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tax, being levied on all sheep and cattle thus migrating. The calcareous nature of the soil renders these Apulian plains altogether different in character from the rich alluvial tracts of the North of Italy; the scarcity of water resulting from this cause, and the parched and thirsty aspect of the country in summer, are repeatedly alluded to by Horace (Pauper aquae Daunus, Carm. in. 30. 11; Siticulosae Apuliaey Epod. 3. 16), and have been feelingly described by modern travellers. But notwithstanding its aridity, the soil is well adapted for the growth of wheat, and under a better system of irrigation and agriculture may have fully merited the encomium of Strabo. The southern portions of the province, in common with the neighbouring region of Calabria, are especially favourable to the growth of the olive.

The population of Apulia was of a very mixed kind, and great confusion exists in the accounts transmitted to us concerning it by ancient writers. But, on the whole, we may distinguish pretty clearly three distinct national elements. I. The Aruu, or Apulians properly so called, were, in all probability, a member of the great Oscan, or Ausonian, race; their name is considered by philologcrs to contain the same elements with Opicus, or Opscus. (Niebuhr, Vortrage uber Lander u. Volker, p. 489). It seems certain that they were not, like their neighbours the Lucamans, of Sabellian race; on the contrary, they appear on hostile terms with the Samnites, who were pressing upon them from the interior of the country. Strabo speaks of them as dwelling in the northern part of the province, about the Sinus Unas, and Pliny (iii. 11. s. 16) appears to indicate the river Cerbalus (Cervaro) as having formed the limit between them and the Daunians, a {statement which can only refer to some very early period, as in his time the two races were certainly completely intermixed.* 2. The Daunians were probably a Pelasgian race, like their neighbours the Peucetians, and the other earliest inhabitants of Southern Italy. They appear to have settled in the great plains along the coast, leaving the Apulians in possession of the more inland and mountainous regions, as well as of the northern district already mentioned. This is the view taken by the Greek genealogists, who represent Iapyx, Daunius, and Peucctius as three sons of Lycaon, who settled in this part of Italy, and having expelled the Ausonians gave came to the three tribe? of the Iapygians or Messapians, Daunians, and Peucetians. (Nicander ap. Antonin. Liberal. 31.) The some notion is contained in the statement that Daunus came originally from Illyria (Fest. s.v. Daunia), and is confirmed by other arguments. The legends so prevalent among the Greeks with regard to the settlement of Diomed in these regions, and ascribing to him the foundation of all the principal cities, may probably, as in other similar cases, have had their origin in the fact of this Pelasgian descent of the Daunians. The same circumstance might explain the facility with which the inhabitants of this part of Italy, at a laler period, adopted the arts and manners of their Greek neighbours. But it is certain tliat, whatever dl-tinctiun may have originally existed between the Dumians and Apulians, the two races were, from the time when they first appear in history, as com

* It is, perhaps, to these northern Apulians that Phny just before gives the name of" Teani." but

pletely blended into one as ware the two component elements of the Latin nation. 3. The Peucetians, or POKDICUU (n«w*r«M, Strab. et al.: Tloi&tK\ot, Id.), — two names which, however different in appearance, are, in fact, only varied forms of the 6ame, — appear, on the contrary, to have retained a separate nationality down to a comparatively late period. Their Pelasgian origin is attested by the legend already cited; another form of tho same tradition represents Peucctius as the brother of Oenotrus, (Pherecyd. ap. Dion. Hal. i. 13; Pfin. iii. 11. s. 16.) The hypothesis that the inhabitants of the south-eastern extremity of Italy should have come directly from the opposite coast of the Adriatic, from which they were separated by so narrow a sea, is in itself a very probable one, and derives strong confirmation from the recent investigations of Momrasen, which show that the native dialect spoken in this part of Italy, including a portion of Peucetia, as well as Messapia, was one wholly distinct from the Sabellian or Oscan language, and closely related to the Greek, but yet sufficiently different to exclude the supposition of its being a mere corruption of the language of the Greek colonists. (Die Unter-Italischen Dialekte, pp. 43 —98. Concerning the origin and relations of the Apulian tribes generally, see Niebuhr, vol. i. pp. 146 —154; Vortrage uberLundcr u. Volker\ p. 489— 498.)

