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cittm to Tiviscum, probably near Safka or Slatma, on the river Nero. [P. H.]

ARCOBRI'GA ('ApKogprvo, Ftol. ii. 6. §5«: Arcobrigenses, Plin. Ui. 3. 8. 4: Arcoi), a sUpendiary city of the Celtiberi, in Hispania Tarraconensis, between Segontia and Aquae Bilbitanorom, on the high road from Emerita to Caesaraugusta. (//in. Ant. pp.437, 438.) [P. S.]

AUCONNE'SUS ('ApKoWijo-os), a small island of Caria, rear to the mainland, and south of Halicarnassus. It is now called Orak Ada. When Alexander besieged Halicarnassus, some of the inhabitants fled to this island. (Arrian, A nab. i. 23; Strabo, p. 656; Chart of the Prom, of Halicarnassus, <fc., in Beaufort'sKaramania; Hamilton, Researches,ii. 34.)

Strabo (p. 643) mentions an island, Aspis, between Teos and Lebedus, and he adds that it was also called Arconnesus. Chandler, who saw the island from the mainland, says that it is called Carabash. Barbie* du Bocage {Translation of Chandler's Travel*, i. p. 422) says that it is called in the charts Sainte-Euphemie. This seems to be the island Maoris of Livy (xxxvii. 28), for he describes it as opposite to the promontory on which Myonnesus was situated. Cramer {Ana Minor, vol. i. p. 355) takes Maoris to be a different island from Aspis. [G. L.]

ARDABDA, ARDAUDA C\ptiSba, ApSa65a), signifying the city of the seven gods, was the name given by the Alani or the Tauri to the city of Theodosia on the Tauric Chersonese. {Anon. Peripl. Pont. Etas. p. 5.) [P. S.]

ARDANIS or ARDAN'IA (ApSWs lucpa, Ptol. iv. 5. § 2 j Peripl.; ApSaei'a, St nib. i. p. 40, corrupted into 'ApSavifyit, xvii. p. 838: Ras-al-MUhr), a low promontory, with a roadstead, on the N. coast of Africa, in that part of Mannarica which belonged to Cyrene, between Petra Magna and Menelaus Portus; at the point where the coast suddenly falls off to the S. before the commencement of the Catabathmus Magnus. [P. S.]

AUDEA(ApS«i: Eth. 'Apotdnu, Ardeas, -afis), a very ancient city of Latium, still called Ardea, situated on a small river about 4 miles from the seacoast, and 24 miles S. of Rome. Pliny and Mela reckon it among the maritime cities of Latium: Strabo and Ptolemy more correctly place it inland, but the former greatly overstates its distance from the sea at 70 stadia. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Mela, ii. 4; Strab. v. p. 232; Ptol. iii. 1. § 61.) All ancient writers agree in representing it as a city of great antiquity, and in very early tunes one of the most wealthy and powerful in this part of Italy. Its foundation was ascribed by some writers to a son of Ulysses and Circe (Xenag. ap. Dion. Hal. i. 72; Steph. B. v. 'ApSc'a); but the more common tradition, followed by Virgil as well as by Pliny and Solinus, represented it as founded by Danac, the mother of Perseus. Both accounts may be considered as pointing to a Pelasgic origin; and Niebuhr regards it as the capital or chief city of the Pelasgian portion of the Latin nation, and considers the name of its king Turnus as connected with that of the Tyrrhenians. (Virg. Aen. vii. 410; Plin. /. c.; Solin. 2. § 5; Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 44, vol. ii. p. 21.) It appears in the legendary history of Aeneas as the capital of the Rutuli, a people who had disappeared or become absorbed into the Latin nation before the commencement of the historical period: but their long Turnus is represented as dependent on Latiiius, though holding a separate sovereignty. The tradition mentioned by Livy (xxi. 7), that the Ardenns

