صور الصفحة
PDF

nium they tlimtui^li in height, Ihough still forming a vast OHBB of mountains of very irregular form mid struct, are.

From the Monte Xerone, near the sources of the Met i irii-.. to the valley of the Sagrus, or Sangro, I he main range <rf the Apennines continues much nearer to the Adriatic than the Tyrrhenian Sea; w> that a very narrow strip of low country intervenes between the f.wt of the mountains and the sea on their eastern side, while on the west the whole broad tract of Ktruria and Latimn separates the Apennines from the Tyrrhenian. This is indeed broken by numerous minor ranges of hills, and even by mountains of considerable elevation (such as the Monte Amiata, near Rtt'!U:of\u,i), some of which may bo considered as dependencies or outlteis of the Apennines; while others are of volcanic origin, and wholly independent of them. To this last class belong the Mons Ciminna and the Alban Hills; the range of the Volscian Mountains, on the contrary, n m called Monti Lepini, which separates the values of the Trerus and the Liris from the Pontine Marshes, certainly belongs to the system of the Apennines, which here again descend to the shore of the western sea between Tarraciua and Gaieta. From thence the western ranges of the chain sweep round in a semicircle around the fertile plain of Campania, and send out in a S\V. direction the boM and lofty ridge winch separates the Bay of Naples from that of Salerno, and endi in the pro■kmtory of Minerva, opposite to the island of Capveae. Oh the K. the mountains gradually recede from the shores of the Adriatie, so as to leave a broad plain between their lowest slopes and the sea, wliich extends without interruption from the mouth of the Frento (Fcrtort) to that of the Aufidus (Ofartfo): the lofty and rugged mass of Mount Gargauus, which lias been generally described from the days of Ptolemy to our own as a branch of the Apennines, being, in fact, a wholly detached and isolated ridge. [tiAKOANUS.] In the southern parts of Samniuin (the region of the Uirpini) the Apennines present a very confused and irregular mass j the central point or knot yf whieh is formed by the group of mountains about the head of the Aufidus, which has the longest course from W. to E. of any of the rivers of Italy S. of the Padus. From this point the central ridge assume* a southerly direction, while numerous oHVhoots or brandies occupy almost the whole of Lucania, extending on the W. to the Tyrrhenian Sea, and on the S. to the Gulf of Tarentum. On the E. of the Uirpini, and immediately on the frontiers of Apulia and Lucania, rises the conspicuous uiasn of Mount Vultur, which, though closely adj<»iuiiig the chain of the Apennines, is geologically and |«liysieally distinct from them, being an isolated mountain of volcanic origin. [vultur.] But immediately S. of ML Vultur there branches off from the central mass of the Apennines a chain of great hills, rather than mountains, which extends to the eastward into Apulia, presenting a broad tract of barren hilly country, but gradually declining in height as it approaches the Adriatic, until it ends on that coast in a range of low hills between Egnatia *ud BrandtiMiun. The peniusula of Calabria is traversed only by a ridge of low calcareous hills of tertiary origin and of very trifling elevation, though machined by many maps and geographical writers into a continuation of the Apennines, (Cluver. IUU. p. 30; Swinburne, Travels in the Two Sicilies, Vui i pp. 2JO, 211.) The main ridge of the latter

approaches very near to the Tyrrhenian Sea, in tlie neighbourhood of the Gulf of Policastro (Huxentum), and retains this proximity as it descends through Bruttium; but E. of Conscntia (Cosenzri) lies the gnat forest-covered mass of the Sila, in some degree detached from the main chain, and situated between it and the coast near Crotona. A little further south occurs a remarkable break in the hitherto continuous chain of the Apennines, which appears to end abruptly near the modern village of Tiriolo, so that the two gulfs of St a Eufewia and SquUlaoe (the Sinus Terinaeus and Scylletinus) arc separated only by a low neck of land, less than 20 miles in breadth, and of such small elevation that not only did the elder Pionysius conceive the idea of earning a wall across this isthmus (Strab. vi. p. 261), but in modem times Charles III., king of Naples, proposed to cut a canal through it. The mountains which rise again to the S. of this remarkable interruption, form a lofty and rugged mass (now called Aspromunte), which assumes a SW. direction and continues to the extreme southern point of Italy, where the promontory of Leuropetni is expressly designated, both by Strabo and Ptolemy, as the extremity of the Apeiurines. (Strab. v. p. 211; Ptol. iii. I. § 44.) The loftiest summit in the southern division of the Apennines is the Monte Pollino, near the south frontier of Lucania, which rises to above 7000 feet: the highest point of the Sila attains to nearly 6000 feet, and the summit of AMpromonte to above 4500 feet. (For further details concerning the geography of the Apennines, especially in Centra] Italy, the reader may consult Abakan, Mittel Italien, pp. 10—17, 80—85 ; Kramer, I)er Fuciner See, pp. 5—11.)

