one of which begins with the words T6 Movvik'i-kiov Ticv 'aawripmw. (Castell. Inner. SicU. p. 55; Bockh, C. I. No. 5608.) Notwithstanding these arguments, Cluverius, following Fazello, placed Aluntium at a spot near & Filadelfo, where the ruins of an ancient city were then visible, and regarded 5. Marco as the site of Agathyma. It must be admitted that this arrangement avoids some difficulties [aoathtrna]; but the above proofs in favour of the contrary hypothesis seem almost conclusive. (Cluvcr. Sicil. p.294; Fazell. de Reb.Sic. ix. 4. p.384.) [E.H.B.]



ALYDDA ('AAu85o), a town of Phrygia mentioned in the Pentiirger Table. Arundell (Ditcmtriti in A$ia Minor, i. p. 105) gives his reasons for supposing that it may have been at or near Vthak, on the road between Sort and Afium Karahiuar, and that it was afterwards called Flaviopolis. He found several Greek inscriptions there, but none that contained the name of the place. [G. L.l

ALY'ZIA ('AAi/fla, Thuc.rii.31, et alii; 'AAi^ia, Steph. B. #.r.: Eih. 'AAo£ei/s, AAvfatbf, 'AAt/feiof, ap. Bockh. Corput InscripL No. 1793: Kandilt), a town on the west coast of Ac&mania. According to Strabo it was distant 15 stadia from the sea, on which it possessed a harbour and a sanctuary, both dedicated to Heracles. In this sanctuary were some works of art by Lysippus, representing the labours of Heracles, which a Roman general caused to be removed to Rome on account of the deserted state of the place. The remains of Alyzia are still visible in the valley of KnndUi. The distance of the bay of Kandili from the ruins of Leucas corresponds with the 120 stadia which Cicero assigns for the distance between Alyzia and leucas. (Strab. pp. 450.459; Cic adfam. xri. 2; Plin. iv. 2; Ptolem. iii. 14.) Alyzia is said to have derived its name from Alyzens, a son of Icarus. (Strab. p. 452; Steph. Byz. ». r.) It is first mentioned by Thucydides. In n. c. 374, a naval battle was fought in the neighbourhood of Alyzia between the Athenians under Timotbeus and the Lacedaemonians under

[merged small][graphic]

Nicolochus. The Athenians, says Xenophon, erected their trophy at Alyzia, and the Lacedaemonians in the nearest islands. We leam from Scylax that the island immediately opposite Alyzia was called Carnua, the modern Kalamo. (Thuc. vii. 31; Xen. Hell. T* 4. §§ 65, 66; Scylax, p. 13; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 14, seq.)

AMA'DOCI ('A/idtSoKoi), a people of Sarmatia Europaea, mentioned by Hcllanicus (Steph. B. s. v.) Their country was called Amadoeium. Ptolemy (iii. 5) mentions the Amadoci Montes, E. of t lie Borysthenes {Dnieper), as an E. prolongation of If. Peuce, and in these mountains the Amadoci, with a city Amodoca and a lake of the same name, the source of a river falling into the Borysthencs. The positions are probably in the S. Russian province of Jekaterinoslav, or in Kherson. [P. S.]

AMALEKl'TAE (,A/xaKvK7rat, Joseph. Ant. iii. 2; in LXX. 'A^aA?;*), the descendants of AmaU'k the grandson of Esau. (Gen. xxxvi. 9—12.) This tribe of Edomite Arabs extended as far south as the jieninsula of Mount Sinai, where " they fought with Israel inRephidim" (Exod. xvii. 8, &c.) They occupied the southern borders of the Promised Land, between the Canaanites (Philistines) of the west coast, and the Amorites, whose country lay to the SW. of the Dead Sea. (Compare Gen. xiv. 7 with Numbers xiii. 29, xiv. 25, 43-—45.) They dispossessed the Ishmaelite Bedouins, and occupied their country "from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt." (Compare Gen. xxv. 18 and 1 Sam. xv. 7.) They were nearly exterminated by Saul and David (1 Sam. xv., xxvii. 8, 9, xxx.); and the remnant were destroyed by the Simeonites in the days of Hezekiah. '(1 Chron. iv. 42, 43.) They are the Edomites whom David smote in the Valley of Salt (2 Sunt. viii. 12, 13; title to Psalm lx.), doubtless: identical with Wady Malekh, about h-even hours south of Hebron (Reland's Palestine, pp.78—82: Winer's Bib. Real. s. v.; Williams's Holy City, vol. i. appendix i. pp. 463, 464.) [G. W.]

