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League, iiad with it the independence of Greece; bat the recollection of the Achaean power was perpetuated by the name of Aehaia, which the Romans gave to the south of Greece, when they formed it into a province. (Paus. vii. 16, sub fin.)

The history of the Achaean League has been treated with ability by several modern writers. The best works on the Mibjeet are: — Helwing, Gcsckichte des Achaischen Bundes, Lemgo, 1829; S:hom. Gtschtchte Griecherdan<fs von der Entstektmg des Aetol. ttnd Achaischen Bundes bis auj" die Ztrstorung Corinths, Bonn, 1833 ; Flathe's Getckichte Mactdonietis, vol. ii.T Leipz. 1832; Merleker, A cJiaicorum Libri III., Darmst. 1837; Brands at er, Gesch. des Aetolisckm Landes, Volkes vnd Bundes, Berlin, 1844; Droysen, Jlellenismus, vol. ii.. Hamburg, 1843; Thirlwall, History of Greece, vol. viii.

The following is a list of the towns of Aehaia from E. to W.: Pellene, with its harbour Aristooautae, and its dependent fortresses Olurus and Goty-essa, or Donussa: Aegeiua, with its fortress PbclJoe : Aegae : Bura: Cekyneia : Heuce: Aecil M, with the dependent places Leuctrum and Erineum: the harbour of Panormus between the promontories of Drepanum and lihium: Patrae, with the dependent places Boline and Argyra: Olenus with the dependent places Peirae and Euryteiae: Dyme, with the dej>endent places Teiclios, Hecat^ihbaeon and Luiigon. In the interior Pharae: Lt*»NTirM: Tkitaea. The following towns, of which the sites are unknown, are mentioned only by Stephanus Byzantinus: Acarra (*AKa^a): Alos (*AAos): Anace ^Avdjtw): Ascheion QAaxfi0V): Azoixis ( AftuToy): Pella (n«AAa): Phaestus (♦aifl-ros): Politeia (IloAtTfia): Psophis (¥&?$»$): Scobs (2«4ais): Tarne (Tapvri): Teneium (T^Fmop): Thrius (0f»oDs)f which first belonged to Aehaia, afterwards to EHs, and lay near Patrae. Athenaeus (xiv. p. 658) mentions an Achaean town, named Tromileia (Tpofii\tia) celebrated for its cheese.

Respecting the geography of Aehaia in general see Muller, Dorians, vol ii. p. 428, seq.; Leake's J/orea, vols. ii. & iii., and Ptloponnesiaca; Boblaye, JiecJierches, p. 15, seq. ; Curtius, Feloponnesos, vol. L p. 403. seq.

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3. Achaia, the Roman province, including the whale of Peloponnesus and the greater part of Hellas proper with the adjacent islands. The time, however, at which this country was reduced to the form of a Roman province, as well as its exact limits, are open to much discussion. It is usually stated by modern writers that the province was formed on the conquest of the Achaeans in B. c. 146; but there are several reasons for questioning this statement. In the first place it is not stated by any ancient writer that Greece was formed into a province at this time. The silence of Polybius on the subject would be conclusive, if we possessed entire that part of his history which related the conquest of the Achaeans; but in the existing fragments of that portion of his work, there is no

allusion to the establishment of a Roman province, although we find mention of various regulations adopted by the Romans for the consolidation of their power. 2. Many of these regulations would have been unnecessary if a provincial government had been established. Thus we are told that the government of each city was placed in the hands of the wealthy, and that all federal assemblies were abolished. Through the influence of Polybios the federal assemblies were afterwards allowed to be held, and some of the more stringent regulations were repealed. (Pol. xl. 8—10 ; Paus. vii. 16. § 10.) The re-establishment of these ancient forms appears to have been described by the Romans as a restoration of liberty to Greece. Thus we find in an inscription discovered at Dyme mention of ri owo8*6ouffTj Kara Koivhv rois "EWvtrtv 4\tv0tpia, and also of rj diro&odttoa rots 'Ax<*(oiy virb 'Pwualwv woKlrtia, language which could not have been used if the Roman jurisdiction had been introduced into the country. (Bbckh, Corp. InscripU No. 1543 com p. Thirlwall, vol. viii. p. 458.) 3. We are expressly told by Plutarch (Cim. 2), that in the time of Lucullus the Romans had not yet begun to send praetors into Greece {othrw us rty 'E,\,\ao« 'Puuatot oTpanryovs 5i«7r<ju7ro»To); and that disputes in the country were referred to the decision of the governor of Macedonia. There is the less reason for questioning this statement, since it is in accordance with the description of the proceedings of L. Piso, when governor of Macedonia, who is represented as plundering the countries of southern Greece, and exercising sovereignty over them, which he could hardly have done, if they had been subject to a provincial administration of their own. (Cic. c. Pis. 40.) It is probable that the south of Greece was first made a separate province by Julius Caesar; since the first governor of the province of whom any mention is made (as far as we are aware) was Serv. Sulpicius, and he was appointed to this office by Caesac, (Cic. ad Fam. vi. 6. § 10.)