Almost the whole mass of the Apennines consists of limestone: primary rocks appear only in the southernmost portion of the chain, ]»rticularly in the range of the AMpromonte, which, in its geological structure and physical characters, presents much more analogy with the range in the NE. of Sicily, than with the rest of the Apennines. The loftier ranges of the latter are for the most part bare rocks; none of them at tain such a height as to be covered with perpetual snow, though it is said to lie all the year round in the rifts and hollows of Monte Mnjella and the Gran Sasso. But all the highest summits, including the Monte Veimo and Monte Terminillo, both of which are visible from Borne, are covered with snow early in Novcml>er, and it docs not disappeai before the end of May. There is, therefore, no exaggeration in Virgil's expression,

"ninth

Vertice sc attollens pater Apenninus ad auras."

A en. xii. 703; see also Sil. Ital. iv. 743. The flanks and lower ridges of the loftier mountains are still, in many places, covered with dense woods; but it is probable that in ancient times the forests were far more extensive (see Plin. xxxi. 3. 26): many parts of the Apennines which are now wholly bare of trees being known to have been co vered with forests in the middle ages. Pine trcea appear oidy on the loftier summit*: at a lower level are found woods of oak and beech, while chesnuts and holm-oaks (ilices) clothe the lower slopes and vallies. The mountain regions of Samnium and the districts to the N. of it afford excellent pasturage in summer both for sheep and cattle, on whieh account they were frequented not only by their own herdsmen, but by those of Apulia, who annually drove their flocks from their own parched and dustj plains to the upland vullies of the neighbouring Apennines. (Vurr. de R. R. ii. 1. § 16.) The same districts furnished, like most mountain pasturages, excellent cheeses. (Plin. xi. 42. s. 97.) We fii d very few notices of any peculiar natural productions of the Apennines. Varro tells us that wild gouts (by which he probably means the Bouquetin, or Ibex, an animal no longer found in Italy) were still numerous about the Montes Fiscellus and Tctrica (de It. It. ii. 1. § 5.), two of the loftiest summits of the range.

Very few distinctive appellations of particular mountains or summits among the Apennines have been transmitted to us, though it is probable that in ancient, as well as modem, times, almost every conspicuous mountain had its peculiar local name. The Moss FiacELLUI of Varro and Pliny, which, according to the latter, contained the sources of the Nar, is identified by that circumstance with the Monti della Sib'Ula, on the frontiers of Picenum. The Moss Tetkica (Tetricae liorrenttt rupet, Virg. A en. vii. 713) must have been in the same neighbourhood, perhaps a ]sut of the same group, but cannot be distinctly identified, any more than ths Mons Skvekus of Virgil, which he also assigns to the Sahines. The Moss Cunarus, known only from Servius (ad Aen. x. 185), who calls it 11 a mountain in Picenuin," lias been supposed by Cluver to be the one now called // Gran Sagso d'Italia; but this is * mere conjecture. The "Gurgurhs, alti montes" of Varro (de R. R. ii. 1. § 16) appear to have been in the neighbourhood of Rente. AU these apparently belong to the lofty central chain of the Apennines: a few other mountains of inferior magnitude are noticed from their proximity to Koine, or other accidental causes. Such are the detached and conspicuous height of Mount Soracte (sokactk), the Moss Lucretius (now Monte Gennaro), one of the highest points of the range uf Apennines immediately fronting Rome and the plains of Latium; the Moss TlFATA, adjoining the plains of Campania, and Mons Callicula, on the frontiers of that country and Samnium, both of them <*lebrated in the campaigns of Hannibal ; and the MoNS Tabursus, in the territory of the Caudine San mites, near Benevemum, still called Monte Ta~ burno. In the more southern regions of the Apennines we find mention by name of the Mons AlBl'RNUS, on the banks of the Silarus, and the Si LA in Bruttiuin, which still retains its ancient appellation. The Mons Vultur and Garganus, as already mentioned, do not properly belong to the Apennines, any more than Vesuvius, or the Alban hills.