had united with the Zacynthians in the foundation of Saguntum in Spain, also points to the early power and prosperity ascribed to the city. In the historical period Ardca had become a purely Latin city, and its name appears among the thirty which constituted the Latin League. (Dion. Hal. v. 61.) According to the received history of Rome, it was besieged by Tarquinius Snperbus, and it was during this longprotracted siege that the events occurred which led to the expulsion of this monarch. (Liv. i. 57—60; Dion. Hal. iv. 64.) But though we are told that, in consequence of that revolution, a truce for 15 years was concluded, and Ardea was not taken, yet it appears immediately afterwards in the first treaty with Carthage, as one of the cities then subject to Rome. (Pol. iii. 22.) It is equally remarkable that though the Roman historians speak in high terms of the wealth and prosperity it then enjoyed (Liv. i. 57), it seems to have from this time sunk into comparative insignificance, and never appears in history as taking a prominent part among the cities of Latium. The next mention we find of it is on occasion of a dispute with Aricia for possession of the vacant territory of Corioli, which was referred by the consent of the two cities to the arbitration of the Romans, who iniqnitously pronounced the disputed lands to belong to themselves. (Liv. iii. 71, 72.) Notwithstanding this injury, the Ardcates were induced to renew their friendship and alliance with Rome; and, shortly after, their city being agitated by internal dissensions between the nobles and plebeians, the former called in the assistance of the Romans, with whose aid they overcame the popular party and their Volscian allies. But these troubles and the expulsion of a large number of the defeated party had reduced Ardea to a low condition, and it was content to receive a Roman colony for its protection against the Volscians, B. C. 442. (Liv. iv 7, 9, 11; Diod. xiL 34.) In the legendary history of Camillus Ardea plays an important part: it afforded him an asylum in his exile; and the Ardeates are represented as contributing greatly to the very apocryphal victories by which the Romans are said to have avenged themselves on the Gauls. (Liv. v. 44, 48; Plut Camill. 23, 24.)

From this time Ardea disappears from history as an independent city; and no mention of it is found on occasion of the great final struggle of the Latins against Rome in B. C. 340. It appears to have gradually lapsed into the condition of an ordinary "Colonia Latina," and was one of the twelve which in B. c. 209 declared themselves unable to bear any longer their share of the burthens cast on them by the Second Punie War. (Liv. xxvii. 9.) We may hence presume that it was then already in a declining state; though on account of the strength of its position, we find it selected in B. c. 186 as the place of confinement of Minius Cerrinins, one of the chief persons implicated in the Bacchanalian mysteries. (Liv. xxxix. 19.) It afterwards suffered severely, in common with the other cities of this part of Latium, from the ravages of the Sainnites during the civil wars between Marius and Sulla: and Strabo speaks of it in his time as a poor decayed place. Virgil also tells us that there remained of Ardea only a great name, but its fortune was past away. (Strab. v. p. 232; Virg. Aen. vii. 413; SiL Hal. i. 291.) The unhfalthiness of its situation and neighbourhood, noticed by Strabo and various other writers (Strab. p. 231; Seneca, Ep. 105; Martial, iv. 60), doubtless contributed to its decay: and Juvenal tells allied Portus Artabrorurn (Bag of Coruna and Ferrol). The above is probably the right form of the name, but the MSS. differ greatly. (Mela, iii. 1. §9 ) [P. S-l

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ARIRTENNA ('ApJoiWa V\n; Ardennes), the largest forest in Gallia in Caesar's time. (B. G. v. 3, vi. 29, 33.) He describes it in one passage as extending from the Rhine, through the midst of the territory of the Treviri, to the borders of the territory of the Remi; and in another passage as extending from the banks of the Rhine and the borders of the Treviri more than 500 Roman miles to the Nervii. From a third passage we may collect that he supposed it to extend to ihe Scaldis, Schelde. Accordingly it was included in the country of the Belgae D'Anville conjectures that the reading of Caesar, instead of "millibusque amplius 10 in longitudinem," should be CL. Orosius (vi. 10), who is here copying Caesar, has " plus quam quinpenta millia passuum" (ed. Haverkamp); but the old editions, according to D'Anville, have L instead of ID. Strabo (p. 194) says that the Arduenna is a forest, not of lofty trees; an extensive forest, but not so large as those describe it who make it 4,000 stadia, that is, 500 Roman miles, or exactly what the text of Caesar has. (See Groskurd's Translation, vol. i. p. 335, and his note.) It seems, then, that Strabo must then be referring to what he found in Caesar's Commentaries. He makes the Arduenna include the country of the Morini, Atrebates, and Eburones, and consequently to extend to the North Sea on the west, and into the Belgian province of Liege on the north.