We have scarcely any information concerning the history of Apulia, previous to the time when it first appears in connection with that of Koine. But we learn incidentally from Strabo (vi. p. 281), that the Daunians and Peucetians were under kingly government, and had each their separate ruler. These appear in alliance with the Tarentines against the Messapians; and there seems much reason to believe that the connection with Tarentum was not a casual or temporary one, but that we may ascribe to this source the strong tincture of Greek civilization which both people had certainly imbibed. We have no account of any Greek colonies, properly so called, in Apulia (exclusive of Calabria), and the negative testimony of Scylax (§ 14. p, 170), who enumerates all those in Iapygia, but mentions none to the N. of them, is conclusive on this point. But the extent to which the cities of Peucetia, and some of those of Daunia also, — especially Arpi, Canusium, and Salapia, — had adopted the arts, and even the language of their Greek neighbours, is proved by the evidence of their coins, almost all of which have pure Greek inscriptions, as well as by the numerous bronzes and painted vases, which have been brought to light by recent excavations. The number of these last which has been discovered on the sites of Canusium, Rubi, and Egnatia, is such as to vie with the richest deposits of Campania; but their style is inferior, and points to a declining period of Greek art. (Mommsen, I.e. pp. 89, 90; Gerhard, Rapporto dei Vast Volcenti, p. 118; Bunsen, in Ann. dell. Ititt. 1834, p 77.)

The first mention of the Apulians in Roman history, is on the outbreak of the Second Samnite War, in B. c. 326, when they are said to have concluded an alliance with Rome (lit. viii. 25), notwithstanding which, they appear shortly afterwards in anus against her. They seem not to have constituted at this time a regular confederacy or national league like the Samnites, but to have been a mere aggregate of sejiarate and independent cities, among which Arpi, Canusium, Luceria, and Teanum, appear to have stood preeminent. Some of these took part with the Romans, others sided with the Sumnites; and the war in Apulia was carried on in a desultory manner, as a sort of episode of the greater struggle, till B.C. 317, when all the principal cities submitted to Borne, and we are told that the subjection of Apulia was completed. (Liv. viii. 37, ix. 12, 13— 16, 20.) From this time, indeed, they appear to have continued tranquil, with the exception of a faint demonstration in favour of the Saumites in B.C. 297 (Liv.x. 15), — until the arrival of Pyrrhus in Italy; and even when that monarch, in his second campaign B. c. 279, carried his arms into Apulia, and reduced several of its cities, the rest continued stedfast to the Roman cause, to which some of them rendered efficient aid at the battle of Asculum. (Zonar. viii. 5; Dionys. xx. Fr. nov. ed. Didot.)

[graphic]

During the Second Punic War, Apulia became, for a long time, one of the chief scenes of the contest between Hannibal and the Roman generals. In the second campaign it was ravaged by the Carthaginian leader, who, after his operations against Fabius, took up his Quarters there for the winter; and the next spring witnessed the memorable defeat of the Romans in the plains of Cannae, B.C. 216. After this great disaster, a great part of the Apulians declared in favour of the Carthaginians, and opened their gates to Hannibal. The resources thus placed at his command, and the great fertility of the country, led him to establish his winter-quarters for several successive years in Apulia. It is impossible to notice here the military operations of which that country became the theatre; but the result was unfavourable to Hannibal, who, though uniformly successful in the field, did not reduce a single additional fortress in Apulia, while the important cities of Arpi and Salapia successively fell into the hands of the Romans. (Liv. xxiv. 47, xxvi. 38.) Yet it was not till B. C 207, after the battle of Metaurus and the death of Hasdrubal, that Hannibal finally evacuated Apulia, and withdrew into Bruttium.