From the account above given of the Apennines it is evident that the passes over the chain do not assume the degree of importance which they do in the Alps. In the northern part of the range from Liguria to the Adriatic, the roads which crossed them w *re carried, as they still are, rather over the bare ridges, tn.ui along the rallies and courses of the streams. The only dangers of these passes arise from theviolent storms which ragethere in the winter, and which even, on one occasion, drove back Hannibal when he attempted to cross them. Livy's striking description of this tempest is, according to the testimony of modem witnesses, little, if at all, exaggerated. (Liv. xxi.' 58; Niebuhr, Vortrage vber Alte Lander, p. 336.) The passes through the more lofty central Apennines are mure strongly marked by nature, and some of them must have been frequented fj'oiu u very early period as the

natural lines of communication from one district to j another. Such arc especially the pass from Iteatc, by Intcrocrea, to the valley of the Atenius, and thence to Tente and the coast of the Adriatic; and, again, the line of the Via Valeria, from the upper valley of the Anio to the Lake Fueinua, and thence across the passage of the Forca Caruto (the Mons lineus of the Itineraries) to Corfinium. The details of these and the other passes of the Apennines will be best given under the heads of the rc-]iei five regions or provinces to which they belong.

The range of the Apennines is, as remarked by ancient authors, the source of almost all the rivers of Italy, with the exception only of the Pud us and its northern tributaries, and the streams which descend from the Alps into the upper part of the Adriatic. The numerous rivers which water the northern declivity of the A|icnnine chain, from the foot of the Maritime Alps to the neighbourhood of Arimhv.im, all unite their waters with those of the Padus; but from the time it takes the great turn to the southward, it sends off its streams on both sides direct to the two seas, forming throughout the rest of its course the watershed of Italy. Few of these rivers have any great length of course, and not being fed, like the Alpine streams, from perpetual snows, they mostly partake much of the nature of torrents, being swollen and violent in winter and spring, and nearly dry or reduced to but scanty streams, in the summer. There are, however, some exceptions: the Arnus and the Tiber retain, at all seasons, a considerable body of water, while the Liris and Vnltumus both derive their origin from subterranean sources, such as are common in all limestune countries, and gush forth at once in copious streams of clear and limpid water. [E. H. B.]

APEBA'NTIA ('Awcpairla: Eth. A«po*T<it), the name of a district in the NE. of Aetolia, probably forming part of the territory of the Agraei. Stephanus, on the authority of Polybius, mentions a town of the same name ('Atrea^rreia), which appears to have been situated near the confluence of the Petitarus with the Achelous, at the modem village of Preventza, which may be a corruption of the ancient name, and where Leake discovered some Hellenic ruins. Philip V., king of Macedonia, obtained possession of Aperantia ; but it was token from him, together with Amphilochia, by the Aetolians in B.C. 189. Aperantia is mentioned again in B.C. 169. in the expedition of Perseus against Stratus. (Pol. xxii. 8 ; Liv. xxxviii. 3, xliii. 22; l>eake, Nortitern Greece, vol. iii. p. 141.)

APERLAE ('AirepAoi: Eth. 'AwtpKfirns), a place in Lycia, fixed by the Stadiasmus 60 stadia west of Somena, and 64 stadia west of Andriace. Leake (Asia Minor, p. 188) supposes Somena to be the Simena of Pliny (v. 27). Aperlae, which ia written in the text of Ptolemy " Aperrae," and in Pliny "Apyrae," is proved to be a genuine name by an inscription found by Cockerel], at the head of Hassar bay, with the Ethnic name 'A*fp\tnun> on it. But there are also coins of Gordian with the Ethnic name '' Airtppanuv. The confusion between the / and the r in the name of an insignificant place is nothing remarkable. [G. L.]

APERO'PIA ('Awtporla), a small island, which Pausanias describes as lying off the promontory Buporthmus in Hermionis, and near the island of Hydrea. Leake identifies Buporthmus with C. Muzdki and Aperopia with Dhoko. (Paus. ii. 34. § 9. Plin. iv. 12. s. 19; Leake, Ptlopvnnesiaca, p. 284.) APERRAE. [apkulae.]