The dimensions of 500 Roman miles is a great error, and it is hardly possible that Caesar made the mistake. The error is probably due to his copyists. The direct distance from Coblenz, the most eastern limit that we can give to the Arduenna, to the source of the Sambre, is not above 200 Roman miles; and the whole distance from Coblenz to the North St-a, measured past the sources of the Sambre, is not much more than 300 miles. The Arduenna comprehended part of the Prussian territory west of the Rhine, of the duchy of Luxembourg, of the French department of Ardennes, to which it gives name, and a small part of the south of Belgium. It is a rugged country, hilly, but not mountainous.

The name Arduenna appears to be descriptive, and may mean "forest." A woodland tract in Warwickshire is still called Arden. It was once a large forest, extending from the Trent to the Severn. [G. L.]

ARDYES (*Ap5i»(s), a tribe of Celtae, whom Polybius (iii. 47) places in the upper or northern valley of the Rhone, as he calls it His description clearly applies to the Valais, down which the Rhone flows to the Lake of Geneva. In the canton of Valais there is a village still called Ardon in the division of the Valais, named Gontey. [G. L.]

AREA, or ARIA. [aretias.]

AREBRIGIUM, a town or village of the Salassi, mentioned only in the Itineraries, which place it on the road from Augusta Praetoria to the pass of the Graian Alps, 25 M. P. from the former city. (Itin. Ant. pp. 345, 347; Tab. Peut.) This distance coincides with the position of Pre St. Dtdier, a considerable village in an opening of the upper valley of Aosta, just where the great streams from the southern flank of Mont Blanc join the Dora, which descends from the Petit St. Bernard. As the first tolerably open space in the valley, it is supposed, to hare been the first halting-place of Hannibal after

his passage of the Graian Alps. (Wickham atid Cramer, Passage of Hannibal, p. 113, seq.) It is immediately at the foot of the Cramont, a mountain whose name is probably connected with CreMokis Jugum. (Liv. xxi. 38.) [E. H. B.]

ARECO'MICI. [volcae.]

AREIO'PAGUS. [athexae.]

ARELA'TE (also Arelatum, Arelas, 'ApcXdrai; Eth. Arelatensis: Aries), a city of the Provincia or Gallia Narbonensis, first mentioned by Caesar (B. C. i. 36, ii. 5), who had some ships built there for the siege of Massilia, The place is situated on the left bank of the Rhone, where the river divides into two branches. It was connected by roads with Valentia {Valence), with Massilia (Afarseille); with Forum Julii (Frejits), with Barcino in Spain (Barcelona); and with other places. This city is supposed to be the place called Theline in the Ora Maritima (v. 679) of Festus Avienus; and as Theline appears to be a significant Greek term ($n\-f)), D'Anville (Aotice, &c.t Arelate), and others found a confirmation of the name of Avienus in a stone discovered near Aries, with the inscription Mammillaria: but the stone is a mile-stone, and the true reading on it is "Massil. Milliar. I.", that is, the first mile -stone on the way from Arelate to Massilia; a signal instance of the blunders which may be made by trusting to careless copies of inscriptions, and to false etymologies (Walckenaer, Geog. des Gaules). Arelate was in the country of the Salyes, after whose conquest by the Romans (n. c. 123), we may suppose that the place fell under their dominion. It l»ecaine a Roman colony, apparently in the time of Augustus, with the name of Sextani attached to it, in consequence of some soldiers of the sixth legion being settled there (Plin. iii. 4); and this name is confinned by an inscription. Another inscription gives it also the cognomen Julia. In Strabo's time (p. 181) it was the centre of considerable trade, and Mela (ii. 5) mentions Arelate as one of the chief cities of Gallia Narbonensis. The place was improved by Constantine, and a new town was built, probably by him, < pposite to the old one, on the other side of the stream; and from this circumstance Arelate was afterwards called Constantina, as it is said. Ausonius (Urb. Nobil. viii.) accordingly calls Arelate duplex, and speaks of the bridge of boats on the river. The new city of Constantine was on the site of the present, suburb of Trinquetaille, in the island of La Camargue, which is formed by the bifurcation of the Rhone at Aries. Aretite was the residence of the praefect of Gallia in the time of Honorius; and there was a mint in the city.