AMA'NIDES PYLAE ('A/m^Ses or 'Auavtical IluAeu), or Amanicae Pylae (Curtius, iii. 18), orPortae Amani Montis (Plin. v. 27. s.22). "There are," says Cicero (ad Fam. xv. 4), " two passes from Syria into Cilicia, each of which can be held with a small force owing to their narrowness." These are the passes in the Amanus or mountain range which runs northward from Has el Khdmir, which promontory is at the southern entrance of the gulf of Iskerderun (gulf of Issus). This range of Amanus runs along the bay of Iskenderun, and joins the great mass of Taurus, forming a wall between Syria and Cilicia. "There is nothing" says Cicero, speaking of this range of Amanus, u which is better protected against Syria than Cilicia.'* Of the two passes meant by Cicero, the southern seems to be the paas of Beilan, by which a man can go from Iskenderun to Antioch; this may be called the lower Amanian pass. The other pass, to which Cicero refers, appears to be NXE. of Issus, in the same range of mountains (Amanua), over which there is still a road from Bayas on the east side of the bay of Issus, XoMarash: this northern pass seems to be the Amanides Pylae of Arrian and Curtius. It was by the Amanides Pylae (Arrian. Anab. ii. 7) that Darius crossed the mountains into Cilicia and came upon Issus, which Alexander had left shortly before. Darius was thus in the rear of Alexander, who had advanced as far as Myriaudrus, the site of which is near Iskenderun. Alexander turned back and met tin- Persian king nt the river Pinarus, between Issus and Myriandrns, where was fought the battle called the battle of Issus. The narrative of Arrian may be compared with the commentary of Polybius (xii. 17, 19).

Strabo's description of the Amanides (p. 676) is this: "after Mallus is Aegaeae, which has a small fort; then the Amanides Pylae, having an anchorage for ships, at which (pylae) terminate the Amarus mountains, extending down from the Taurus — and after Aegaeae is Issus, a small fort having an anchorage, and the river Pinarus." Strabo therefore places the Amanides Pylae between Aegae and Issus, and near the coast; and the Stadiasmus and Ptolemy give the same position to the Amanides. This pass is represented by a place now called Kara Kapu on the road between Mallus on the Pyramus (JeAnn) and Issus. But there was another pass " which" (as Major Bennell observes, and Leake agrees with him) " crossing Mount Amanus from the eastward, descended npon the centre of the head of the gulf, near Issus. By this pass it was that Darius marched from Sochus, and took up his position on the banks of the Pinarus; by which movement Alexander, who had just before marched from Mallus to Myriandrus, through the two maritime pylae, was placed between the Persians and Syria." (Leake, Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor, p. 210.) This is the pass which has been assumed to be the Amanides of Arrian and Curtius, about NNE. of Issus. It follows from this that the Amanicae Pylae of Arrian (Anab. ii. 7) are not the Amanides of Strabo. Q. Curtius speaks of a pass which Alexander had to go through in march] ng from the Pyramus to Issus, and this pass must be Kara Kapu. Kara Kapu is not on the coast, but it is not far from it. If Strabo called this the Amanides Pylae, as he seems to have done, he certainly gave the name to a different pass from that by which Darius descended on Issus. There is another passage of Strabo (p. 751) in which he says: " adjacent to Gindarus is Pagrae in the territory of Antioch, a strong post lying in the line of the pass over the Amanus, I mean that pass which leads from the Amanides Pylae into Syria." Leake is clearly right in not adopting Major Rennell's supposition that Strabo by this pass means the Amanides. He evidently means another pass, that of Beilan, which leads from Iskenderun to Boleros or Pagrat, which is the modern name of Pagrae; and Strabo is so far consistent that he describes this pass of Pagrae as leading from the pass which he has called Amanicae. Leake shows that the Amanides Pylae of Strabo are between Aegaeae and Issus, but he has not sufficiently noticed the difference between Strabo and Arrian, as Cramer observes (Aria Minor, vol. ii. p. 359). The map which illustrates Mr. Ainsworth's paper on the Cilician and Syrian Gates {London Geog. Journal, vol. viii. p. 185), and which is copied on the opposite page, enables us to form a more correct judgment of the text of the ancient writers; and we may now consider it certain that the Amanicae Pylae of the historians of Alexander is the pass NNE. of Issus, and that Strabo has given the name Amanides to a different pass. [G. L.]