There can be no doubt that the revolted cities were severely punished by the Romans; and the whole province appears to have suffered so heavily from the ravages and exactions of the contending armies, that it is from this time we may date the decline of its former prosperity. In the Social War, the Apulians were among the nations which took up arms against Rome, the important cities of Venusia and Canusium taking the lead in the defection; and, at first, great successes were obtained in this part of Italy, by the Samnite leader Vettius Judacilius, but the next year, B. C. 89, fortune turned against them, and the greater part of Apulia was reduced to submission by the praetor C. Cosconius. (Appian. B. C. i. 39, 42, 52.) On tins occasion, we are told that Salapia was destroyed, and the territories of Larinum, Asculum, and Venusia, laid waste; probably this second devastation gave a shock to the prosperity of Apulia from which it never recovered. It is certain that it appears at t he close of the Republic, and under the Roman Empire, in a state of decline and poverty. Strabo mentions Arpi, Canusium, and Luceria, as decayed cities; and adds, that the whole of this part of Italy had been desolated by the war of Hannibal, and ihose subsequent to it (vi. p. 285).

Apulia was comprised, together with Calabria and the Hirpini, in the 2nd region of Augustus

(Plin. iii. 11. s. 16), and this arrangement appears to have continued till the time of Constautine, except that the Hirpini were separated from the other two, and placed in the 1st region with Campania and Latium. From the time of Constant ine, Apulia and Calabria were united under the same authority, who was Btyled Corrector, and constituted one province. (Lib. Colon, pp. 260—262; Notit. Dign. vol. ii. pp. 64, 125; P. Diac. ii. 21; Orelli, Inter. 1126, 3764.) After the fall of the Western Empire, the possession of Apulia was long disputed between the Byzantine emperors, the Lombards, and the Saracens. Bnt the former appear to have always retained some footing in this port of Italy, and in the 10th century were able to re-establish their dominion over the greater part of the province, which they governed by means of a magistrate termed a Catapan, from whence has been derived the modern name of the Capitanata, — a corruption of Catapanata. It was finally wrested from the Greek Empire by the Normans.

The principal rivers of Apulia, are: 1. the TlFerptus, now called the Biferno, which, as already mentioned, bounded it on the N., and separated it from the Frentani; 2. the Frento (now the Fortore), which bounded the territory of Larinum on the S-, and is therefore reckoned the northern limit of Apulia by those writere who did not include Larinum in that region; 3. the Cekualls of Pliny (iii. 11. s. 16), still called the Cervaro, which rises in the mountains of the Hirpini, and flows into the sea between Sipontum and the lake of Salapia. It is probably this river which is designated by Strabo (vi. p. 284), but without naming it, as serving to convey corn and other supplies from the interior to the coast, near Sipontum; 4. the Aufidus ( Of onto), by far the largest of the rivers of this part of Italy. [aufidus.] All these streams have nearly parallel courses from SW. to NE.; and all, except the Tifernus, partake more of the character of mountain torrents than regular rivers, being subject to sudden and violent inundations, while in the summer their waters are scanty and trifling. From the Aufidus to the limits of Calabria, and indeed to the extremity of the Iapygian promontory, there does not occur a single stream worthy of the name of river. The southern slope of the Apulian hills towards the Tarentine Gulf, on the contrary, is furrowed by several small streams; bnt the only one of which the ancient name is preserved to us, is, 5. the BraDanus (Brailanu), which forms the boundary between Apulia and Lucania, and falls into the sea close to Metapontum.

The remarkable mountain promontory of GarQanus is described in a separate article. [garGanus.] The prominence of this vast headland, which projects into the sea above 30 miles from Sipontum to its extreme point near Vieili, naturally forms two bays; the one on the N., called by Strabo a deep gulf, bnt, in reality, little marked by nature, was called the Sinus Urias, from the city of Urium, or Hyrium, situated on its coast. (Mela, ii. 4; Strab. vi. pp. 284, 285.) Of that on the S., now known as the Gulf of Manfredonia, no ancient appellation has been preserved. The whole coast of Apulia, with the exception of the Garganus, is low and fiat; and on each side of that great promontory are lakes, or pools, of considerable extent, the stagnant waters of which are separated from the sea only by narrow strips of sand. That to the north of Garganus, adjoining the Sinus Urias (notieed by Strabo without mentioning its name) is called by Pliny Lacus Pantaxus: it is now known M the Logo di Lesina, from a small town of that nr.me. (Plin. iii. 11. s.16.) The more extensive lake to the S. of Garganus, between Sipontuni and the mouth of the Aufidus, was named, from the neighbouring city of Salapia, the Salaptna Palus (Lncan. v. 377), and is still called the Logo di Salpi.