A'PESAS ('Am'aas: Fuka), a mountain in Peloponnesus above Xeniea in the territory of Cleonae, where Perseus is said to have been the first person, who sacrificed to Zeus Apesantins. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 325; Ross, Peloponnet. p. 40.)

A'PHACA ('AifKUfa: A/la), a town of Syria, midway between Heliopolis and Byblus. (Zosim. i. 58.) In the neighbourhood was a marvellous lake. (Comp. Senec. Quaat. Nat. iii. 25.) Here was a temple of Aphrodite, celebrated for its impure and abominable rites, and destroyed by Constanline. (EiLseb. de Vita, iii. 55; Sozom. ii. 5.) Aphek in the land assigned to the tribe of Asher (Joshua, xix. 30), but which they did not occupy (Judges, i. 31), has been identified with it. (Winer, Real Wort. art, Aphek.') Burckhardt (Travels, p. 25) speaks of a lake Liemoun, 3 hours' distance from Afha, but could hear of no remains there. (Comp. paper by Rev. W. Thomson, in Am. Bibiiotheca Sacra, vol. v. p. 5.) [E. B. J.]

APHEK. [aphaca.]

A'PHETAE ('AiptToi or 'Atptrai: Eth. 'A<pcTo2o$), a port of Magnesia in Thessaly, said to have derived its name from the departure of the Argonauts from it. The Persian fleet occupied the bay of Aphetae, previous to the battle of Artemisinm, from which Aphetae was distant 80 stadia, according to Herodotus. Leake identifies Aphetae with the modern harbour of Trikeri, or with that between the Island of Paled Triteri and the main. (Herod. TO. 193, 196, via. 4; Strab. p. 436: Apoll. Rhod. i. 591; Steph. B. *. p.: Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 397, Dean of Attica, p. 243, seq.)

APHIDNA, or APHIDNAE ("A^.SFa, 'A<p(Syai: Eth. 'Aoi^raun ), one of the twelve ancient towns of Attica (Strab. ix. p. 397), is celebrated in the mythical period as the place where Theseus deposited Helen, entrusting her to the care of his friend Aphidnus. When the Dioscuri invaded Attica in search of their sister, the inhabitants of Deceleia informed the Lacedaemonians where Helen was concealed, and showed them the way to Aphidna. The Difiscuri thereupon took the town, and carried off their sister. (Herod, ix. 73; Diod. iv. 63; Plut. The*. 32: Pans, i 17. §5, 41. § 3.) We learn, from a decree quoted by Demosthenes (<fe Coron. p. 238), that Aphidna was, in his time, a fortified town, and at a greater distance than 120 stadia from Athens. As an Attic demns, it belonged in succession to the tribes Aeantis (Plut. Quant. Symp. i. 10; Harpocrat. «. v. Qvpyuriliai), Lcontis (Steph. B.; Harpnerat. L c), Ptolemais (Hesych.), and Hadrianis (Bockh, Corp. /twer. 275).

Leake, following Finlay, places Aphidna between Deceleia and Rhamnus, in the upper valley of the river Marathon, and supposes it to have stood on a strong and conspicuous height named Kotroni, upon which are considerable remains indicating the site of a fortified demus. Its distance from Athens is about 16 miles, half as much from Marathon, and something less from Deceleia. (Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 19, seq.)

APHLE, or APLE, a town of Susiana, 60 M. P. below Susa, on a lake which Pliny (vi. 27. 8. 31) calls the locus Chaldaicus, apparently a lake formed by the Pasitigris. He speaks elsewhere (vi. 23. s. M) of a lake formed by the Eulaeus and Tigris, near Charax, that is at the head of the Persian Gulf; but this cannot be the lacus ChaU Jaicia of the other parage, unless there is some

great confusion, no unusual thing with Pliny. The site of Aphle is supposed to have been at Ahvrnz (Ru.). It is supposed to be the Aginis of Nearchus (p. 73, Hudson), and the Agorra of Ptolemv. [P. S.]

APHNITIS. [dascyi.ii is.]