AMA'NTIA ('A/ieurfa: Elk. 'AnavTitvs, Steph. B. t. v.; 'Auavriv6s, Ptol. ii. 16. § 3; Amantinus, Plin. iv. 10. s. 17. § 35; Amantianus, Caes. B. C. iii. 12; "Apcurfr, Etym. M.J.v.; Amantes, Plin.hi. 23. s. 26. § 45), a town and district in Greek IIlyrhu It is said to have been founded by the Abantes of Euboea, who, according to tradition, settled near the Cerauuian mountains, and founded Amantia and

Thronium. From hence the original name of Amantia is said to have been Abantia, and the surrounding country to have been called Abantis. (Steph. B. f. f. 'AGairfs, 'Afjuwrla; Etym. M. s. v. 'Anavrts; Paus. v. 22. § 3.) Amantia probably stood at some distance from the coast, S. of the river Aous, and on a tributary of the latter, named Polyanthes. (Lycophr. 1043.) It is placed by Leake at A'l'wtea, where there are the remains of Hellenic walls. This site agrees with the distances afforded by Scylax and the Tabular Itinerary, the former of which places Amantia at 320 stadia, and the latter at 30 Roman miles from Apollonia. Ptolemy speaks of an Amantia on the coast, and another town of the same name inland; whence we may perhaps infer that the latter had a port of the same name, more especially as the language of Caesar (B. C. iii. 40) would imply that Amantia was situated on the coast. Amantia was a place of some importance in the civil wars between Caesar and Porapcy; and it continued to be mentioned in the time of the Byzantine emperors. (cms. Jb. C. iii. 12, 40; Cic. Phil. xi. 11; Leake, Ancient Greece, vol. i. p. 375, seq.)

AMA'NUS (i 'Afiav6s, To 'Auav6v), is described by Strabo as a detached part (aTroffirtwr^o) of Taurus, and as forming the southern boundary of the plain of Cataonia. He supposes this range to branch off from the Taurus in Cilicia, at the same place where the Antitaurus branches off and takes a more northerly direction, forming the northern boundary of Cataonia. (Strab. p. 535.) He considers the Amanus to extend eastward to the Euphrates and Melitenc, where Commagene borders on Cappadocia. Here the range is interrupted by the Euphrates, but it recommences on the east side of the river, in a larger mass, more elevated, and more irregular in form. (Strab. p. 521.) He further adds: "the mountain range of Amanus extends (p. 535) to Cilicia and the Syrian sea to the west from Cataonia and to the south; and by such a division (8ia<rT£f*r«() it includes the whole gulf of Issus and the intermediate Cilician valleys towards the Taurus." This seems to be the meaning of the description of the Amanus in Strabo. Groskurd, in his German version (vol. ii. p. 448) translates Suurrdau simply by "extent" {ausdeknung); but byattending toStrabo's words and the order of them, we seem to deduce the meaning that the double direction of the mountain includes the gulf of Issus. And this agrees with what Strabo says elsewhere, when he makes the Amanus descend to the gulf of Issus between Aegae and Issus. [amanides Pylae.]

The term Amanus in Strabo then appears to be applied to the high ground which descends from the mass of Taurus to the gulf of Issus, and bounds the east side of it, and also to the highland which extends in the direction already indicated to the Euphrates, which it strikes north of Samosata (JSovteiaaC). The Jawur Dagh appears to be the modem name of at least a part of the north-eastern course of the Amanus. The branch of the Amanus which descends to the Mediterranean on the east side of the gulf of Issus is said to attain an average elevation of 5000 feet, and it terminates abruptly in Jebel KkeserUc and R<'u-el-Khdmir. This caps seems to be Rhosus, or the Rhosicus Scopulns of Ptolemy. There was near it a town Rhosus, which Stephanns(«. r. 'Pwo-oj) places in Cilicia. Rhosus is now Arsus. There is another short range which is connected with Amanus, and advances right to the [ borders of the sea, betweou RSt-cl-Kkdntir a>.d ths 1. Ras-el-KhSnzir.



