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niclosed on the W. by Egypt ainl Aethiopia, on the K. by Arabia Felix. Stiabo, wbo includes, under the name of Aethiopians, all the people of the extreme south, from the rising to the setting sun, says that the Aethiopians are divided by nature into two parts by the Arabian Gulf, us tw /xerriju(iplrov K6kkov TfrfifMTi alioKoyui (i. p. 35; see Groskurd and the commentators). He places the Arabian and Persian Gulf opposite the Euxine and the Caspian respectively, which is quite right (ii. p. 121). Its S. entrance was a narrow strait, Fauces Maris Bubri (ta atfva iv Tjj 'EpuSpij AaWp, Ptol.; Strailt of Bab-d-Mandeb), enclosed by the promontory of Dcire or Dere (Rat Srjan) on the W., and that of Palindromos (C. Bab-elMandeb), on the E. (Ptol. i. 15. § 11, iv. 7. § 9, vi. 7. § 7, viii. 16. § 12.) Its length was differently estimated; by Eratosthenes (ap. Pfin.) at 13,000 stadia; by Strabo. at 15,000 (i. p. 35: in ii. p. 100, only 10,000, but the reading should probably bo altered); by Agrippa, at 14,000 or 13,776 (1722 MP. ap. Plin.), and by Agatheiuerus at 10,000 stadia, or 1,333$ M.P.; besides other calculations, following the line of either coast. Its breadth is still more variously stated, probably from its being taken at different parts; by Timosthenes (ap. Plin.) at 2 days' journey (about 1,200 stadia); by Strabo, at not much more than 1,000 stadia at its widest part; while the general estimate reached 3.800 stadia, or 475 H.P. The width of the strait is 60 stadia, according to Strabo and Agatheiuerus, or from 6 to 12 M. P. according to different accounts preserved by Pliny: it is really 20 miles. The dangers of this strait, which have given to it the name of Bab-el-ilandeb (i. e. Gate of Teart) are not made much of by the ancient writers. From the narrowness of the sea, Strabo often compares it to a river.

At the northern end, the sea was parted into two bays by the peninsula of Arabia Petraca, consisting of the Black Mountains of Ptolemy (to pt\ava bpn, Ptol. v. 17. § 3,vi. 7. § 12; the Sinaiticgroup), terminating on the S. in the promontory of Poseidonium (Rat Mohammed) in 28° N. lat Of these bays, the western and longer, running NW. to 30° N. lat was called the Sinus Herodpolites, or Heroopoliticus ('HpttowoKirns K6\toi or au^of, "Hswoy Koavos, Theophrast, H. PI iv. 8, Koatoj AlyvwTiattos. Joseph..I nt. Jud. viii. 2; Bohr Es-Suez, Gulf of Suez), from the city of HEitoorous (Hpuuv iraMj), near its head, on the canal which Necho made to connect it with the Nile. It divided Middle Egypt from Arabia Petraea, and is separated from the Mediterranean by the Isthmus of Suez. Its head seems to have retired in consequence of the sand washed up by the strong tides and prevailing S. winds. The tide in this narrow gulf is so strong as to raise its surface above tliat of the Mediterranean. The eastern bay was called Aelanites and Aelaniticus, or E Unites and Elaniticus Sinus (A/Aarlriji, 'EAoWttit, 'EAavms-os K6kwos or u&xos '• Gulf of Ahaba\ from the city of Aelana. It was regarded as the innermost recess of the Arabian G ulf (p.vx°s, Herod. Strab., &c; Sinus intimus, Plin.). Pliny says that it took its name from the Laeanitae, who dwelt upun it, and whose capital was I.aeana, or, arvur,bug to others, Aelana: he then adds the various form* Aeliniticus, AJeniticus (from Artemidorus) and Laeniticum (from Juba). It extends NNE. to 39° 36' N. lat., with an average breadth of 12 utiles, tfclwceu rocky and precipitous shores.