APHRODI'SIAS ('Aeyoo-Knds: Eth. 'A<ppoSiaifvs, Aphrodisiensis). 1. (Ghera) an ancient town of Caria, situated at Ghera or Geyra, south of Antiocheia on the Maeander, as is proved by inscriptions which have been copied by several travellers. Drawings of the remains of Aphrodisias have been made by the order of the Dilettanti Society. There are the remains of an Ionic temple of Aphrodite, the goddess from whom the place took the name of Aphrodisiaa; fifteen of the white marble columns are still standing. A Greek inscription on a tablet records the donation of one of the columns to Aphrodite and the demos. Fellows (Lt/cia, p. 32) has described the remains of Aphrodisias, and given a view of the temple. The route of Fellows was from Antiocheia on the Maeander up the valley of the Mosynus, which appears to be the ancient name of the stream that joins the Maeander at Antiocheia; and Aphrodisias lies to the east of the head of the valley in which the Mosynus rises, and at a considerable elevation.

Stephanas (s. v. MfyaA6wo\ts), says that it was first a city of the Leleges, and, on account of its magnitude, was called Megalopolis; and it was also called Ninoe, from Ninus (see also *. v. NiroSj), — a confused bit of history, and useful for nothing except to show that it was probably a city of old foundation. Strabo (p. 576) assigns it to the division of Phrygia; but in Pliny (v. 29) it is a Carian city, and a free city (Aphrodisienses liberi) in the Roman sense of that period. In the time of Tiberius, when there was an inquiry about the right of asyla, which was claimed and exercised by many Greek cities, the Aphrodisienses relied on a decree of the dictator Caesar for their services to his party, and on a recent decree of Augustus. (Tac. Ann. iii. 62.) Sherard, in 1705 or 1716, copied an inscription at Aphrodisias, which he communicated to Chishull, who published it in his Antiquitatet Asiaticae. This Greek inscription is a Consultum of the Roman senate, which confirms the privileges granted by the Dietator and the Triumviri to the Aphrodisicnses. The Consultum is also printed in Oberlin's Tacitia, and elsewhere. This Consnltum gives freedom to the demos of the Plaraseis and the Aphrodisieis. It also declares the tcmenos of the goddess Aphrodite in the city of the Plaraseis and the Aphrodisieis to have the same rights as the temple of the Ephesian at Ephesus; and the temenos was declared to be an asylum. Plarasa then, also a city of Caria, and Aphrodisias were in some kind of alliance and intimate relation. There are coins of Plarasa; and "coins with a legend of both names are also not very uncommon." (Leake.)

[graphic][merged small]

2. A city of Cilieia. Stephanus (*. v. 'A<ppoSimd;) quotes Alexander Polyhistor, who quotes Zopyrus as an authority for this place, being so called from Aphrodite, a fact which we might assume. The Stadiasmus states that Aphrodisias is nearest to Cyprus, and 500 stadia north of Aulion, the NE. extremity of Cyprus. It is mentioned by Diodorus (xix. 61); and by Livy (xxxiii. 20) with Coracesium, Soli, and other places on this coast. It seems from Pliny (v. 27, who calls it " Oppidum Veneris ") and other authorities (it is not mentioned by Strabo) to have been situated between Celenderes and Sarpedon. It was on or near a promontory also called Aphrodisias. The site is not certain. Leake supposes that the cape near the Pap&dula rucks was the promontory Aphrodisias, and that some vestiges of the town may be found near the harbour behind the cape. (See also Beaufort's Karamania, p. 211.)

3. A promontory on the SW. coast of Caria (Mela, i.16; Plin. v. 28), between tbe gulfs of Schoenus and Thymnias. The modern name is not mentioned by Hamilton, who passed round it (Researches, vol. ii. p. 72). It lias sometimes been confounded with the Cynos Sema of Strabo, which is Cape Volpo. [G. L.]

APHRODI'SIAS ('AtfyoSiffidj), an island adjacent to the N. coast of Africa, marking the extent westward of the people called Giligammae (Herod, iv. 169). Ptolemy mentions it as one of the islands off the coast of CyrenaTca, calling it also Laea (Ami 1) 'A<>po51n)j tnjoos, iv. 4 § 14; Steph. B. s. v.) Scyhix (p. 45, Hudson, p. 109, Gronov.) places it between the Chersonesus Magna (the E. headland of CyrenaTca) and Naustathmus (near its N. point), and mentions it as a station fur ships. The anonymous Pcriplus gives its position more definitely, between Zephyrium and Chersis; and calls it a port, with a temple of Aphrodite. It may, perhaps, correspond with the island of Al Iliera. (Mannert, vol. x. pt. 2. p. 80.) [P. S.]