Opposite to the headland of Garganus, about 15 geog. miles from the mouth of the Frento, lie the two small islands named Insular Diomei>eab, now the Is-A di Tremiti.

The towns in Apulia, mentioned by ancient writers, are the following", beginning from the northern frontier: I. Between the Tifernns and the Frento stood Larim'm and Cuternia, besides the two small fortresses or "castella" of Geranium and Calela. 2. Between the Frento and the Aufidus were the important towns of Teakum, surnained Apulum, to distinguish it from the city of the same name in Campania, Luceria, Aecae, and AscuLum, on the hills, which form the last off-shoots of the Apennines towards the plains; while in the plain itself were Ann, Salapia, and Herixwia; and SiPOifTUM on the sea-shore, at the foot of Mt. Garganus, The less considerable towns in this part of Apulia were, Vibixum (Bovine) among the last ranges of the Apennines, Accra, near Luceria, Collatta (Collatina) at the western foot of Mt. Garganus, Ckrauniua (Cerignola), near the Aufidus: and Krgitium, on the road from Teaimm to Sipontum l lab. Peut.), supposed by Holstenius to be the modern S. Severo. Around the promontory of Garganus were the small towns of Merinum, Portus Agastu, and Portus Garnae [garganus], as well as the Hyriuh, or URIUM, of Strabo and Ptolemy. Along the coast, between Sipontum and the mouth of the Aufidus, the Tabula places AnjcA?»ux, now Torre di ffiroli, and Salinae, probably a mere establishment of salt-works, but more distant from the mouth of the Aufidus than the modern Saline, 3. East of the Aufidus was the important city of CAJfCSlUM, as well as the small, but not less celebrated town, of Cannae; on the road from Canusium to Egnatia we find in succession, Bubi, Butuntum, Caelia, Azetil M, and Norba. The Netium of Strabo must be placed somewhere on the same line. Along the coast, besides the important towns of Barium and Egnatia, the following small places are enumerated in the Itineraries: Bardulum, 6 M. P. E. of the mouth of the Aufidus, now Barletta, Turenum (Trani), Natiolum (BisC'-'jlie). and Res pa, according to Roman el li Molfetta, more pr>bably Giovenazzo, about 13 M. P. from Bari. E. of that city we find Amestum (probably a corruption of Apanestae), and Dertum, which must be placed near Monopoli. Neapolib, a name not found in any ancient author, but clearly established by its coins and other remains, may be placed with certainty at Polignano, 6 M. P. west of Monopoli. 4. In the interior of Apulia, towards the frontiers of Lncania, the chief place was Vfill us I A, with the neighbourimg smaller towns of AcHEBOjrriA, Bantla, ami Fkih.mi M. On the

* In the following list no attempt has been made to preserve the distinction between the Daunians and Peucetians; it is clear from Strabo, that no such distinction really subsisted in the time when

Via Appia, leading fromVcnusi:i to Tarcntum, were Silvium, Plera (supposed to be the modern Gravirus), and Lupatia (Altamvra). S. of this line of road, towards the river Bradanus, Mateola (Mateolani, Plin. iii. 11. s. 16) was evidently the modern Matera, and Genusium (Genusini, M. I.e.; Lib. Colon, p. 262) still retains the name of Ginosa. (For the discussion of these obscure names, see Holsten. Not. in Char. pp. 281, 290; PratilU, Via Appia, iv. 7; Romanelli, vol. ii. pp. 180—188.)