The character of the Red Sea, as given by the ancients, is stormy, rugged, deep, and abounding in marine animals. Its coral reefs and violent shifting winds have always made its navigation difficult: but from the earliest times of recorded history it was used by the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Jews, and Arabs, as a great highway of commerce between India and the shores and islands of the Indian Ocean in general, and the countries round the Mediterranean. It had several important harbours on both coasts; the chief of which were Myos Hormos, Berenice, Ptolemais Tiieron, and Adci.e on the W., and Aelana, Leuck Come, Mlza, Acila, and others on the east. Ptolemy gives the names of some of the numerous islands of the lied Sea; those of the Erythraean Sea mentioned by Herodotus as a place to which Persian exiles were sent, were in the Persian Gulf. (Herod. II. cc.; Died. iii. 14, 15; Eratosth. U. cc; Strab. i. pp.35, 38,47, 57, ii. pp. 100, 121, 132, xvi. p. 779; Mela, iii. 8; Plin. ii. 67,68, v. 11,12, vi. 24,26,32,33; Ptol. iv. 5. § 13, 7. §§ 4, 27, v. 17. §§ 1, 2, vi. 7. §§ 1, 36, 43, vii. 5. §§ 1, 2, 10, viii. 16. § 2,20. §2,22. §2; Agatbcm.i.2, ii. 2,5, 11, 14; Kennel, Geog. to Herod, vol. i. p. 260, vol. ii. pp. 88—91 j Gosselin, Ueber die Geogr. Kenninitt der Allen vom Arab. Meerbuten, in Bredow's Untersuchungen, vol. ii.; Reichard, ilyot liormot u. die agyptitcKathiopitche Kuste det clou. Zeitaltert, the Neu. Geogr. Ephem. vol. xxviii.; Kittcr, Erdlcundey voL ii. pp. 226, foil., 245, foil.) [P. S.]

AKABIS ("Aoaftr, Ptol. vi. 19. § 2), a river of Gedrosia, which flowed from the Muntes Baeti ( Wathati), through the country of the Arabii, to the Indian Ocean. It is now called the Purali. The names of this river and of tho people who lived on its banks are variously written by ancient authors. Thus, Arabius (Apd&os, Arrian, A nab. vi. 21), Artabis (*ApTo&f, Marcian), Artabius (Amm. Marc xxiii. 6). The people are called Arubitae ('Apaeiroi), Arbii (Plin. vi. 24), Arabics (Apdgxt, Arrian, /nd 21, 22), Arbies ('ApSUs, Strab. xv. p. 720), Aribes ('ApiStj, Dion. Perieg. 1096), Arbiti ("aositoi, Marcian). From this people the Arbiti Montes ("ApSiTa ban, Ptol. vi. 21. § 3, vii. 1. § 28; called Barbitani by Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6) appear to have derived their name. Ptolemy has mistaken the course of this river when he makes it flow N. of Drangiana and Gedrosia, and has apparently confounded it with the Etymander (Uelmend); anil Pliny has placed it too far to the W. on the edge of Cannania (Kirman), whereas it really divides Saranga (ta Xdpayya) from the Oritae ('flpetTat). Marcian and Ptolemy (vi. 21. § 5, viii. 25. § 14.), speak of a town in Gedrosia called Arbis. Pliny says (vi. 23) that it was founded by Nearchus. [V.]

ARABl'TAE. [arabis.]

ARABKl'CA ('ApaSpiya: Arabriccnses: Alanc/uer), a stipendiary town of the Luaitaui, in Hispania Lusitauica, on the right bank of tho Tagus, N. of Olisipo; the Jerobriga of the Itinerary. (Plin. iv. 22.S.35; Ptol. ii. 5. §7; It. Ant. pp. 419, 421; Florez, xiv. 174.) [1 \ S.]

AKACCA ("Apainta, Ptol. vi. 3. § 4; Aracha, Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6), a town in Susiana, on the Tigris. Bochai't (ad Gen. x. 10) has attempted to identify it with Erech, and Micliaelis with Ede.s>a. If, however, it was in Susiana, neither of these identifications will answer. [V.]