In the division of the provinces made by Augustus, the whole of Greece was divided into the provinces of Aehaia, Macedonia, and Epeirus, the latter of which formed part of lllyris. Aehaia was one of the provinces assigned to the senate and was governed by a proconsul. (Strab. p. 840; Itfon Cass. liii. 12.) Tiberius in the second year of his reign (a. D. 16) took it away from the senate and made it an imperial province (Tac. Ann. i, 76), but Claudius gave it back again to the senate (Suet. Claud, 25). In the reign of this emperor Corinth was the residence of the proconsul, and it was here that the Apostle Paul was brought before Junius Gallio as proconsul of Aehaia, {Acta Apost xviii. 12.) Nero abolished the province of Aehaia, and gave the Greeks their liberty; but Vespasian again established the provincial government and compelled the Greeks to pay a yearly tribute. (Paus. vii. 17. §§ 3, 4; Suet. Vesp. 8.)

The boundaries between the provinces of Macedonia, Epeirus, and Aehaia, are difficult to determine. Strabo (p. 840), in his enumeration of the provinces of the Roman empiru(says: 'EfSoSfi-nv }Axaiav ptXP1 OtTToAJos Koi Ai'twa&p Kdl'AKapvdvwv, Kal nvt*v ,HireipwT(K«>' iQv&v, baa Tp MouceSoWf vpoawpicrat. u The seventh (province) is Aehaia, up to Thessaly and the Aetolians and Acamanians and some Epeirot tribes, which border upon Macedonia.* Moat modern writers understand M*xp' inclusive, and consequently make Aehaia include Thessaly, • c

Aetolia and Acarnauia. Their interpretation is confirmed by a passage in Tacitus, in which Nicopolis in the south of lijjeirus is called by Tacitus (Ann. ii. 53) a city of Achaia; but too much stress must not be laid upon this passage, as Tacitus may only have used Achaia in its widest signification as equivalent to Greece. It" juexp* is not inclusive, Tbessaly, Aek>Iia, and Acanmnia must be assigned either wholly to Macedonia, or partly to Macedonia and partly to Epeirus. Ptolemy (iii. 2, seq.), in his division of Greece, assigns Thessaly to Macedonia, Acarnauia to Epeirus, and Aetolia to Achaia; and it is probable th;it this represents the political division of tlie country at the time at which he lived (a. I». 150). Acliaia continued to be a Roman province governed by proconsuls down to the time of Justinian. (Kruse, IJtllas, vol. i. p. 573.)

ACHA'RACA (*Axd>a«a), a village of Lydia, on the road from Tralles to Nysa, with a Plutonium or a temple of Pluto, and a cave, named Charonium, where the sick were healed under the direction of the priests. (Strab. xiv. pp. 649, 650.)

ACHAKXAE ('Axapvai: £th.'Ax&pv*vs. Acharnanus, Nep. Them. 1.; Adj. *Ax<H,UtK"5)^ the principal demus of Attica, belonging to the tribe Oeneis, was situated 60 stadia N. of Athens, and consequently not far from the foot of lit. Panics. It was from tlie woods of this mountain that the Acharuians were enabled to carry on that traffic in charcoal for which they were noted among the Athenians. (Aristoph. Acham. 332.) Their land was fertile; their population was rough and warlike; and they furnished at the commencement of the Pelopomiesian war 3000 hoplites, or a tenth of the whole infantry (rf the republic. They possessed sanctuaries or altars of Apollo Aguieus, of Heracles, of Athena Hygicia, of Athena liippia, of Dionysus Jlelpomenus, and of Dionysus Cissus, so called, because the Achaniians said that the ivy first grew in this demos. One of the plays of Aristophanes bears the Dame of the Acharnians. Leake supposes that branch of the plain of Athens, which is included between the foot of the hills of Kha&sid and a projection of the range of Aegaleos, stretching eastward from the northern termination of that moantain, to have been the district of the demus Achaniae. The exact situation of the town has not yet been discovered. Some Hellenic remains, situated £ of a mile to the westward of MenWii} have generally been taken for those of Archarnae; but MenitVii is more probably a conniption of Uawvidai. (Thuc. it 13, 19—21; Lueian, Icaro-Menip. 18; Pind. Nem. ii. 25; Pans. i. 31. § 6 ; Athcn. p. 234; Steph. B. s. v. ; Leake, Demi of A ttica, p. 35, seq.)