APHRODI'SIAS, in Spain. 1. [gades.] 2. [portus Veneris.]

APHRODI'SIAS ('AcfpuWaj), a town in the S. of Laconia, on the Eoeatic gulf, said to have been founded by Aeneas. (Paus. iii. 12. § 11, viii. 12. § 8.)

APHRODl'SIUM. 1. (,A<f>(>o5(<T1oi<, Strab. p. 682; Ptol. v. 14; 'A<ppoSiotds, Steph. B. s. v.: Eth. 'A<f>po!i<rin'j), a city of Cyprus, situated at the narrowest part of the island, only 70 stadia from Salainis. (D'Anville, in Mem. de LiU. vol. xxxii. p. 541.) [E. B. J.]

2. A small place in Arcadia, not fur from Megalopolis, on the road to Megalopolis and Tcgea. (Paus. viii. 44. § 2.)

3. [ardea.]

APHRODl'SIUS MONS (to 'A<ppoH*,oi> S>os)> a mountain in Spain, mentioned by Appian as a stronghold of Viriathus; but in a manner insufficient to define its position (/Jer. 64, C6). [P. S.] APHRODITES PORTUS. [Mvos Hormus.] APHRODITO'POLIS, APHRODITO, VENERIS Ol'PIDUM ('A<f.po8iT7)s iroAn, 'AtppoSiriwo\ts, 'Atppo&Tv; Eth. 'A(f>po5troTroAi'T7jy), the name of several cities in Egypt. I. In Lower Egypt. 1. [atarukchis.] 2. A town of the Nomas I.eontopolitcs. (Strab. xvii. p. 802.)—II. In the IlepUmomis, or Middle Egypt. 3. Afkonrro (/tm. A nt. p. 168; A<ppoShu, Hieroc. p. 730, A (fy< A, mounds, but no Hu.), a considerable city

on the E. side of the Nile; capital of the Nomo] Aphroditopoltes. (Strab. xvii. p. 809; Ptol.) It was an episcopal see, down to the Amb conquest. Its cx»ins are extant, of the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian, with the epigraph /VfrPOAEITOnOAI. (Rasche, s. v.) —3. hi Upper Egypt, or the Thcbais. 4. (Tachta) on the W. side of the Nile, but at some distance from the river, Mow Ptolemais and Panopolis; capital of the Nomos Aphroditopolitcs (Plin. v. 9, 10. s. 11, Veneris itt-rum, to distinguish it from No. 5; Strab. xvii. p. 813; Agatharch. de Bub. Mar. p. 22; Prokoch, Erinnenmgen, vol. i. p. 152.) 5. (Deir, Ru.), on the W. side of tho Nile, much higher np than the former, and, like it, a little distance from the river; in the Nomos Hermonl bites, between Thebes and Ajjollonopolis Magna; and a little NW. of Latopulis. (Plin. v. 10. s. II.) [P.S.]

APHTHITKS NOMOS (J 'A^flcnif voais), a nomos of Lower Egypt, in the Delta, mentioned by Herodotus, between those of Bubastis and Tanis; but neither he nor any other writer mentions such a city as Aphlhis. The name seems to point to a chief seat of the worship of Phthah, the Egyptian Hephaestus. (Herod, ii. 166.) [P. S.]

A'PHYTIS ("A^imi, also 'Acpuni,"Aipirros: Eth. 'Atpuratos, more early 'A«ptmeos, 'A<pw€i5s, 'Aipi/r^<tiot: A'thgto, Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 156), a town on the eastern side of tbe peninsula Pallene, in Macedonia, a little below Potidaea. (Herod, vii. 123: Thuc. i. 64; Strab. vii. p. 330.) Xcnophon (//efl. v. 3. § 19) says that it possessed a temple of Dionysius, to which the Spartan king Agesipolis desired to be removed before his death; but it was more celebrated for its temple of Amnion, whose head appears on its coins. (Plut, Lys. 20; Paus. iii. 18. § 3; Steph. B. «.o.)

A'PIA. [peloponnesus J

API'DANUS. [ENifKt-s.]