ARACE'I.l (Eth. Aracebtanus: Huarte Araquii), a stipendiary town of IheVasconcs, in the convenUu of Caesaraugusta, in Hispania Tarraconensis, at the foot of the Pyrenees, 24 M. P. west of Pamplona, on the little river Araquil. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; /tin. Ant. p. 455.) [P. S.]

ARACHNAEUM (to 'Apox""'"" 8pos)i a mountain in Peloponnesus, forming the boundary between the territories of Corinth and Epidaurus. (Paua. ii. 25. § 10; Steph. B. s. v.; Hesvch. s. v. baa&avov; Leake, Morea, ¥ol. ii. p. 417, seq., vol. iii. p. 312.)

ARACHO'SIA (f) 'Apaxaxna: Eth. 'Apax^roi, Strab. xv. p. 723; Arrian, Anab. vi. 17; 'Apax»Tai, Dion. Perieg. v. 1096, Plin. v. 20. s. 23; Arachosii, Plin. vi. 9. s. 21), a province of Eastern Persia, bounded on the N. by the Paryeti M. (Hazdras, a portion of the chain of the Paropamisus, Hindu. KusK), on the E. by the Indus, on the S. by Gedrosia, and on the W. by Drangiana. It comprehends the present provinces of the NE. part of Baluchitttm, Cutch, Gandava, Kandahar, Sewestan, and the SW. portion of Kabulistan. Col. Rawlinson (Journ, Cleogr. Soc. vol. xii. p. 113) has supposed the name to be derived from Harakhwati (Sansc. Saraswati), which is also preserved in the Arabic Rakhaj (applied generally to Kandaliar), and on the Arghandab-river. According to Wilson (Ariana, p. 158), there is a place called Rohaj or Rokhaj, on the route from Bost to Ghizni.

It appears to have been a rich and thickly peopled province, and acquired early importance as being one of tie main routes from India to Persia. Its chief mountains were called Paryeti (Hazdras'), including probably part of the Soliman Koh and their SW. branch the Khojeh Amran mountains. It was watered by several streams, of which the principal bore the name of Arachotus [arachotus]: and contained the subordinate tribes of the Paryeti, Sidri, Rhoplutae, and Eoritae. Its most ancient capital was Arachotus or Arachosia [arachotus]; and in later times Alexandria or Alexandreiopolis, a name probably given to it subsequently in honour of Alexander the Great. (Strab. xv. p. 723, seq.; Arrian, Anab. iii28; Steph.*. v.; Ptol.; Rawlinson, Wilson, U.cc.) [V.]

ARACHO'TI FONS. [arachotus, No. 2.J

ARACHO'TUS. 1. ('Apcixwroj, Ptol. vi. 20. §5; Isid. Charax; Plin. vi. 23; Arachoti, "Apax<«Toi, Strab. xi. p. 514; Steph. B; Arachosia, Plin. vi. 33), the chief city of Arachosia, said to have been founded by Scmiramis (Steph. B. ». v.), and to have been watered by a river which flowed from the Indus eastward into a lake called 'ApaxOTos Kpbvn (Ptol. vi. 20. § 2), and by Solinus to have been situated on the Etymander. Some difference of opinion has existed in modern times as to the exact position of this town, and what modern city or ruins can be identified with the ancient capital. M. Court (Journ. Atiat. Societ. Seng.) has identified some ruins on the Arghatan river, 4 parasangs from Kandahar, on the road to ShUarpur, with those of Arachotus; but these Prof. Wilson considers to be too much to the SE. Rawlinson (Journ. Geog. Soc. vol. xii. p. 113) thinks that he has found them at a place, now called U'ldn Robot He states, what is indited curious, that the most ancient name of the city, Cuphen, mentioned by Stephanus and Pliny, has given ri»e to the territorial designation of Kipin, applied by the Chinese to the surrounding country. The ruins are of a very remarkable character, and tho measurements of Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy are, he considers, decisive as to the identity of the site. Stepha

nus has apparently contrasted two cities,—Arachosia, which he says is not far from the Massagetae, and Arachotus, which he calls a town of India. CoL Rawlinson believes the contiguity of the Massagetae and Arachosia may be explained by the supposition that by Massagetae Stephanus meant the Sacae, who colonised the Hazdrah Mountains on their way from the Hindu-Kush to Sacattan or Seittan.