ACHARKAE, a town of Thessaly in the district Thessaliotis, on the river Pamisus, mentioned only by Livy (xxxii. 13), but apparently the same place as the Aeharne of Pliny (iv. 9. s. 16).

ACHATES ('Axccnj?), a small river in Sicily, noticed by Silius Italieus for the remarkable clearness of its waters (perluccntem sjjlendenti gurgite Achatcn, xiv. 228), and by various other writers as the place where agates were found, and from whence they derived the name of "lapis Achates," which they have retained in all modem languages. It has been identified by Cluverius (followed by most modern geographers) with tlie river IHriUo, a small stream on the S. coast of Sicily, about 7 miles E. of Terranova, which is indeed remarkable for tlie clearness of its waters: but Pliny, tlie only author who affords any clue to its position, distinctly places the

Achates between Thermae and Selinus, in the SW. quarter of the island. It cannot, therefore, be the IHrillo, but its modern name is unknown. (Plin. iii. 8. s. 14, xxxvii. 10. s. 54; Theophrast. de Lapid. § 31; Vib. Seq. p. 3; Solin. 5. § 25; Cluver. Sicil. p. 201.) [E.H.B.]

ACHELOUS ('Ax«A$or, Epic 'Ax<A<&os). 1. (Asjrropotame), the largest and most celebrated river in Greece, rose in Mount Pindus. and after flowing through the mountaiiKJUs country of the Dolopians and Agracans, entered the plain o! Acarnauia and Aetolia near Stratus, and discharged itself into the Ionian sea, near the Acarnanian town of Oeniadac. It subsequently formed the boundary between Acarnauia and Aetolia, but in the time of Thucydides the territory of Oeniadac extended cast of the river. It is usually called a river of Acamania, but it is sometimes assigned to Aetolia. Its general direction is from north to south. Its waters arc of a whitish yellow or cream colour, whence it derives its modem name of Aspropotnmo or the White river, and to which Diouyshis (432) probably alludes in the epithet apyvpo^ii'Tjs. It is said to have been called more anciently Thoas, Axcnus and Thestius (Thuc. ii. 102; Strab. pp. 449, 450, 458; Plut de Flue. 22; Steph. B. s.v.) We learn from Leake that the reputed sources of the Achelous are at a village called Khaliki, which is probably a conniption of Chalt is, at which place Dionysius Pericgetes (496) places the sources of the river. Its waters are swelled by numerous torrents, which it receives in its passage through the mountains, and when it emerges into the plain near Stratus its bed is not less than three-quarters of a mile in width. In winter the entire bed is often filled, but in the middle of summer the river is divided into five or six rapid stream,-, of which only two arc of a considerable size. After leaving Stratus the river becomes narrower; ami, in the lower part of its course, the plain through which it flows was called in antiqnity Paracheloitis after the river. This plain was celebrated for its fertility, though covered in great part with marshes, several of which were formed by the overflowings oi the Achelous. In this part of its course tlie river presents the most extraordinary series of wanderings; and these deflexions, observes a recent traveller, are not only so sudden, but so extensive, !is to render it difficult to trace the exact line of its bed, — and sometimes, for several miles, having its direct course towards the sea, it appears to flow back into the mountains in which it rises. The Achelous brings down from the mountains an immense quantity of earthy particles, which have fonned a number of small islands at its mouth, which belong to the group anciently called Echinades; and part of the mainland near its mouth is only alluvial deposition. [eciitnades.] (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 136, seq., vol. iii. p. 513, vol. iv. p. 211; Mure, Journal of a Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 102.) The chief tributaries of the Achelous were:—on its left, the Campylus (KajiTruAoy, Diod. xix. 67: Medr/hora), a river of considerable size, flowing from Dolopia through the ten-itory of the Dry opes and Eurytanes, and tlie Ctathub (KvaBas, Pol. ap. Ath. p. 424, c.) flowing out of the lake Hyrie into the main stream just above Conope: —on its right the Petitarus (Liv. xliii. 22) in Aperantia, and the Akafus van-os), which fell into the main stream in Acamania 80 stadia S. of Stratus. (Thuc. ii. 82.)