The Roman remains of Aries are very numerous. An obelisk of Egyptian granite was found buried with earth some centuries ago, and it was set up in 1675 in one of the squares. It seems that the obelisk had remained on the spot where it was originally landed, and had never been erected by the Romans. The amphitheatre of Aries is nut so perfect as that of Nemausus (Nimes), but the dimensions are much larger. It is estimated that it was capable of containing at least 20,000 persons. The larger diameter of the amphitheatre is 466 feet. A part of the old cemetery, Campus Elysius, now Eliscamps, contains ancient tombs, both Pagan and Christian. [G. L.]

AREMORICA. [armorica.]

ARENACUM, is mentioned by Tacitus (Hist v. 20) as the station of the tenth legion, when I Civilis attacked the Romans at Arenatum, BataTodurum, and other places. Some geographers have i'lcutified Arenacum with Amkeim, but I>*AnviIIe and Wulckenaer place it at Atrl near Herwen. In the Antonine Itin., on the road from Lugdunum (Leiden), to Argentoratum (Strassburg\ the fifth place from Lugdunum, not including Lugdunum, is Ii . • itio, which is the same at Arenacum. The next place on the route is Burginatio. Burgiuatio i aUo follows Arenatio in the Table; but the place

before Arenatio in the Table is Noviomagus ( A imegen); in the Itin. the station which precedes Harenatio is Carvo (Rhenen), as it is supposed. It is certain that Arenatio is not Arnheim. [G. I..]

AKEXAE MONTHS, according to the common text of rimy (iii. 1. s. 3), are the sand-hills (Arenas Gordo*) along the coast of Hi span ia Bactica, NW. of the mouth of the Baetis. But Sillig adopts, from some of the best MSS., the reading Mariuni Montes. [marianus,] [P. S.]

ARE'NE ('aptjkij), a town mentioned by Homer as belonging to the doiuiuicas of Nestor, and .situated near the spot where the Minyeius flows into the sea. (Horn. //. ii. 591, xi. 723.) It also occurs in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (423), in conjunction with other towns on the western coast of Peloponnesus. According to Pausanias (iv. 2. § 4, 3. § 7), it was built by Aphareus, who called it after > Areae, both his wife and his sister by the same

mother. It was commonly supposed in later times that Arene occupied the site of Samos or Samia in Triphylia, near the mouth of the Anigrus, ■■■ hich was believed to be the same as the Minyeius. (.Strab. viii. p. 346; Paus. v. 6. § 2.)

AREON ('Apfw*-), a small stream in Persia. (Amen, Indie 38.) [V.]

AREOPOUS, identical with Ar of Moab. S. Jerome explains the name to be compounded of I he Hebrew word ("VJjf Ar or Ir) signifying "city " and it* Greek equivalent (»<iAts), 44 non ut plerique existimant quod 'Aptos, i. e. Martis, civitas sit" (in Jos. xv.). He states that the walls of this city were shaken down by an earthquake in his infancy (< in:. A. D. 315). It was situated on the south bide of the River Arnox, and was not occupied by the Israelites (Dent ii. 9, 29; Euseb. Onomatt. sub roc. 'Apvuv). Bnrkhardt suggests that its site may be marked by the ruined tank near Mehatet-el-Huj, a little to the south of the Arnon (p. 374). [G. W.J