2. ('Apaxwror, Steph. B.; Isid. Charax; Plin. vi. 23), the river of Arachosia, which flowed from the southern part of the Caucasus (Hindu- Kush), and gave its name to the capital (Steph. B.) Ptolemy has committed an error in extending this river to the Indus; but he has in part attained the truth in connecting it with a lake (A//xv7j, fyris Koautoa 'ApaxwTos Kpyvn, Ptol. vi. 20. § 2; "Arachoti Pons," Amm. Marc, xxiii. 26: perhaps the modern Dooree). The chief point is to determine what river Ptolemy refers to, as he does not give its name. The Etymander, Hermandus, or Erymanthus (now Helmend), flows from the mountains W. of Kabul into Lake Zarah; and M. Burnonf has supposed this to be the Arachotus, Zend Haraquaiti (Sansc. Saraswati) being a name common to a river, and implying connection with a lake. Wilson considers, however, the present Arkand-Ab, one of the tributaries of the Helmend, as answering best to the description of Ptolemy. Another tributary called the Turnuk flows through a small lake called Dooree in Elphinstone's map. It is possible that the name Arachotus may have been formerly applied indiscriminately to the three tributaries of the Helmend, the Arkand-ab, Turnuk, and Arghatan, which are all rivers of about the same volume. (Wilson, Ariana, pp. 156,157.) [V.]

ARACHTHUS ("ApaX9oj, Pol. xxii. 9; Ptol. iii. 13; Liv. xliii. 22; Plin. iv. 1; "Aparflot, Strab. pp. 325, 327; 'ArartoJ, Dicacarch. 42, p. 460, ed. Fuhr; 'ApaiBos, Lycophr. 409; Tzetz. ad he.; Arethon, Liv. xxxviii. 3; respecting the orthography, see Kramer, ad Strab. p. 325 : Arta), a river of Epirus, rising in Mount Tymphe and the district Paroraea, and flowing southwards first through the mountains, and then through the plain of Ambracia into the Ambraciot gulf. The town of Ambracia was situated on its left or eastern bank, at the distance of 7 miles from the sea, in a direct line.

The Arachthus formed the boundary between Hellas proper and Epirus, whence Ambracia was reckoned the first town in Hellas. The country near the mouth of the river is full of marshes. The entrance to the present mouth of the Arta, which lies to the E. of the ancient mouth, is so obstructed by swamps and shoals as scarcely to be accessible even to boats; but on crossing this bar there are 16 or 17 feet of water, and rarely less than 10 in the channel, for a distance of 6 miles up the river. Three miles higher up the river altogether ceases to be navigable, not having more than 5 feet in the deepest part, and greatly obstructed by shoals. The course of the river is very tortuous; and the 9 miles up the river are only about 2 from tho gulf in a direct line. At the entrance, its width is about 60 yards, but it soon becomes much narrower; and 9 miles up its width is not more than 20 yards. At Ambracia, however, its bed is about 200 yards across; but the stream in summer is divided by sand-banks into small rivulets, shallow but rapid, running at least 4 miles an hour. Above the town, it appears