The Achelous was regarded as the ruler and representative of all fresh water in Hellas. Hence he is called by Homer (//. u. 194) Kptiwv 'Axe- Mirror, and was worshipped as a mighty god throughout Greece, He is celebrated in mythology on account of his combat with Heracles for the posses siou of Detaneira. The river-god first attacked Heracles in the form of a serpent, and on being worsted assumed that of a bull. The hero wrenched off one of his horns, which forthwith became a crcuucojna, or horn of plenty. (Soph. Track. 9; Ov. Met, ix. 8, seq.; Apollod ii. 7. § 5.) This legend alludes apparently to some efforts made at an early period to check the ravages, which the inundations of the river caused in this district; and if the river was confined within its bed by embankments, the region would be converted in modern times into a land of plenty. For further details respecting the mythological character of the Achelous, see Diet of JSioffr. and Myth, s. r.

In the Roman poets we find Achelotdet, i. e. the Sirenes, the daughters of Achelous (Ov. Met v. 552): Achelota Callirhoe, because Cailirhoe was the daughter of Achelous (Ov. Met. ix. 413); pocnla Achelota, i. c. water in general (Virg. Georg. i. 9): Achelouu heros, that is, Tydeus, son of Oeneus, king of Calydon, Achehius here being equivalent to Aetolian. (Stat. Tfieb. ii. 142.)

2. A river of Thessaly, in the district of Malis, flowing near Lamia. (Strab. pp. 434, 450.)

3. A mountain torrent in Arcadia, flowing into the Alpbeu3, from the north of Mount Lycaeus. (Pans. viii. 38. § 9.)

4. Also called Peikus, a river in Achaia, flowing near Dyme. (Strab. pp. 342, 450.)

ACHERDUS ('A*«p6o£y, -ouvtos; Eth.%\x*Pfewrwi), a demos of Attica of uncertain site, belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. Aristophanes (Eccl. 362) in joke, uses the form *AxpaZovaios instead of 'Ax«pooi'0'*or. (Steph. B. s. w. *Ax«piovs, "A;rj>a*<nJr; Aeschin. in Tim. § 110, ed. Bekker; Lake, Demi of Attica, p. 185.)

ACHEKI'NI, the inhabitants of a small town in Sicily, mentioned only by Cicero among the victims of the oppressions of Verres. Its position is quite uncertain; whence modern scholars propose to read either Scherini, or Achetini from Achetum, a town supported to be mentioned by Silius Italicus (xiv. 268); but the " pubea Uquentis Acheti'* (or Achaeti, as the name stands in the best MSS.) of that author would seem to indicate a river rather than a town. There is, however, no authority for either emendation. (Cic. Verr. Hi. 43; Zumpt ad loc.; Orell. Onomast. p.6; Cluver. Sicil. p.381.) [E.H.B.]

A'CHEKON ("Axipw), the name of several rivers, all of which were, at least at one time, be- I ueved to be connected with the lower world The I Acheron as a river of the lower world, is described I in the Diet, of Biogr. and Myth.

1. A river of tlpeirus in Thesprotia, which passed through the lake Achcru>ia ('Axfp°u<rfa and after receiving the river Cocytus (kwkvtos), flowed into the Ionian sea, S. of the promontory Cheimerium. Pliny (iv. 1) erroneously states that the river flowed into the Ambraciot gulf. The bay of tbe sea into which it flowed was usually called (Jr/vys Lirnen (TAiwrvj Ai^ij*') or Sweet-Harbour, because the water wac fresh on account of the quantity pared into it from the lake and river. Scylax tnd Ptolemy call the harbour Klarn ("EA0.0), and