APILA (Platamona), a river in Pieria in Macedonia, rising in Mt. Olympus, and flowing into the sea near Heraclcia. (Plin. iv. 10. s. 17; Leake, Nortfu-rn Greece, vol. iii. pp. 405, 406.)

API'OLAE ('AwuiAai: Eth. 'ATrtoAaviis), an ancient city of Latium, which took the lead among tho Latin cities in the war against Tarquinius Prisons, and was in consequence besieged and taken by that monarch. We are told that it was razed to the ground, and its inhabitants sold into slavery ; and it is certain that we find no subsequent mention of it in history. Yet it appears to have been previously a place of some importance, as Livy tells us the spoils derived from thence enabled Tarquin to celebrate the Ludi Magni for the first time; while, according to Valerius of Antium, they furnished the funds with which he commenced the construction of the Capitol. (Liv. i. 35; Dion. Hal iii. 49; Valerius, ap. Plin. iii. 5. 1. 9.)

The site of a city destroyed at so early a period, and not mentioned by any geographer, can scarcely be determined with any certainty; but Gell and Nibby are disposed to place it at a spot about 11 miles from Rome, and a mile to the S. of the Appian Way, where there are some remains which indicate the site of an ancient city, as well as others of later Roman date. The position was (as usual) a partially isolated hill, rising immediately above a small stream, now called the Fosto dille Fra/occhie, which was crossed by an ancient bridire(destniyed in 1832), known as the Pantc dMc Streg/ie. Its position would thus be intermediate between Bt till.ir t>n t'ic E., and Politorium nnd Tellcn.ie on the W. (Nibbv, IHntonti, vol. i. p. 211 ; Tupoyraphg of Rotor, p. 87; Abekcn, AfUtel-IlaUm, p. 69.) [E. H. B.]

APIS ("Airiy), a seaport town (Polyb. Exc. fag. 115) on the N. o ast of Africa, alwut 11 or 12 miles W. of Paraetouium, son.etinies reckoned to Egypt, and sometimes to Marmarii-a. Seylax (p. 44) places it at the \V. boundary of Egypt, on the frontier of the Marmaridac. Ptolemy (iv. 5. § 5) mentions it as in the Librae Nomas; and so does Pliny, who calls it fvAjilU religione AeggjUi locus (v. 6, where the common text makes its distance W. of Paraetoaiuin 72 Roman miles, but one of the best MSS. gives l2, which agrees with the distance of 100 stadia in Strabo, xvii. p. 799). It seems very doubtful whether the Apis of Herodotus (ii. 18) can be the same place. [P. S.]

APOBATHMI ('Amttatyux), a small place in ArgolU, near the frontiers of Cynuria, was said to aave been so called from Dana us landing at this «pot. (Paus. ii. 38. § 4.) The surrounding country was also called Pyramia (Tlvpdnia), from the monuments in the form of pyramids found here. (Tint Pgrrh. 32; Ross, Reisen im Pehponties, p. 152.)

APO'COPA ('AvAcon, Steph. B. s. v.; Peripl. M. Ergth. p. 9; Ptol. i. 17. § 7), Magna and Parva, respectively ZftznoW dAgoa and Cape Bedouin were two small towns in a bay of similar name (Ptol. i. 17. § 9), on the coast of Africa Barharia, between the Iteadlands of Kaptum and Prasum. Their inhabitants were Aethiopians (Afrtfcnrcs 'Pctyiot, Ptol. iv. 8. § 3). fW. B. D.]

APODOTI. [aetolia, p. 65, a.]

APO'LLINIS PROMONTORIUM ('atoaaows &*po*y, in N. Africa. 1. Also called 'AwoXAwvio*' (Strab. xvii. p. 832), a promontory on the N. coast of Africa Propria, near Utica, and fonning the \V. headland, as the Mercurii Pr. formed the E., of the great gulf of L'tica or Cartilage. (Strab. /. c.) This di*cription, and all the other references to it, identify it with C. Farina or lifts Sid* Ali-al-Mekhi, and riot the more westerly C. ZHteeb or Has Sidi Bou~ Shusha. (It is to be observed, however, that Shaw applies the name Zibeeb to the former). Livy (xxx. 24) mentions it as in sight of Carthage, which mil apply to the former cape, but not to the latter. Mt-la (i. 7) mentions it as one of the three great headlands on thi3 coast, between the other two, Candidum and Mercurii. It is a high pointed rock, remarkable for its whiteness. (Shaw, p. 145; Barth, Wanderungen, $c.y vol. i. p. 71).