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of oblong shape, with a slight rise towards the centre and steep on every side. Though a rock rather than an island, it was extremely populous, and, contrary to Oriental custom, the houses had many stories. According to Strabo, it owed its foundation toSidonian exiles. (Comp. Joseph. Ant. i. 6. § 2.) The city of Aradus was next in importance after Tyre and Sidon. Like other Phoenician cities, it waa at first independent, and had its own kings; and it would seem that the strip of land extending from Paltus to Simyra was d(q>endent upon it. In the time of the prophet Ezekiel (xxvii. 8,11) it supplied Tyre with soldiers and sailors. Along with the rest of Phoenicia, it became snbject to Persia, Afterwards, during the campaign of Alexander, Gerostratus, king of Aradus. was serving in the Persian fleet under Autophradates, when his son Straton submitted to the conqueror. Gerostratus assisted the Macedonians at the siege of Tyre. (Arrian, Anab. i. 13, 20.) It fell into the hands of the family of the Lagidae, when Ptolemy Soter, B. c 320, seized on Phoenicia and Coele Syria Its wealth and importance was greatly increased by the rights of asylum they obtained from Seleucus Callinicus, B-c 242, whom they had supported against Antiochus Hierax; so much so that it was enabled to enter into an alliance with Antiochus the Great. (Pol. v. 68.) Whence it may be inferred that it had previously become independent, probably in the war between Ptolemy Philadelphia and Antiochus Theos. The fact of its autonomy is certain from coins. (See Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 393.) All these advantages were lost under Antiochus Epiphanes, who, on his return from Aegypt, took possession of the town and district. (Hieronym. in Dan. xi.) In the war between Antiochus Grypus and Antiochus Cyzicenus it declared itself in favour of thf latter; and when he was slain by Seleucus, Antiochus Eusebes, his son, found shelter there, and by its aid, in concert with other cities, maintained himself with varying success, till Syria submitted to Tigranes king of Armenia, and finally came under the dominion of Rome. In common with the rest of the province, it was mixed up in the Civil Wars. (Appian, B. C. iv. 69, v. 1.) Coins of Aradus, ranging from Domitian to Elagabalus, are enumerated in Eckhel (/. c). Under Constans, Md awiyab, the lieutenant of the khalif Omar, destroyed the city, and expelled the inhabitants. (Cedren. Hist p. 355; Theophan. p. 227.) As the town was never rebuilt, it is only the island which is mentioned by the historians of the Crusades. Tarsus was said to be a colony from Aradus. (Dion Chrys. Oral. Tar sen. ii. p. 20, ed. Rciske.) A maritime population of about 3,000 souls occupies the scat of tins once busy and industrious hive. Portions of the old double Phoenician walls are still found on the NE. and SE. of the island, and the rock is perforated by the cisterns of which Strabo speaks. The same author (see Groskurd'a note, p. 754) minutely describes the contrivance by which the inhabitants drew their water from a submarine source. Though the tradition has been lost, the boatmen of Ruad still draw fresh water from the spring Ain Ibrahim in the sea, a few rods from the shore of the opposite coast. Mr. Walpole (The Ansayrii, vol. iii. p. 391) found two of these springs, A few Greek inscriptions, taken from cohunns of black basalt, which, as there is no trap rock in the island, must have been brought over from the mainland, are given (in the BibliotJieca Sacra, New York, vol. v. p. 252y by

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COIN OF ABACUS.

2. (Arek, Arat, Karek), an island in the Persian gulf. (Steph. B.; Ptol. vi. 7. § 47.) Strabo (p. 766; comp. Groskurd, ad loc.) places it at 10 days' voyage from Teredon, and one from the promontory of Maki. The inhabitants of this island and the neighbouring one Tyrus asserted tliat they were the founders of the well-known Phoenician cities of the same name. (Comp. Herod. L 1; D'Anville, Mem. de VAcad, da IntcripU vol. xxx. p. 147; Gosselin, vol. Hi. pp. 103, scq. 122, 124; Niehuhr, Descript. de VArable, p. 277; Chesney, Euphrat. vol. i. p. 647.) [E. B. J.]

ARAE ALEXANDRI, CYBI, &c. TalkxAndri Arab.]

ARAE HK'SPERI (S. Lucar la Mayor), a town of Hispania Baetica, W. of Hispalis (Seville), mentioned on an inscription as having been destroyed, and rebuilt by Caesar, with the new name of Solia, or Sollurco. (Florez, Esp. S. vol. ix. p. 115; Ukert, i. 1. p. 373.) [P. S.]