ARETHU'SA. 1. ('Ap«'(Wa: Eth,'AptOoixnot, AreUiusias, Plin. v. 23), a city of Syria, not far from Apamea, situated between Epiphania and Emesa. (Anton. Itin.; Hierocles.) Seleucus Nicator, in pursuance of his usual p>licy, Hellenized the name. (Appian, Syr. 57.) It supported Caecilius Bassus in ins revolt (Strab. p. 753), and is mentioned by Zosunns (i. 52) as receiving Aurelian in his campaign against Zenobia. (For Marcus, the well-known bishop of Arethusa, see IHct. of Biog. s. v.) It afterwards took the name of Rattan (Abnlf. Tab. Syr. p. 22), under which name it is mentioned by the same author (An. Mus. ii. 213, iv. 429). Irby and Mangles visited this place, and found some remains (p. 254).

2. (JVozui), a lake of Armenia,through which the Tigris flows, according to Pliny (vi. 31). He tiescribes the river as flowing through the lake without any intermixture of the waters. Ritler (Erdkssnde, vol. x. pp. 85, 90, 101; comp. Kinueir, Travel*, p. 383) identifies it with the lake Sazitk, which is about 13 miles in length, and 5 in breadth si the centre. The water is stated to bp sweet and

wholesome, which does not correspond with the account of Pliny. [E. B. J.]

3. A fountain at Syracuse. [syuaclsae.]

4. A fountain close to Chalcis in Eubeea, whi>k was sometimes disturbed by volcanic agem y. Dicacarchus says that its water was so abundant as to be sufficient to supply the whole city with water. (Dicaearch. Bfos T7js 'eaaooos, p. 146. ed. Fubr; Strab. i. p. 58, x. p. 449; Eurip. I plug, in Aul. 170; Plin. iv. 12.) There wrm tame fish kept in this fountain. (Athen.viii. p. 331, e. f.) Leake says that this celebrated fountain has now totally disappeared. (NorUtem Greece, vol. ii. p. 255.)

5. A fountain in Ithaca [ithaca.]

6. A town t.f Bisaltia in Matedonia, in the pa&s of Aulon, a little N. of Bromiscus, and celebrated for containing the sepulchre of Euripides. (Amm. Marc, xxvii. 4; Itin. Hierosol. p. 604; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 170.) We learn from Scylax (c. 67) that it was an ancient Greek colony. It was probably founded by the Chalcidiani of Euboea, who may have called it after the celebrated fountain in the neighboiu'hood of their city. Ste

B. (s. v.) erroneously calls it a city of It was either from this place or from Bromiscus that the fortified town of Kcntine arose, which is frequently mentioned by the Byzantine historians. (Tal'el, Tkessalonica, p. 68.)

ARETIAS (Wfnjrixs), a small island on the coast of Pontus, 30 stadia east of Pharnacia (Kerasunt), called "Apcos vriaos by Seymnus (Steph. B. $. v. *Ap*o$ Hjaoj) and Scylax, Here (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 384) the two queens of the Ama/.ons,Otrere and Antiope, built a temple to Arcs. Mela (ii. 7) mentions this place under the name of Area or Aria, an island dedicated to Mars, in the neighbourhood ot Colchis. Aretias appears to be the rocky islet called by the Turks Kerasunt Ada, which is between 3 and 4 miles frnm Kerasunt. u The rock is a black volcanic breccia, with imbedded fragments of trap, and is covered in many places with broken oystershells brought by gulls and sea-birds." (Hamilton, Researches, i. 262.) This may explain the legend of the terrible birds that frequented this spot. Pliny (vi. 12j gives to the island also the name of Chalceritis. [G.L.J ARE'TIAS. [arias.]