Several other towns mentioned by Pliny (/. c.) which probably belong to this region, are otherwise wholly unknown; but the names given in his list are so confused, that it is impossible to say with certainty, which belong to Apulia, and which to Calabria, or the Hirpini. Among those to which at least a conjectural locality may be assigned, are: the Grumbestini, supposed to be the inhabitants of Grumum, now Grumo, a village about 9 miles S. of Bitonto; the Palionenses, or people of Patio, probably Palo, a village half way between Grumo and Bitonto; the Tutini, for which we should, perhaps, read Turini, from Turum or Turium, indicated by the modern Turi, about 16 miles S. E. of Bari; the Strapelliui, whose town, Strapellum, is supposed to be Rapolla, between Venusia and the Pons Aufidi. The Borcani, Corinenses, Dirini, Turmentini, and TJlurtini, of the same author, are altogether unknown.

Apulia was traversed by the two great branches of the Appian Way, which separated at Beneventum, and led, the one direct to Brundusium, the other to Tarentum. The first of these, called the Via Trajana, from its reconstruction by that emperor, passed through Aecae, Herdonia, Canusium, and Butuntum, to the sea at Barium, and from thence along the coast to Brundusium*i while a nearly parallel line, parting from it at Butuntum, led by Caelia, Are- tium, and Norba, direct to Egnatia. The other main line, to which the name of Via Appia seems to have properly belonged, entered Apulia at the Pons Aufidi (Ponte Sta. Venere), and led through Venusia, Silvium, and Plera, direct to Tarentum. (For the fuller examination of both these lines, see Via Appia.)

Besides these, the Tabula records a line of road from Larinum to Sipontum, and from thence close along the sea-shore to Barium, where it joined the Via Trajana. This must have formed an important line of communication from Picenum and the northern parts of Italy to Brundusium. IT. H. B.]

APULUM CATouAoy, Pol. iii. 8. § 8; Orell. fnscr. Nos. 3563,3826; in all the other inscriptions the name is abbreviated Ap. or Apul., es, 991, 1225, 2171, 2300, 2695, 3686), or APULA (Fao. Pent.), or C0L0NIA APULENSIS (Ulpian. de Censibus, Dig. 1. tit. 15. § 1), an important Roman colony, in Dacia, on the river Marissa (Maroscfc), on the site of the modern Carlsburg or Weitsenburg, in Transylvania, where are the remains of an aqueduct and other ruins. If the reading of one inscription given by Gruter,—Alba Julia,—be correct, the place has preserved its ancient name, Alba= Wewenburg. [P. S. I

AQUA FERENTINA. [ferentwab Lucus.]

AQUA VIVA. [soracte.]

AQUAE, the name given by the Romans to

* It is this line of road, or at least the part of it along the coast, that is erroneously called by Italian topographers the Via Egnatia. [egnatia.]

many medicinal springs and bathing-places. The

most important are mentioned below in alphabetical

order.

AQUAE ALBULAE. [albula.]

AQUAE APOLLINA'RES, was the name given to some warm springs between Sabate and Tarquinii, in Etroria, where there appears to have been a considerable thermal establishment. They are evidently the same designated by Martial (vi. 42. 7) by the poetical phrase of " Phoebi voda." The Tab. Peut. places them on the upper road from Borne to Tarquinii at the distance of 12 miles from the latter city, a position which accords with the modem Bagni di Stigliano. Cluvcrius confounds them with the Aquae Caeretanae, now Bagni del Sasso, whicli were indeed but a few miles distant. (Holsten. not. ad Cluver. p. 35.) [E. H. B.]

AQUAE AURE'LIAEorCOLO'NIA AURE'LIA AQUENSIS (Baden-Baden), a watering place in a lovely valley of the Black Forest, is not mentioned by ancient writers, but is stated in a doubtful inscription of A. D. 676, to have been built by Hadrian, but it did not acquire celebrity till the time of Alexander Severns. [L. S.]

AQUAE BILBITANO'RUM. [aquak HisPanicae.j

AQUAE BORMO'NIS (Bourbon TArchambault). The site of these hot springs is marked in the Theodosian Table by the square figure or building which indicates mineral waters, and by the name Bormo, which D'Anville erroneously would have altered to Borvo. It is also marked as on a road which communicates to the NW. with Avaricum (Bourges), and to the NE. with Augustodunnm (Autun). The hot springs of Bourbon are a few miles from the left bank of the Allier, an affluent of the Loire.