It is almost certain that this cape was identical with the Pulciikum Pit., at which Scipio landed on his expedition to close the Second Punic War; and which had been fixed, in the first treaty between the Romans and Cartliaginians, as the boundary of the voyages of the former towards the W. (Polyb. iii. 22; Liv. xxix. 27; Mannert, voL x. pt. 2, pp. 293, WL)

2. A promontory of Mauretania Cacsariensis, adjacent to the city of Julia Caesarca. (Plin. v. 2. s. 1; Ptol.) [P-S.]

APOLUNO'POLIS ('AxrfAAwMw *6\is: Eth. 'AroAAwFoxoAinjj), tlie name of several cities in

Egypt —

1. AroLLDtorous Mags A (w6\ts fitydhij 'A*6\Xwvos, Strab. xviL p. 817; Agartharch.p.22; Plin. v. 9. s.11; Plut. Is. et Osir. 50; Aelian. UUt. An. x. 2; Ptol. iv. 5. § 70; 'AffoAAceWa,

Steph. Byzant. s, v.; 'AwoWwvids, Hierocl p. 732; It. Ant. p. 1G0, 174; Not. Imp. Orient, c 143. Apollonos Sujicrioris [urbs]), the modern Edfont was a city of the Thebaid, on the western tank of the Nile, in Lat. 25° N., and about thirteen miles below the lesser Cataract. I*tolemy (/. c.) assigns Apollinopolis to the Heniionthite nonie, but it was more commonly regarded as the capital town of the nome Apollopohtes. Under the Roman emperors it was the seat of a Bishop's see, and the head-quarters of tlie Legio II. Trajana. Its inhabitants were enemies of the crocodile and its worshipers.

Both the ancient city and the modern hamlet, however, derived their principal reputation from two temples, which are considered second only to the Temple of Denderah as specimens of the sacred structures of Egypt. The modern Ed/oo is contained within the courts, or built upon the platform uf the principal of the two temples at Apo'linopolis. The larger temple is in good preservation, but is partially buried by the sand, by heaps of rubbish, and by the modern town. The smaller temple, sometimes, but improj-crly, called a Typhonium, is apparently an appendage of the latter, and its sculptures represent the birth and education of the youthful deity, Horus, whose parents Noum, or Kneph and Athor, were worshipped in the larger edifice. The principal temple is dedicated to Noum, whose symbol is the disc of the sun, supported by two asps and the extended wings of a vulture. Its sculptures represent (Rosellini, Monum, del Cultut p. 240, top. xxxviii.) the progress of the Sun, Phre-lIor-Hat, Lord of Heaven, moving in his bark {Bart) through the circle of the Hours. The local name of the district round Apollinopolis was Hat, and Noum was styled Hor-hat-kah, or Horus, the tutelary genius of the land of Hat. This deity fonns also at Apollinopolis a triad with the goddess Athor and Hor-Scnet. The members of the triad are youthful gods, pointing their finger towards their mouths, and before the discovery of the hieroglyphic character were regarded as figures of Harpoc rates.

The entrance into the larger temple of Apollinopolis is a gateway (irv\wv) 50 feet high, flanked by two converging wings (irrepet) in the form of truncated pyramids, rising to 107 feet. The wings contain ten stories, are pierced by round loop-holes for the admission of light, and probably served as chambers or dormitories for the priests and servitors of the temple. From the jambs of the door project two blocks of stone, which were intended, as Denon supposes, to support tho heads of two colossal figures. This propylaeon leads into a large square, surrounded by a colonnade roofed with squared granite, and on tho opj>osite side is a pronaos or portico, 53 feet in height, and having a triple row of columns, six in each row, with variously and gracefully foliaged capitals. The temple is 145 feet wide, and 424 feet long from the entrance to the opposite end. Every part of the walls is covered with hieroglyphics, and the main court ascends gradually to the pronaos by broad stops. Tho whole area of the building was surrounded by a wall 20 feet high, of great thickness. Like so many of the Egyptian temples, that of Apollinopolis was capable of being employed as a fortress. It stood about a third of a mile from the river. The sculptures, although carefully and indeed beautifully executed, arc of the Ptolemaic era, the earliest por

« السابقةمتابعة »