2. Beilan Pass.

3. Bophras Pass.

4. Pass I Bajas.

5. Rhomis.

6. Alexandra*.

7. Kerens or Merkez.

8. Bayas.

9. Plnarus.

10. Ruins of Issiifl?

11. Demir Kapn, or Kara Kapn.

12. Aegae.

13. Pyramus.

14. Seleuceia.

15. Orontes.

16. AnKocheia.

17. Pagrae.

mouth of the Orontes: this appears to be the Pieria of Strabo (p. 751). On the south-west base of this range, called Pieria, was Seleuceia, which Strabo (p. 676) considers to be the first city in Syria after leaving Cilicia. Accordingly, he considers the mountain range of Amanus, which terminates on the east side of the gulf of Issus, to mark the boundary between Cilicia and Syria; and this is it correct view of the physical geography of the country.

Cicero (ad Fam. ii. 10), who was governor of Cilicia, describes the Amanus as common to him and Bibnlus, who was governor of Syria; and he calls it the water-shed of the streams, by which description he means the range which bounds the east side of the gulf of Issus. His description in another passage also (ad Fam. XT. 4) shows that his Amanus is the range which has its termination in Ra$-elKhanzir. Cicero carried on a campaign against the mountaineers of this range during his government of Cilicia (b.c. 51), and took and destroyed several of their hill forts. He enumerates among them Erana (as the name stands in our present texts), which was the chief town of the Amanus, Sepyra, and Commores. He also took Pindenissus, a town of the Eleuthcrocilices, which was on a high point, and a place of great strength. The passes in the Amanus have been already enumerated. On the bay, between hkenderun and Baym, the Baiae of Strabo and the Itineraries, is the small river Merkez, supposed to be the Karsus or Kersus of Xenophon (Anab. i. 4). On the south side of this small stream is a stone wall, which crosses the narrow plain between the Amnnus and the sea, and terminates on the coast in a tower. There are also ruins on the north side of the Kersus; and nearer to the mountain there are traces of "a double wall between which the river flowed." (Ainsworth, London Geog. Journal, vol. viii.) At the head of the river Kersus is the steep pass of Boghras Beli, one of the passes of the Amanus. This description seems to agree with that of the Cilician and Syrian gates of Xenophon. The Cilician pass was a gateway in a wall which descended from the mountains to the sea north of the Kersus; and the Syrian pass was a gateway in the wall which extended in the same direction to the south of the river. Cyrus marched from the Syrian pass five parasangs to Myriandrus, which may be near the site of hkenderun. We need not suppose that the present walls near the Merkez are as old as the time of Cyrus (b. C 401); but it seems probable that this spot, having once been chosen as a strong frontier position, would be maintained as such. If the Kersus is properly identified with the Merkez, we must also consider it as the gates through which Alexander marched from Mallus to Myriandrus, and through which he returned from Myriandrus to give battle to Darius, who had descended upon Issus, and thus put himself in the rear of the Greeks. (Arrian. Anab. ii. 6, 8.) From these gates Alexander retraced his march to the river Pinarus (Deli Chai), near which was fought the battle of Issus (n. c. 333). If the exact position of Issus wore ascertained, we might feel more certain as to the interpretations of Arrian and Curtins. Niebuhr (Reisen dnrch Sgrien. &c, 1837, Anhang, p. 151), who followed the road from hkenderun along the east coast of the bay of Issus on his road to Constantinople, observes that Xenophon makes the march of Cyrus 15 parasangs from the Pyramus to Issus; and he observes that it is 15 hours by the road from Bagas to the Pyramus. Cyrus

marched 5 parasangs from Issus to the Cilician and Syrian pates; and hkenderun is 5 hours hamBagat. But still he thinks that Myriandrus is at hkenderun, and that the Cilician and Syrian pass is at Merkez; but he adds, we must then remove Issus to Demir Kapu; and this makes a new difficulty, for it is certainly not 15 parasangs from Demir Kapu to the Pyramus. Besides, the position of Issus at Demir Kapu will not agree with the march of Alexander as described by Curtius; for Alexander made two days' march from Mallus, that is, from the Pyramus, to Castabalum; and one day's march from Castabalum to Issus. Castabalum, then, may be represented by Demir Kapu, undoubtedly the remains of a town, and Issus is somewhere east of it. The Peutinger Table places Issus next to Castabalum, and then comes Alexandreia (ad Issum). Consequently we should look for Issus somewhere on the road between Demir Kapu and hkenderun. Now Issus, or Issi, as Xenophon calls it, was on or near the coast (Xen. Anab. i. 4; Strab. p. 676); and Darius marched from Issus to the Pinarus to meet Alexander; and Alexander returned from Myriandrus, through the Pylae, to meet Darius. It seems that as the plain about the Pinarus corresponds to Arrian's description, this river must have been that where the two armies met, and that we must look for Issus a little north of the Pinarus, and near the head of the bay of Issus. Those who have examined this district do not, however, seem to have exhausted the subject; nor has it been treated by the latest writers with sufficient exactness.