the surrounding district bore according to Thucydides the name of Elaeaus ('EAaiaTtr). The Acheron is the modern Gurla or river of Suli, the Cocytus is the Vuvo, and the great marsh or lake below Kastri the Acherusia. The water of the Vuvo is reported to be bad, which agrees with the account of Pausanias (i. 17. § 5) in relation to the water of the Cocytus (55twp hrtp-iri<na.Tov). The Glycys Limen is called Port Fandri, and its water is still fresh; and in the lower part of the plain the river is commonly called the river of Fandri. The upper part of the plain is called Glyhy; and thus the ancient name of the harbour has been transferred from the coast into the interior. On the Acheron Aidoneus, the king of the lower world, is said to have reigned, and to have detained here Theseus as a prisoner; and on its banks was an oracle called vfKvonavrtiov (Herod, v. 92. § 7), which was consulted by evoking the spirits of the dead. (Thuc. i. 46; Liv. viii. 24; Strab. p. 324; Steph. B. a. v.; Pans. i. 17. § 5; Dion Cass. 1. 12; Scylax, p. 11; Ptolem. hi. 14. § 5; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 232, seq. iv. p. 53.)

2. A river of Elis, a tributary of the Alpheins. (Strab. p. 344; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 89.)

A'CHERON ('Ax^Ot a 8ma11 river hl Brat_ tium, near Pandosia. Its name is mentioned in conjunction with that city both by Strabo and Justin, from whom we learn, that it was on its banks that Alexander, king of Epirus, fell in battle against the Lucanians and Bnittians, B. C. 326. (Strab. p. 256; Justin, xii. 2.) Pliny also mentions it as a river of Bruttium (iii. 5. s. 10.), but appears erroneously to connect it with the town of Acherontia in Lncania. It has been supposed to be a small stream, still called the Arconti, which falls into the river Crathis just below Consentia; but its identification must depend upon that of Pandosia. [pandosia.] CE. H. B.1

ACHKRO'NTIA {'Axtpovrit 0r 'Ax^povria), a small town of Apulia, near the frontiers of Lucania, situated about 14 miles S. of Venusia, and 6 SE. of Ferentum. Its position on a lofty hill is alluded to by Horace in a well-known passage (celsae nidum Acherontiae, Carm. iii. 4. 14; and Acron ad U>c.), and the modern town of Acerenza retains the site as well as name of the ancient one. It is built on a hill of considerable elevation, precipitous on three sides, and affording only a very steep approach on the fourth. (RomanelH, vol. ii. p. 238.) It seems to have been always but a small town, and is not mentioned by any ancient geographer; but the strength of its position gave it importance in a military point of view: and during the wars of the Goths against the generals of Justinian, it was occupied by Totila with a garrison, and became one of the chief strongholds of the Gothic leaders throughout the contest. (Procop. de B. G. iii. 23,26, iv. 26, 33.) The reading Acfterunto in Livy (ix. 20), which has been adopted by Komanelli and Cramer, and considered to refer to the same place, is wholly unsupported by authority. (Alschefski, ad loc.) The coins assigned to this city belong to Aquilonia. CE. H. B.]

ACHERU'SIA PALUS ('Ax*pou<rfa A/^77), the name of several lakes, which, like the various rivers of the name of Acheron, were at some time believed to be connected with the lower world, until at last the Acherusia came to be considered in the lower world itself. The most important of these woe the lake in Thesprotia, through which the Acheron flowed. [acheron.] There was a small lake 01 this name near Hermionc in Argolis. (Paus. ii. 35. § 10.)

ACHKRU'SIA PALTJS QAx*pmta \tnvq), the name given to a small lake or saltwater ]>ool in Campania rH'iHirated from the sea only by a bur of sand, between Cumac and Cape MUenum, nowcalled Logo di Fusaro. The name appears to have been bestowed on it (probably by the Greeks of Cumae) in consequence of its proximity to A vermis, when the legends connecting that lake with the entrance to the infernal regions had become established. [avernus.] On this account the name was by some applied to the Lucrine lake, while Artemidorus maintained that the Achcrnsian lake and Avernus were the same. (Strab. v. pp. 243,245; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) The•Logo di Fusaro could never have had any direct connection with the volcanic phenomena of the region, nor could it have partaken of the gloomy and mysterious character of Lake Avnnms. The expressions applied to it by Lycophron {Alex. 695) are mere poetical hyperbole: and Virgil, where he speaks of tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuso {A en. vi. 107), would seem to refer to Avernus itself rather than to the lake in question. In later times, its banks were adorned, in common with the neighbouring shores of Baiac, with the villas of wealthy Romans; one of these, which belonged to Servilius Vatia, is particularly described by Seneca (Ep. 55). [E. H. B.]