ARAE PHILAENO'RUM (oi' Ts»> *-Aai>w Pufwl, Strab. &c, but oi 4>iAaiVou 0»uoi, Polyb. iii. 39, x. 40), a position very near the bottom of the Great Syrtis, on the N. coast of Africa, which marked the boundary between the territories of Carthage and Cyrene, and afterwards between Tripolitana and Cyrenaica. (Polyb. II. cc.; Sail. Jug. 19, 79; Strab. iii. p. 171, xvii. p.836; Plin. v.4; Mela, i. 7. §6; Scylax, p. 47; Ptol.; Stadiasm.; Tab. Pent.) The name is derived from a romantic story, for which Sallust is the earliest authority. (jim/. 79, comp. Val. Max. v. 6. ext. 4.) At the lime when the Carthaginians ruled over the greater p:irt of North Africa, and the Greek colonists of Cyrene were also very powerful, long wars arose resjiecting their boundaries, which were left undefined by the nature of the country on' the shores of the Syrtes, a sandy waste, with neither river nor mountain to serve for a land-mark. (A description, however, not quite accurate; see Syrtes.) At length it was agreed to fix the boundary at the point of meeting of envoys sent out at the same time from each city. Whether by diligence, trickery, or chance, the Carthaginian envoys performed so much the greater part of the distance (in fact about 7-9ths, a disproportion sufficient of itself to dispose of the historical value of the story), that the Greeks were prepared for any course rather than to return and ri--k the penalty of their neglect. They would only consent to the boundary being fixed at the place of meeting, on the condition that the Carthaginians would submit to be buried alive on the spot; if not, they demanded to advance

as far as they pleased on the same terms. The Carthaginian envoys, two brothers named Philaeni, devoted themselves for their country; and their fellow-citizens consecrated their heroism by honours to their memory at home, and by monuments named after them, on the spot of their living interment. Like other such landmarks, erected both to perpetuate a boundary and the memory of some great event which fixed it, these monuments were called altars. (See the remarks of Strabo on such monuments in general, iii. p. 171 ) The monuments were no longer to be seen in the time of Strabo (£ c), but the name was preserved. Pliny (v. 4) mentions the arae, and adds, ex harena sunt toe; perhaps connecting the name with some existing hills, or tumuli, while Strabo had looked for artificial monuments. The position is clearly fixed by the passages above quoted. It was nearly at the bottom of the Great Syrtis, a little W. of Automata, which was at the very bottom of the Gulf (Strab. p. 836); notwithstanding that Sallust (Jug. 19) appears to name it as W. of Leptis Magna, and that Strabo (p. 171) places it about tite middle of the country between the Syrtes (Kara fifo-nv irou Tv jUCTa^v Twv Xvprtwv yijv). Both writers, in their other and chief passages on the subject, place the altars where we have stated. The apparent discrepancy in Sallust is easily removed by a proper mode of* connecting the parts of the sentence (see Cortius and Kritz ad loc. and Mannert. x. 2. p. 117 ) j and the phrase used by Strabo, " the land between the Syrtes," is continually employed for the whole coast between the outer extremities of the two gulfs, Karek \iin-nv Too being also evidently used vaguely. The place does not occur in the Antonine Itinerary, but its position is occupied by a station called Banadedari, probably the native Libyan or Punic name. The locality, as fixed by the ancient writers, corresponds to a position a little W. of Moukhtar, the present boundary of Syrt and Barca, near which Captain Beechcy (p. 210) mentions a remarkable table-hill called Jebel-Allah, which has very likely as good claims (however feeble they may be) to be considered one of the so-called Altars, as any other hill or mound seen or imagined by the ancients. A discussion of the historical value of the legend of the Philaeni is superfluous: besides obvious weak points, it has all the character of a story invented to account for some striking object, such as tumvli; and the singular QiKaivov in Polybius deserves notice. (Beechcy, Proceedings of the Expedition to explore the N. Coast of Africa, chap, vi.; Barth, Wandertmgen, (fc. pp. 344, foil.) [P. S.]