At Bourbonne-ks-Bains, in the department of Haute Marne, there are also hot springs, and the Theodosian Table indicates, as D'Anville supposes, this fact by the usual mark, though it gives the place no name. D'Anville (Notice, &c.) gave it the name of Aquae Borvonis, founding the name on an inscription discovered there; but the correct reading of the inscription, according to more recent authorities, is BOUBONI THEBMARUM DEO HAHMONAE,

&c. It is probable that Bormo may have been the deity of both places, as the modem names are the same. Thus the god of the hot springs gave his name to the place, and the place gave a name to a family which, for a long time, occupied the throne of France. [G. L.]

AQUAE CAESARIS (prob. Uhut, Ru.), 7 M. P. south west of Tipasa, in Numidia, and evidently, from the way in which it is marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana, a much frequented place. [P. S.]

AQUAE CAERETA'NAE. [caere.]

AQUAE CA'LIDAE. The position of this place is marked in the Theodosian Table by its being on the road between Augnstonemetum (Clermont) in the Auvergne and Rodumna (Rouanne). The distance from Angustonemetum to Aquae Calidae is not given; but there is no doubt that Aquae Calidae is Vichy on the Allier, a place now frequented for its mineral waters.

D'Anville (Notice, &c) remarks, that De Vulois confounds the Aqnae Calidae with the Caleutes Aquae mentioned by Sidonius Apollinaris, which are Chaudes-aignes (hot-waters) in the department of Cantal. Tne whole of the mountain region of the Auvergne abounds in mineral waters. [G. L.]

AQUAE CA'LIDAE ("tooth Bipfm KoKmla PtoL: Hammam Meriga, large Rn. and hot springs), in Mauretania Caesariensis, almost due S. of Caesarea, at the distance of 25 M. P. It was important, not only for its hot springs, but for its commanding the pass of the Lesser Atlas, from Caesarea, and other cities on the coast, to the valley of the Chinalaph. This explains its having acquired the rank of a colony in the time of Ptolemy, while in the Antonine Itinerary it is called simply Aquae. Its ruins are fully described by Shaw (p. 64, lsted.).' [P. S.]

AQUAE CA'LIDAE (Hammam Gurbos, with hot springs), in Zeugitana, on the gulf of Cartilage, directly opposite to the city: probably identical with Cakpis. (Liv. xxx. 24; Tab. Peut., ad Aquas; Shaw, p. 157, or p. 87, 2nd ed.; Barth, Wanderungen, ifc. p. 128.) There are also hot springs at Uamman XEnf, near the bottom of the Gulf, which may be those mentioned by Strabo as near Tunes (xvii. p. 834). [P. S.]

AQUAE CA'LIDAE, in Britain. [aquae Sous.]

AQUAE CONVENA'RUM. These waters are placed by the Anton. Itin. on the road from Aquae Tarbcllicae to Tolosa (Toulouse), and on this side of Lugdunum Convenaram. Some geographers identify the place with Bagneres-de-Bigorre in the department of Ilautes Pyrenees, a place noted for its mineral springs; but D'Anville fixes the site at Caphem. Walckenaer, however, places it at Bagneres. Strabo (p. 190), after mentioning Lugdunum, speaks of the warm springs of the Onesii(r«i' 'Ovnai<ov),foT which unknown name Wesseling and others would read Kovovtvtsv. Xylander (Holzmann) proposed to read Hlovnottav, and Pliny (iv. 19) mentions the Monesi, whose name seems to be preserved in that of the town of Moneins on the Baise, in the department of HautesPyrenees. Grosskurd (Translation of Strabo, vol. i. p. 327) assumes that Aquae Convenaruni is Bagneres in Comminges. Bagneres de Bigarre is proved by an inscription on the public fountain to be the Aquensis Vicus of the Romans, the inhabitants of which were named Aquenses; which seems to confirm the opinion that Aquae Convenaram was a different place. [G. L.J

AQUAE CUTI'LIAE. [cctiliae.]