ACHILLA, ACHOLLA, or ACHULLA ('Axo'AAo: Eth. 'AxoAAouos, Achillitanus: ElAliah, large Bu.), a town on the sea-coast of Africa Propria (Byzacena), a little above the N. extremity of the Lesser Syrtis, and about 20 G. miles S. of Thapsus. It was a colony from the island of Mclita (Malta), the people of which were colonists from Carthage. Under the Romans, it was a free city. In the African war, n. c. 46, it submitted to Caesar, for whom it was held by Messius; and it was in vain besieged by the Pompeian commander Considius. Among its ruins, of a late style, but very extensive, there has been found an interesting bilingual inscription, in Phoenician and Latin, in which the name is spelt Achnlla (Steph. B. s. v.; Strab. p. 831; Liv. xxxiii. 48; Appian. Pun. 94; Hirtius, Bell. Afric. 33—43; Plin. v. 4; Ptol.; Tab. Peut., name corrupted into Anolla; Shaw's Travels, p. 193; Barth, Wanderungen, <fc. vol. i. p. 176; Gesenius, Monnm. Phoenic. p. 139.) [P. S.]

ACHILLE'OS DROMOS (ApA/ioj Ax'A^oy.or 'AxiAAf'ajs, or 'Ax&Aftof, or 'AxtAAiJioy), a long narrow 'rfrip of land in the Euxine, NW. of the Chersonesus Taurica (Crimea) and S. of the month of the Borysthenes (Dnieper), running W. and E., with a slight inclination N. and S., for about 80 miles, including that portion of the coast from which it is a prolongation both ways. It Is now divided by a narrow gap, which insulates its \V. portion, into two parts, called Kosa (i. e. tongue) Tendra on the W., and Kosa Djar-lgatch on tho E. In the ancient legends, which connected Achilles with the NW. shores of the Euxine, this strip of land was pitched upon as a sort of natural stadium on which he might have exercised that swiftness of foot which Homer sings; and he was supposed to have instituted games there. Further to the \V., off the mout h of the Ister,lay a small island, also sacred to the hero, who had a temple there. This island, called Achillis Insula, or Lence ('Ax'AA«'o>s ^ A€ukt) vijaos), was said to be the place to which Thetis transported the body of Achilles. By some it was made the abode of the

shades of the blest, where Achilles and other herow were the judges of the dead. Geographers identify it with the little island of Zmievoi, or Oulan Adassi (i.e. Serpents' Island) in 30° 10' E long., 45° 15' N. lat. (Herod, iv. 55, 76; Eurip. Iphig. in Taur. 438; Pind. Olymp. ii. 85; Paus. iii. 19. § II; Strab. pp. 306—308, folk; and other passages collected by Ukert, vol. iii. p. 2, pp. 442, foil., and Forbiger, vol. iii. pp. 1121—1122.) [P. S.]

ACHILLE'UM ('AxtAAfio*'), a small town near the promontory Sigeum in the Triad (Herod, v. 94), where, according to tradition, the tomb of Achilles was. (Strab. p. 594.) When Alexander visited the place on his Asiatic expedition, B. C. 334, he placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles. (Arrian, i. 12.) [G. L.]

ACHILLIS INSULA. [achuxeos Dromos.]

ACHOLLA. [achilla.]

ACHRADU'S. [acherdus.]

ACHRIS, or A'CHRITA. [lychnidus.]

A'CILA ('A/r-Aa), which seems to be identical with OCE'LIS ("O/cTjAis), now Zte Hill or Ghcla, a seaport of the Sabaei Nomades, in Arabia Felix, a | short distance to the S. of Mocha, and to the N. of the opening of the strait of Babel Mandeb. (Strab. p. 769; Plin. vi. 23. s. 26, 28. s. 32; Ptol. vi. 7. § 7.) By some geographers it is identified with the Bou\tK<xs of the Homcritae mentioned by Procopiu* (B.P. i. 19). [W.R.J

ACIMIN'CUM, ACUMIXCUM ('akoivo"«>»\ Ptol. n. 16. § 5 : Alt-Salankem<>n)} a station or permanent cavalry barrack in Pannonia. (Aram. Marc, xix. 11. §7; Notit. Imp.) By George of Ravenna (iv. 19), and on the Peutingerian Table, the name is written AcUKOM. [W. B. D.]