ARAE SESTIA'NAE (2-)o-t(o« Bt-^oi txpw), three altars erected in honour of Augustus on a promontory near the NW. extremity of Sjtain. Pliny (iv. 20. s. 34) and Ptolemy (ii. 6. § 3) place the headland a little N. of Ncrium Pr. (C. Einisterre), which would correspond to C. Villano; Mela (iii. 1. §9) carries it further eastward; the former is the more probable position. [P. S.]

ARAETHY'REA ('ApaiBuptu), the anvient capital of Phliasia, is said by Pausanias to have been originally named Arantia (^Apavrla), after Aras, its founder, and to have been called Araelhyrea after a daughter of Aras of this name. The name of its founder was retained in the time of Pausanias in the hill Arantinus, on which it stood. Homer mentions Araethyrea. (Horn. //. ii. 571; Strab. viii. p. 382Paus. ii. 12. §§ 4, 5.) Wc learn from Strabo (/. c.) that its inhabitants quitted Aracthyrea, and founded Phlius, at the distance of 30 stadia from the former town. Hence the statement of the grammarians, that Araetbyrca and Arantia were both ancient names of Phlius. (Steph. B. s. vv. 'hair. 'Apavrw; Schol. ad ApoU. Rhod. i. 11.).) Ross sup poses the ruins on Mt. Polyjengo to be those of Araefhyrea. Leake had erroneously supposed them to be the ruins of Phlius. (Ross, Reisen im Pelo/- nan, vol. i. p. 27, "seq..; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p, 339, seq.) [l'liuus.]

ATiAGUS, ARAGON, ARRHABON ("A^of, 'Apayow, 'Afipagiev; Aragui, or AraJc), a river of Iberia, in Asia, flowing from the Caucasus into the Cyrus. It is the only tributary of the Cyrus in Iberia, which Strabo mentions by name. (Strabo xi. p. 500, where the MSS. have 'Aparywva, 'A/lpaywra, and 'AfltxiGuva.)

The same river is evidently meant a little further PB, where Strabo, in describing the four mountain passes into Iberia, says that that on the N. from the country of the Nomades is a difficult ascent of three days' journey (along the Terek'); after which the road passes through the defile of the river Aragus, a journey of four days, the pass being closed at the lower end by an impregnable wall. This is the great central pass of the Caucasus, the Caucasiae, or Sarmaticae Pylae, now the Passof Dariel. [caucasus.] But Strabo adds, as the text stands, that another of the four Iberian passes, namely, the one leading' from Armenia, Jay upon the rivers Cyrus and Aragus, near which, before their confluence, stood fortified cities built on rocks, at a distance of 1G stadia from each other, namely, Harmozira on the Cyrus, and Seuniara on the other river. Through this pass Pompcy and Canidius entered Iberia (pp. 500, 501). According to this statement, we must seek the pass near Miskeli, N. of Tiftis; but it is supposed, by Gm-kurd and others, that the name Aragus in this last passage is an error (whether of Strabo himself, or of the copyists), and that the pass referred to is very much further westward, on the great high road from Erzeroum, through A"ors, to the N., and that the river wrongly called Aragus is the small stream falling into the Cyrus near Akludtsilc, where the ruined castles of Iforum Ziche (or Armatsiche) and Tsumar are thought to preserve the names, as well as sites, of Strabo's Harmozica and Seumara. (Reinegg, Beschreib. d, Cauc vol. ii. p. 89; Klaproth, Voyage au Cauc. vol. i. p. 518.) The river spoken of is supposed to be the Pelorus of Dion Cassius (xxxvii. 2). [P. S.]

ARA1NUS ('ApdiVos), a small place in Laconia, on the western side of the Laconian gulf, containing the monument of Us, who founded a town called Las after him. Boblayc places Arainus at Agheranos (Pans. iii. 24. § 10; Boblaye Recherches, &c p. 88; comp. Leake, Pelopomtesiaca, p. 173.)