AQUAE DACICAE, in the interior of Mauretania Tingitana, between Volubilis and Gilda. (Itin. A»t.p.23.). [P.S.]

AQUAE GRATIA'NAE, in the territory of the Allobroges, appear, from inscriptions, to be the mineral waters of Aix, north of Chambery, in the duchy of Savoy, and a little east of the lake of Bourget, at an elevation of about 823 English feet above the sea. The people were also called Aquenses. [G. L.]

AQUAE HISPA'NICAE. (1.) Bilbitanobum (Alhama), a town with baths, in Hispania Tarraconensis, about 24 M. P. west of Bilbilis. (It. Ant.) There were numerous other bathing places in Spain, but none of them require more than a bare mention;

(2) AQ. (.' 1.1. F.N AH, ClLENAE, Or Celinab (Col

das del Bey); (3) F LA Viae (Chaves on the Tamega, with a Roman bridge of 18arches; (4) LarVae ("t!oto Aaid, Ptol.; (5) Oriqimis (Bannos da Bond* or Orense); (6) Cercernae, QttERQUERHae, or Quacernoruh (Rio Coldot or Andres de Zarroconest); (7) VocoKAE (Caides de Malavella). [P.S.]

AQUAE LABANAE (vi AajSwa Booth), are mentioned by Strabo (v. p. 238) as cold sulphureous waters analogous in their medical properties to those of the Alhula, and situated near Nomentum: they are clearly the same now called Bagni di Grotta Marozza about 3 miles N. of Mentana, the ancient Nomentum. (Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. ii. p. 144.) [E. H. B.]

AQUAE LESITA'NAE. [lesa.] AQUAE MATTIACAE or PONTES MATTIACIT a watering place with hot springs, in the country of the Mattiaci, that is, the district between the Maine and the Lahn. (Plin. xxu. 17; Amm. Marcell. xxix. 4.) The place is generally believed to be the same as the modern Wiesbaden, where remains of Roman bath-buildings have been discovered- (See Dahl in the Annalen dts Vereins fur Nassauiscke Alterthutnskunde, vol. i. part 2, p. 27, seq.) [L-S0 AQUAE NEAPOLITA'NAE. [neapolis.] AQUAE NERI. So the name is written in the Theodooaa Table; for which we ought probably to write Aquae Nerae, as D'Anville suggests. It appears to correspond to Neris, which Gregory of Tours calls Vicus Nereensis. Neris is in the department of Allier. [G. L.]

AQUAE NISINETJ, is designated in the Theodosian Table by the square figure or building which indicates mineral waters [aquae Bokhokis], and is placed on the road between Dccetia {Decise) and Augustodunum {Autun). This identifies the place with Bourbt/n-lAnci, where there are Roman constructions. [G. L.]

AQUAE PA'SSERIS, one of the numerous places in Etruria frequented for its warm baths, which appear to have been in great vogue in the time of Martial (vi 42. 6). It is placed by the Tab. Peut. on the road from Volsinii to Rome, between the former city and Forum Cassii: and was probably situated at a spot now called Bacucco, about 5 miles N. of Viterbo, where there is a large assemblage of ruins, of Roman date, and some of them certainly baths, while the whole neighbourhood abounds in thermal springs. (Cluver. ItaL p. 561 ; Dennis's Etrurxa, vol L pp. 202. 211.)

An inscription published by Orioli {Ann. d. Inst, vol. i. p. 174—179) writes the name Aquae PasSeriaxae. [E. H. B.]