Stephanus (s.r.'Io'o-oi) says that Issus was called1 Nicopolis in consequence of Alexander's victory. Strabo makes Nicopolis a different place; but his description of the spots on the bay of Issus is confused. Cicero, in the description of his Cilician campaign, says that he encamped at the Arae Alexandri, near the base of the mountains. He gives no other indication of the site; but we may be sure that it was north of the Cilician Pylae, and probably it was near Issus. [G. L.]

AMAKDI, or MARDI ('Auap'of, MapSof), a warlike Asiatic tribe. Stephanus (a. v. 'Ajuapjoi), following Strabo, places the Amardi near the Hyrcani; and adds " there are also Persian Mardi without the a." Strabo (p. 514) says, "in a circle round the Caspian sea after the Hyrcani are the Amardi, &C." Under Mardi, Stephanus (quoting Apollodorus) speaks of them as an Hyrcanian tribe, who were robbers and archers. Curtius (vi. 5) describes them as bordering on Hyrcania, and inhabiting mountains which were covered with forests. They occupied therefore part of the mountain tract which forms the southern boundary of the basin of the Caspian.

The name Mardi or Amardi, which we may assume to be the same, was widely spread, for we find Mardi mentioned as being in Hyrcania, and Margiana, also as a nomadic Persian tribe (Herod, i. 125; Strab. p. 524), and as being in Armenia (Tacit. Ann. xiv, 23), and in other places. This wide distribntion of the name may be partly attributed to the ignorance of the Greek and Roman writers of the geography of Asia, but not entirely. [G. L.]

AMARDUS, or MARDUS ('AuopW, MA.5oj, Dionys. Pcricg. v. 734), a river of Media, mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus in his confused description of the Persian provinces (xxiii. 6). Ptolemy I (vi 2. § 2) places it in Media, and if w» take his numbers as correct, its source is in the /agrus. The river flows north, and enters the southern coast of the Caspian. It appears to be the Sefd-rud, or Kml Oeien as it is otherwise called. As Ptolemy places the Amardi round the south coast of the I aspian and extending into the interior, we may ■Pppuae that they were once at least situated on and about this river. [G. L.]

AMA'Itl LACUS (at vtKpai Az/avoi, Strab. xvii. p. S*04; Pliu. vi. 29. s. 33), were a cluster of salteast of the IK'lta, between the city of Hen<upolis and the desert of Ethan— the modern Schtib. The Bitter Lakes had a -li-'hr inclination from N. to V... and their general outline resemble*! the leaf of the sycamore. Until the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphia (b. C. 285—247), they were the termination of the royal canal, by which the native mouarchs and the Persian kings attempted, but ineffectually, to join the Pelusiac branch of the Nile with the Red Sea. Philadelphia carried the canal through these lagoons to the city of Arsinoe. The mineral qualities of these hikes were nearly destroyed by the introduction of the Nile-water. A temple of Serapis stood on the northern extremity of the Bitter Lakes. [W. B. I).]

AMAKYNTHUS QApdpwOos: Eth. 'AuapwBws, 'A^iOf Uctioj), a town upon the coast of Euboea, only 7 stadia from Eretria, to which it belonged. It possessed a celebrated temple of Artemis, who was bene* called Amarynthia or Amarysia, and in whose honour there was a festival of this name celebrated, both in Euboea and Attica. (Strab. p. 448; Pans, u 31. § 5; Liv. xxxv. 38; Steph. B. s. p.; Diet, of Ant. art. Amarynthia.)