ARAMAEl. [sviua.j

AKANDIS CApcwth, PtoL H. 5. §6; Aranni, IL Ant. p. 426, Geogr. Rev. iv. 43; Aranditani, Plin. iv. 22. a. 35: prob. (htrique), a stipendiary town of the Celtici, in Lusitania, on the high road from the mouth of the Anas to Ebora, 60 M. P. north of Ossonoba. Some take it for the modern Abrantet. [P. S.]

ARANGAS (i 'Apiyitas 1) 'Apdyyas opos), a mountain of Inner Libya, placed by Ptolemy immediately N. of the Equator, in 47 P long., and to 35' S. !,•.. in a part of Central Africa, now entirely unknown. (Ptol. iv. 6. § 12.) [P. S.]

ARA'NTIA, ARANTI'NUS MONS. Camus-

THYREA.]

ABAPHEN. [attica.]

ARAR, or A'RARIS ('Apop, 'Apapis: Sake), a river of Gallia, which rises in the high land, connected with the Vosges (Vosegus), which lies between E'pinal and Ptombieres, in the modern department of Vosges. The Saone has a general south course past Chalons sttr Saone, to its junction with the Rhone at Lugdunum (Lyon). Its length is estimated at about 300 miles. The current in the middle and lower part is very slow. (Caes. B. G. L 12.) It is joined on the left bank at Verdun sur SaAne, by the Dubis or Alduasdubis (Dara). Strabo (p. 186) makes both the Arar and the Dubis rise in the Alps, but he does not mean the High Alps, as appears from his description, for he makes the Seine rise in the same mountains as the Saone Vibius Sequester (Arar Germanise) makes the Arar rise in the 'ages. In Caesar's time, the Arar from Lyon, at least to the confluence of the Doves, was the boundary between the Seqnani on the east, and the Aedui on the west; and the right to the river tolls (StayuyiKa rt\n, Strab. p. 192) was disputed between them. The navigation of the Saone was connected with that of the Seine by a portage, and this was one line of commercial communication between Britain and the valley of the Rhone. (Strab. p. 189.) It was a design of L. Vetus, who commanded in Germania in the time of Nero, to unite the Arar and the Mosella (Sfosel), by a canal (Tacit. Ann. xiii. 53); and thus to effect a communication between the Rhone and the Rhine.

The larger rivers of France retain their Gallic names. The Saone is an exception, but its true Gallic name appears to be Saucona. (Aram. Marc. xv. 11.) Co. L.]

ARARAT. [armenia.]

ARARUS ("Apapor: perhaps the Alula), a river of European Scythia (aft. in Dacia), flowing from the N. into the Ister. (Herod, iv. 48.) [P. S.]

ARATISPI, a town of Hispauia Baetica, near Caliche el viejo, 5 leagues from Malaga. (Inscr. ap. Florez, xii. p. 296.) [P. S.]

ARAURIS ('Apai'ipiot: Ilerault). The name 'Pavpapis in Strabo (p. 182) is a false transcript for 'Apaiipty. Strabo describes the river as flowing from the Ce'vennes (Ktufieirov). Mela also (ii. 5) makes it flow from the Ce'vennes, which he calls Gebennae, and enter the sea near Agatha, Agde. The river is therefore the HeVault which gives its name to the department of HeVault. Vibius Sequester (ed. Oberlin) speaks of a river Cyrta, which enters the sea near Agatha. This must be the HeVault; and the name Cyrta may be Greek, and have been given by the Massaliots, the Greek colonizers of Agatha.

There was a town Araura, also railed Cesero, on this river, which is identified with a place called S. Tiber! . [G. L.]

ARAUSIO ('ApauiriW: Orange), a town in the territory of the Cavares or Cavari (Strab. p. 185), north of Arelate (Aries), on the road from Arelate to Vienna (Vienne), and near the east bank of the Rhone, on a stream which flows into the Rhone. Orange is in tho department of Vaucluse. It appears from Mela (ii. 5), who calls it "Secnnda uorum Arausio," to have been made a Roman colony, and Pliny (iii. 4), who has the same expression, calls it a oolonia. The name Secundani denotes some soldiers or cohorts of the Secunda legio, which

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