A'REVA, a tributary of the river Durius, in Hispania Tarraconensis, from which the Arevaci derived their name. It is probably the Ucero, which fl-.ws from N. to S., a little W. of 3° W. long., and falls into the Douro S. of Osma, the ancient Uxama. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4.) [P. S-]

ARETACI, ARE'VACAE ('AptovdKoi, Strab. iii. p. 162; Ptol. ii. 6. § 56; 'Aeaoeufai, Pol. xxxv. 2; 'Apoycutof, Appian. Ilisp. 45, 46), the most powerful of the four tribes of the Celtiberi in Hispania Tarraconensis, S. of the Pelendones and Berones, and N. of the Carpetam. They extended along the upper course of the Durius, from the Pistoraca, as far as the sources of the Tagus. Pliny (iii. 3. B. 4) assigns to them six towns, Segontia, Uxama, Segovia, Nova Augusta, Termes, and Clunia, ou the borders of the Celtiberi. Nmnnntia, which Pliny assigns to the Pelendones, is mentioned by other writers as the chief city of the Arevjv i. [Nt:Mantia.] Strabo, Ptolemy, and other writers also mention Lagni, Mafia, Sergnntia or Sar^aulha, Gs> sada. Colenda, Miacum, Pallantia. Scgula, Arbace, Confluenta, Tucris, Veluca, and Setortialacta. The Arevaci were di>tinguished for their valour in the Celtiberian or Numantine war (b. C. 143—133) and especially for the defence of Numantia. (Strab., Polyb., Appian., II, cc.) [P. 8.J

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ARGAEUS ('Apyojoj: Argish, or Erjish Dagh), a lofty mountain in Cappadocia, at the foot of which was Mazaca. It is, says Strabo (p. 538), always covered with snow on the summit, and those who ascend it (and they are few) say that on a clear day they can see from the top both the Euxine and the bay of Issus. Cappadocia, he adds, is a woodless country, but there are forests round the base of Argaeus. It is mentioned byClaudian. (In Ruf. ii.30.) It has been doubted if the summit of the mountain can be reached; but Hamilton (Researches, ii. 274) reached the highest attainable point, above " which is a mass of rock with steep perpendicular sides,rising to a height of 20 or 25 feet above the ridge," on which he stood. The state of the weather did not enable him to verify Strabo's remark about the two seas, but he doubts if they can be seen, on account of the high mountains which intervene to the N. and the S. He estimates the height above the sea-level at about 13,000 feet. Argaeus is a volcanic mountain. It is the culminating point in Asia Minor of the range of Taurus, or rather of that part which is called Antitaurus. [G. L.]

ARGANTHO'NIUS £Apyav6<iytos, 'ApyayOwy, Steph.j.p. 'ApyayBuv. Adj. 'Apyayd&vtioii), a mountain range in Bithyuia, which forms a peninsula, and divides the gulfs of Cyrus and Astacus. The range terminates in a headland which Ptolemy calls Posidium: the modern name is Katirli, according to some authorities, and Bozburun according to others. The name is connected with the mythus of Hylas and the Argonautic expedition. (Strab. p. 564; Apoll. Iihod. i. 1176.) [G. L.]

ARGA'RICUS SINUS (Polk's Bay), a large bay of India intra Gangem, opposite to the island of Taprobane (Ceylon), between the promontory of Cory on the S., and the city of Curula on the N., with a city upon it named Argara or Argari. (Ptol. i. 13. § 1, vii. 1. § 96; Arrian. Peripl) [P. S.]

ARGEIA, ARGEII. [abgos.]

ARGENNUM ('Apyivyov, 'Kpyirov, Thucyd. viii. 34), a promontory of the territory of Erythrae, the nearest point of the mainland to Posidium in Chios, and distant 60 stadia from it. The modem name is said to be called Cap Blanc. [G. L.]

ARGENOMESCI or ORGENOMESCI, a tribe of the Cantabri, on the N. coast of Hispania Tarraconensis, with a city Argenomescum (prob. Argomedo), and a harbour Vereasueca (prob. P. S. Martin, Plin. iv. 20. s. 34; Ptol. ii. 6. § 51). CPS.)

ARGENTA'RIA (An. Marc. xxxi. 10; Oros. vii. 33; Aur. Vict. Epit. c. 47), also called AB. GENTOVARIA, may be ArtzenJieim in the old province of Alsace, between the Vosges and the Rhine. D"Anville (Notice, dv.), in an elaborate article on Argentovaria, founded on the Autonine Itin. and the Table, has come to this probable conclusion as to the site of Argentaria. Gratian defeated the Alemanni at Argentaria, A.d. 378. CG. L.]