ACINCUM, AQUIXCUM ("ako^kox, Ptol. ii. 16. §4; Tab. Peut.; Orelli, Inscripl. 50G, 959, 963, 3924; Amm. Marc. xxx. 5; Itin. Anton.), a Roman colony and a strong fortress in Pannonia, where the legion Adjutrix Secunda was in garrison (Dion. Cass. Iv. 24), and where also there was a large manufactory of bucklers. Acincum, being the centre of the operations on the Roman frontier against the neighbouring Iazyges (Slovdcs), was occasionally the head-quarters of the emperors. It answers to the present AU-Buda, where Roman basements and broken pillars of aqueducts are still visible. On the opposite bank of the Danube, and within the territory of the Iazyges, stood a Roman fort or outpost called, from its relative position, ContraAcincum (Not. Imp.), which was connected with Acincum by a bridge. Contra-Acincum is named Uiofftou by PtolemyYiii. 7. § 2). [W. B. D.]

ACI'NIPO ('AKienrirec: Jionda la Vieja, liu. 2 leagues N. of R&mla), a town of Hispania Baetioa, on a lofty mountain. Ptolemy calls it a city of the Celtici (ii. 4. § 15.) Its site Is marked by the ruins of an aqueduct and a theatre, amidst which many coins are found inscribed with the name of the place. (Florez, Esp. Sagr. vol. ix. pp. 16—60; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 14.) [P. S.]

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ACIRIS (*AKipit), a river of Lncania, mentioned both by Pliiir and St mho, as flowing near to Henulta on the N. side, as the Siris did on the S. It is still called the Acri or Agri, and has a course i4 above SO miles, rising in the Apennines near Afarsico Nuoto, and flowing into the Gnlf of Tarc-ntum, a little to the N. of Policoro, the site of the ancient Ilermrlea. (Plin. iii. 11. s. 15; Strab. p. 264.) The Actr>ios of the Itinerary is supposed by Cluverius to be a corruption of this name, but it *vmild appear to be that of a town, rather than a riTer. (ltin. Ant. p. 104.) [E. H. B.]

ACIS (*ajcis)t a river of Sicily, on the eastern coast of the island, and immediately at the foot of Aetna. It is celebrated on account of the mythological fable connected with its origin, which was ascribed to the bluod of the youthful Acis, crushed under an enormous rock by his rival Polyphemus. (.Ovid. Met. xiii. 750, &c; SL ItaL xiv. 221—226? Anth. Lat. L 148; Senr. ad Virg. Eel ix. 39, who eironeoiisly writes tlie name Aeinius.) It is evidently in allusion to the same story that Theocritus speaks of the "sacred waters of Acis." (yA*fi5os Uphv vSwp, Idyll, i. 69.) From this fable itself we may infer that it was a small stream gushing forth from under a rock; the extreme coldness of its waters noticed by Solinus (Solin. 5. § 17) also jrints to the same conclusion. The last circumstance might lead us to identify it with the stream now called Fhime Frtddo, but there is every appearance that the t<*wn of Acium derived its name from the river, and this was certainly further south. There can be no doubt that Cluverius is right in kienrifying it with the little river still called Fiume di Jttci, known also by the name of the Acque Grartdi, which ri.-es under a rock of lava, and has a very short course to the tea, passing by the modern town of Aci Reale (Acium). The Acis was certainly quite distinct from the Acesines or Amines, with which it has been confounded by several writers. (Cluver. Siril. p. 115; Smyth's Sicily, p. 132; Ortolani, iJiz. Geogr. p. 9 ; Ferrara, Detcriz. dtlt Etna, p. 32.) [E. H. B.]

A'CIUM, a small town on the E. coast of Sicily, mentioned only in the Itinerary (ltin. Ant. p 87), which places it on the high road from Catana to Tauromenium, at the distance of 9 M. P. from the former city. It evidently derived its name froro. the little river Acis, and is probably identical with the uvAem Aci ReaU, a considerable town, about a mile irom the sea, in the neighbourhood of which, on the road to Catania, are extensive remains of Roman Thermae. (Biseari, Viaggw in Sicilia, p. 22; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. p. 9.) [E. H. B.]