AQUAE PATA\TNAE. [afom Pons.] AQUAE POPULO'NIAE. [populonium.] AQUAE RE'GIAE {Hammam Truzza, or the Bo. on the river Mergaleel, S. of Truzza, Shaw), a place of considerable importance, near the centre of Byzacena, on the high road leading SW. from Hadrumetum. (/rm. Ant. pp. 47, 53, 54, 55, 56; Tab. Peut.; NotU. Eccl A/r.) [P. &]

AQUAE SEGESTA'NAE. [segesta.] AQUAE SEGESTE, a place denoted in the Peutinger Table as the site of mineral waters. D'Anviile {Notice, &c.) places it at Ferrieres, which lies nearly in a direct line between Orleans and Sens, on which route it was, according to the Table. There are chalybeate springs at Ferrieres. But the distances in the Table do not agree with the actual distances, unless we change xxii., the distance between Fines, the first station from Orleans {Genabum), and Aquae Segesta, into xv. The distance of xxii. from Aquae Segesta to Sens (Agedincum) also requires to be reduced to xv., on the supposition of Ferrieres being the true ate. Ukert and others place Aquae Segesta at Fontainebleau, which seems to lie too far out of the direct road between Orleans and Sens. [G. L.]

AQUAE SEGETE, the name of a place in the Theodosian Table, which may possibly be corrupt. It is designated as the site of mineral waters, and in the neighbourhood of Forum Segusianorum, or Feur, in the department of Haute Loire. The exact site of the place does not appear to be certain. 11 Am ilk fixes it at Aissumin, on the right bank of the Loire: others place it near Montbrison. [G. L.J

AQUAE SELINU'NTIAE. [skuhusj

AQUAE SE'XTIAE (aw), in the department of Bouches da Rhone, is 18 Roman miles north of Massilia {Marseille). In n. c. 122, the pruconsul C. Sextius Calvinus, having defeated the Salves or Saluvii, founded in their territory the Roman colony of Aquae Sextiae, so called from the name of the Roman general, and the springs, both hot and cold, which he found there. (Liv. Ep. lib. 61; Veil. i. 15.) These hot springs are mentioned by Strabo (pp. 178, 180: Ta bipfxa vbara xd 2«£na) and by other ancient writers. Strabo observes that it was said that some of the hot springs had become cold. The temperature of the hot' springs is now only a moderate warmth.

In the neighbourhood of Aix was fought, B.C. 102, the great battle, in which the Roman consul C. Marius defeated the Cimbri and Teutones with immense slaughter. (Plut. Mar. c. 18; Floras, iii. 3.) Plutarch states that the people of Massilia made fences for their vineyards with the bones of the barbarians, and that the soil, which was drenched with the blood of thousands, produced an unusual crop the following year. D'Anville observes that the battle field is supposed to have been near the Lar, about four leagues above Aix; but Fauris de St. Vincent (quoted by Forbiger) fixes the site of the battle at Meiragues, two leagues from Marseille, which was called in the middle ages Campus de Marianicis. Fragments of swords and spears, and bones, are still found on this spot.

There are Roman remains at Aix; and its identity with Aquae Sextiae appears from the ancient Itineraries and an inscription, which shows it to have been a Roman colony, with the title Julia. Strabo's words, indeed, show that it was a Roman colony from the first. Yet Pliny (iii. 4) places "Aquae Sextiae Salluviorum" among the Oppida Latina of Gallia Narbonensis, or those which had the Jus Latium; in which he is certainly mistaken. Ptolemaeus also calls it a colonia. [G. L.]

AQUAE SICCAE, a name which the Anton. It in. places between Calagorris and Vernosole, on the road from Aquae Tarbellicae to Tolosa. The site is uncertain. If Seiches near Toulouse be the place, the distances in the Itinerary require correction. (D'Anville, Notice.) Walckenaer calls the place Ayguas-Sec. [G. L.]

AQUAE SIXUESSA'NAE. [slnuessa.]

AQUAE SULIS {Bath), in Britain, mentioned under this name in the Jtincrarium Antonmi, in Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 28), as "TSara btppd. [R. G. L.]

AQUAE STATIELLAE fAco&u 2tot**'aaoi, Strab.), a city of Liguria, situated on the N. side oi the Apennines in the valley of the Bormida: now called AcquL Its name sufficiently indicates that it owed its origin to the mineral springs which were found there, and Pliny notices it (xxxi. 2) as one of the most remarkable instances where this circumstance had given rise to a considerable town. It ia probable that it did not become a place of any importance until after the Roman conquest of Liguria nor do wc find any actual mention of it under the

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