\M \>L N'l "v Miull river of Latium, still called the Amaseno, which rises in the Volscian mountains above Privernnm, and descends from thence to the Pontine marshes, through which it finds its way to the sea, between Tarraeina and the Circeian promontory. Before its course was artificially regulated it was, together with its confluent the Ufens, one of the chief agents in the formation of those marshes. Its name is not found in Pliny or Strabo, but is repeatedly mentioned by Virgil (Aen. vii. 684, xi.547). Serving, in hi - note on the former passage, erroneously places it near Anagnia, evidently misled by the ns of Vir. V'ibius Sequester (p. 3) correctly says " Amasenus Privernatium." [E. H. B.] AMA'SIA ('A/iaceta, 'Kfiaaia: Eth. 'Afmctvs: Amasia, Amotion, or Amdsiyah), a town of Pontus, on the river Iris, or Yeshil Ermak. The origin of the city is unknown. It was at one time the residence of the princes of Pontus, and afterwards appears to have been a free city under the Romans till the time of Domitian. It is said that ail the coins to the time of Domitian have only the epigraph Amaseia or Amasia, but that from this time they bear the effigy and the name of a Roman emperor. The coins from the time of Trajau bear the title Metropolis, and it appears to have been the ciuVf city of Pontus.

Amasia was the birthplace of the geographer Strabo, who describes it in the following words (p. 561): "oar city lies in a deep and extensive gorge, through which the river Iris flows; and it is wonderroily constructed both by art and by nature, being adapted to serve the purpose both of a city and of a fort. For there is a lofty rock, steep on all sides, and descending abruptly to the river; this rock has its wall in one direction on the brink of the river, at that part where the city is connected with it; and in the other direction, the wall runs up the hill on each side to the heights; and the heights

(Kopvfpat) are two, naturally connected with one another, very strongly fortified by towers; and within this enclosure are the palace and the tombs of the kings; but the heights have a very narrow neck, the ascent to which is an altitude of 5 or 6 stadia on each side as one goes up from the bank of the river and the suburbs; and from the neck to the heights there remains another ascent of a stadium, steep and capable of resisting any attack; the rock also contains (fx*1* »»t Ami*) within it water-cisterns (66*p«ia) which an enemy cannot get possession of (ava^aiptra, the true reading, not ava<p4perai)t there being two galleries cut, one leading to the river, and the other to the neck; there are bridges over the river, one from the city to the suburb, and another from the suburb to the neighbouring country, for at the point where this bridge is the mountain terminates, which lies above the rock." This extract presents several difficulties. Groskurd, in his German version, mistakes the sense of two passages (ii. p. 499).

Amasia has been often visited by Europeans, but the best description is by Hamilton (Research** in Asia Minor, $c. vol. i. p. 366), who gives a view of the place. He explains the remark of Strabo about the 5 or 6 stadia to mean "the length of the road by which alone the summit can be reached," for owing to the steepness of the Acrop >lis it is necessary to ascend by a circuitous route. And this is clearly the meaning of Strabo, if we keep closely to his text. Hamilton erroneously follows Cramer (Asia Minor, vol. i. p. 302) in giving the version, "the summits have on each side a very narrow neck of land;" for the words " on each side n refer to the ascent to the "neck," as Groskurd correctly understands it. Hamilton found two '* Hellenic towers of beautiful construction " on the hr-ights, which he considers to be the Kopv<pai of Strabo. But the greater part of the walls now standing are Byzantine or Turkish. Indeed we learn from Procopius (tie Aedtf. iii. 7), that Justinian repaired this place. Hamilton observes: "the Kopv<pai were not, as I at first imagined, two distinct points connected by a narrow intermediate ridge, but one only, from which two narrow ridges extend, one to the north, and the other to the east, which last terminates abruptly close to th« river." But Strabo clearly means two KOpvtpai, and he adds that they are naturally united (ovfupvtW). It is true that he does not say that the neck unites them. This neck is evidently a narrow ridge of steep ascent along which a man must pass to reach the KOpwpal.

The Oopfta were cisterns to which there was access by galleries (ffvptyyts). Hamilton explored a passage, cut in the rock, down which he descended about 300 feet, and found a "small pool of clear cold water." The wall round this pool, which appeared to have been originally much deeper, was of Hellenic masonry, which he also observed in som? parts of the descent. This appears to be one of the galleries mentioned by Strabo. The other gallery was cut to the neck, says Strabo, but he docs not say from where. We may conclude, however, that it was cut from the Kopvtyad to the ridge, and that the other was a continuation which led down to the well. Hamilton says : "there seem to have 6een two of these covered passages or galleries at Amasia, one of which led from the Kopwpai ,>r summits in an easterly direction to the ridge, and the other from the ridge into the rocky hill in a northerly direction. The former however, is not excavated in the rock,

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