ACMO'NIA ('Ax/iona: Etk. 'Ax/wrievs, 'ak^orw»j, Acmonensis), a city of Phrygia, mentioned by Cicero {Pro Flaec. 15.) It was on the road from Dciry latum to Philadelphia, 36 Roman miles S\V. of Cocyaeura; and under the Romans belonged to the Cooventus Juridieus of Apamea. The site has been | fis.it] at Ahntkoi; but it still seems doubtful. (Hamilton, Rrsearrhe.3, tfc. vol. i. p. 115.) [G. L.]

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ACO'NTIA or ACU'TIA (AKoerfo, Strab. p. 152; 'AnouTfta, Steph. B.), a town of the Vaccaei, in Hispania Tarraconensis, on the river Durius (Uouro), which liad a ford here. Its site is unknown, [p. S.J ACOXTISMA, a station in Macedonia on the coast and on the Via Egnatia, 8 or 9 miles eastward of Neapolis, is placed by Leake near the end of the passes of the Sapaei, which were formed by the mountainous coast stretching eastward from Kavdla. Tafel considers it to be identical with Christopolis and the modern Kavdla. (Amm. Marc, xx* ii. 4; It. Ant. and Hierocl.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 180; Tafel, De Viae Egnatiae Parte Orient. p. 13, seq.)

A'CORIS ('akooi's), a town of Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile in the Cynopolitc Nome, 17 miles N. of Antinoopilis. (Ptol. iv. 5. §59; Tab. Peut.)

ACRA LEUCE ("A/fpo Aevicf), a great city oi Hispania Tarraconensis, founded by Hamilcar Barcas (Diod. Sic. xxv. 2), and probably identical with the Castrum Album of Livy (xxiv. 41). Its position seems to liave been on the coast of the Sinus lu* tanus, N. of Ilici, near the modern Alicante (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. l,p. 403). [P-S.]

ACRAE ("A/tpai, Thuc. et alii; "Anpa, Steph. B.; "A«pouu, PtoL; 'Atcftcnoi, Steph. B.; Aerenses, Plin.; PalazzoUi), a city of Sicily, situated in the southern portion of the island, on a lofty hill, nearly due W. of Syracuse, from which it was distant, according to the Itineraries, 24 Roman miles (ltin. Ant. p. 87; Tab. Peut.). It was a colony of Syracuse, founded, as we learn from Thucydides, 70 years after its parent city, i. e. 663 B. C. (Thuc. vi. 5), but it did not rise to any great importance, and continued almost always in a state of dependence on Syracuse. Its position must, however, have always given it some consequence in a military point of view; and we find Dion, when marching upon Syracuse, halting at Acrae to watch the effect of his proceedings. (Plat. Dion, 27, where we should certainly read'Axpaj for Maya's.) By the treaty concluded by the Romans with Hieron,kingof Syracuse, Acrae was included in the dominions of that monarch (Diod. xxiii. Exc. p. 502), and this was probably the period of its greatest prosperity. During the Second Tunic War it followed the fortunes of Syracuse, and afforded a place of refuge to Hippocrates, after his defeat by Marcellus at Acrillae, B.C. 214. (Liv. xxiv. 36.) This is the last mention of it in history, and its name is not once noticed by Cicero. It was probably in his time a mere dependency of Syracuse, though it is found in Pliny's list of the " stipendiariae civitates," so that it must then have possessed a separata municipal existence. (Plin. iii. 8; Ptol. iii. 4. § 14.) The site of Acrae was correctly fixed by Fazello at the modern Palazzolo, the lofty and bleak situation of which corresponds with the description of Silius Italicus ("tumulis glaciaiibns Acrae," xiv. 206), and its distance from Syracuse with that assigned by the Itineraries. The summit of the hill occupied by the modern town is taid to be still called Acremonte. Fazello speaks of the ruins visible there as "egregium urbis cadaver," and the recent researches and excavations carried on by the Baron Judica have brought to light ancient remains of much interest. The most considerable of these are two theatres, both in very fair preservation, of which the largest is turned towards the N., while immediately adjacent to it on the W. is a much smaller one, hollowed out in great part from the rock, and supposed from some peculiarities in its construction to have been intended to

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