ARGENTA'RIUS MONS, a remarkable mountain-promontory on the coast of Etruria, still called Monte Argcntaro. It is formed by an isolated .mass of mountains about 7 miles in length and 4 in breadth, which is connected with the mainland only by two narrow strips of sand, the space between which forms an extensive lagune. Its striking form and appearance are well described by Rutilius (Itin. 1. 315—324); but it is remarkable that no mention

of its name is found in any earlier writer, though it is certainly one of the most remarkable physical features on the coast of Etruria. Strabo, however, notices the adjoining lagune (\tfivo9d\arra), and the existence of a station for the tunny fishery by the promontory (v. p. 225), but without giving the name of the latter. At its south-eastern extremity was the small but well-sheltered port mentioned by ancient writers under the name of Portcs HercuUS ('HfXUcARnij AijuV, Strab. L c.; Rntil. i. 293), and still known as Porto d'Ercole. Besides this, the Maritime Itinerary mentions another port to which it gives the name of Ibcitaria, which must probably be the one now known as Porto S. Stefano, formed by the northern extremity of the headland; but the distances given are corrupt. (Itin. Marit. p. 499.) The name of Mons Argentarius points to the existence here of silver mines, of which it is said that some remains may be stall discovered. [E. H. B.]

ARGENTA'RIUS MONS (Avien. or. Marit. 291; 'ApyvpoZv 6pos, Strab. iii. p. 148), that part of M. Orospeda in the S. of Spain in which thr Baetia took its rise; so called from its silver mines. (Comp. Steph. B. *. v. TaprnooSs; Pans. vi. 19 ) Bochart (Phaleg. i. 34, p. 601) agrees with Strabo in supposing that the word Orospeda had the same sense as argentarius. T. S.]

ARGENTEUS, a river of Gallia Narbonensis, mentioned by Aemilius Lepidus in a letter to Cicero, B. c. 43 (ad Fam. x. 34). Lepidus says that he had fixed his camp there to oppose the force of M. Antonius : he dates his letter from the camp at the Pons Argenteus. The Argenteus is the river Argents, which enters the sea a little west of Forum Julii (Frejus); and the Pons Argenteus lay on the Roman road between Forum Voconii (Caiut), as some suppose, and Forum Julii.

Pliny (iii. 4) seems to make the Argenteus flow past Forum Julii, which is not quite exact; or he may mean that it was within the territory of that Colonia. The earth brought down by the Argenteus has pushed the land out into the sea near 3,000 feet. Walckenaer (Geog. des Gaules, &c. ii. 10) thinks that the Argenteus of Ptolemy cannot be the Argenteus of Cicero, because Ptolemy places it too near Olbia. He concludes that the measures of Ptolemy carry us to the coast of Argentiere, and the small river of that name. But it is more likely that the error is in the measures of Ptolemy. A modern writer has conjectured that the name Argenteus was given to this river on account of the great quantity of mica in the bed of the stream, which has a silvery appearance. [G. L.]

ARGENTEA REGIO. [india.]

ARGENTE'OLUM (It. Ant, p. 423; 'Apyty. T<oAa, Ptol. ii. 6. § 28: Toriemo or Tornerasf), a town of the As tores in Hispania Tarraconensis, 14 M. P. south of Asturica. [P. S.]

ARGENTOMAGUS (Argenton), a place in Gaul, which seems to be identified by the modem name, and by the routes in the Antonine Itin. Argenton is SW. of Bovrges, and in the department of Indrc. The form Argantomagus does not appear to be correct. [G. L.]

ARGENTORATUM, or ARGENTORATUS (Amm. Marc. xv. 11: Strassburg on the Rhine), is first mentioned by Ptolemy. The position is well ascertained by the Itineraries. It has the name of Stratisburgium in the Geographer of Ravenna and Strataburgum in the NotiHa. Nithurd, who wrote in the ninth century (quoted by DArviue

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