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Arwzo, near Seville (vol. i. pt. ii. p. 376; Klorer, Med. de F.sp. i. p. 156, iu. p.8> [I'. S.]

AKIA CIV1TAS ('Aptla, Ptol.vi. 17. §7; Aris, 7<i4. Peutinger.}. There seems no reason to doubt tliat the ancient Aria is represented by the modern Herat, which is situated on a small stream now called the lleri-Rud; while at the same time there are grounds for supposing that the three principal names of cities in Aria are really but different titles fur one und the same town. Different modifications of the same name occur in different authors; thus in Arriun {Anab. iii. 25), Artacoana ('Apranoara); in Strab. xi. p. 516, 'AffroxaVa; in Ptol.vi. 5. 4, 'ApraKaVa, or 'AprurduoVa, placed by him in Parthia,—where also Ainm. Marc, xxiii. 6, places Artacana; in Isid. Char. 'A^TiKcfva**; and in Plin. vi. 23. 25, Artirabene. All these are names of the chief town, which was situated on the river Ariiis. Strabo (xi. p. 516) mentions also Alexandria Ariana ('AAe{de5pfia T) iv 'Api'ois), Pliny (vi. 17. 23) Alexandria Arion (i.e. 'Aptiwv), said to have been built by Alexander on the banks of the same river. Now, according to a memorial verse still current among the people of Herat, that town is believed to unite the claims of the ancient capital built by Alexander, or more probably repaired by hiin,—fur he was but a short time in Aria. (Mohun Lall. Journ. As. Sac. Beng. Jan. 1834.) Again, the distance from the Caspian Gates to Alexandreia favours its identification with llerdt. Artacoana (proved by M. Court to be a word of Persian origin, — Arde koun) was, if nut the same place, at no great distance from it. It has been supposed by M. barbie* de Bocage to hiive occupied the site of Flushing, a town on the Jleri river, one stage from Herat, and by M. Court to have been at Obeh, ten farsakhs from Herat. Ptulemy placed it on the Arian lake, and D'Anville at Farrah; but both of these spots are beyond the limits of the small province of Aria. Heeren lias coasidered Artacoana and Alexandreia as identical. On the Persian cuneiform insc. Hariva represents the Greek Apia. (Rawl. Journ. A s. Soc. xi. pt. 1.) Many ancient cities received new names from their Macedonian conquerors. (Wilson, Ariana, pp. 150—153; Barbie" de Bocage, Historiens a"Alexandre, App. p. 193; M. J acq net, Journ. Asiatique, Oct. 1832; Heeren, Researches, vol. i.) [V.] AlilA INSULA. [arrtias.] AKIA LACUS (h 'Apia topA, PtoL vi. 14. § 2), a lake on the N\V. boundary of Drangiana and the Desert of Kinnan,—now called Zarak or Zerrah. It has been placed by Ptolemy too far to the N., and has been connected by him with the river Arius. VI. Burnouf (Comm. sur le Yacna, p. xcvii.) derives its name and that of the province to which it properly belongs, from a /.end word, Zarayo (a lake). It may have been called the Arian Lake, as adjoining the wider limit* of Ariana. [V.]

ARIACA ( ApiaKT) 2a5i>w), a considerable district of India intra Gangem, along the W, coast of the peninsula, corresponding apparently to the N. part of the presidency of Bombay. Ptolemy mentions in it two rivers, Goaris (Tuapn) and Benda (B^cSa.), and several cities, the chief of which seem to have been Uippocura ('Imrojrovpa) iu the S. (Bangalore, or Hydruhad), and Baetana (Bairava, prob. Baler) in the N., besides the poit of Simylla. (PtoL vii. 1. §§ 6, 82; Peripl. p. 30.) [P. S.J

ARIACA or ARTIACA, a town of Gallia, which is represented by Arcis-sur-Aube, according to the Autonine Itin., which j.lices it between Troyes and

Chalons. It is phieed M. P. xviii., Leugas xi/., frt.m Tricasses ( Troyt .«); and M. P. xxxiii., Leugas xxii., from Durocatalauni {Chalons}. In both cases the measurement by Roman miles and Leugae, or Gallic leagues, agrees,—for the ratio is 1 \ Roman miles to a Leuga. The actual measurements also agree with the Table. (D'Anville, Notice, #c.) [G. L.]

ARIACAE ('ApittKai), a people of Scythia intra Itnaum, along the S. bank of the Jaxartes. (Ptol. vi. 14. § 14.) [P. S.]

ARIALBINNUM, in Gallia, is placed by D'Anville about Binning near Bale, in Switzerland. Reichard places it at Huningen. [G. L.]

ARIALDU'NUM, a considerable inland town of Hispania Baetica, in the conventus of Corduba, and the district of Bastetania. (Plin. iii. 1. s. 3.) [P. S.]

ARIA'NA (q 'Apiw^, Strab.; Ariana Regio and Ariana, Plin. vi. 23: Eth. 'Apnjvo/, Dion. Perieg. 714 and 1097; Arianus, Plin. vi. 25, who distinguishes between Arii and Ariani), a district of wide extent in Central Asia, comprehending nearly the whole of ancient Persia; and bounded on the N. by the provinces of Bactriana, Margiana, and Hyrcania, on the E. by the Indus, on the S. by the Indian Ocean and the eastern portion of the Persian Gulf, and on the W. by Media and the mountains S. of the Caspian Sea. Its exact limits are laid down with little accuracy iu ancient authors, and it seems to have been often confounded (as in Plin. vi. 23, 25) with the small province of Aria. It comprehended the provinces of Gedrosia, Dranjziana, Araehosia, Paropaiuisus mountains, Aria, Parthia, and Carmania.

By Herodotus Ariana is not mentioned, nor is it included in the geographical descriptions of Steph. B. and Ptolemy, or in the narrative of Arrian. It is fully described by Strabo (xv. p. 696), and by Pliny, who states that it included the Arii, with other tribes. The general idea which Strabo had of its extent and form may be gathered from a comparison of the different passages in which be speaks of it. On the E. and S. lie agrees with himself. The E. bonndary is the Indus, the 8. the Indian Ocean from the mouth of the Indus to the Persian Gulf. (Strab. xv. p. 688.) The western limit is, iu one place (Strab. xv.p. 723), an imaginary line drawn from the Caspian Gates to Carmania; in another (Strab. xv. p. 723) Eratosthenes is quoted as describing the W. boundary to be a line separating Parthyene from Media, and Carmania from Paraetacene and Persia (that is comprehending the whole of the modern Yezd and Kirmnn, but excluding Fars). The N. boundaries are said to be the Paropamiswi mountains, the continuation of which forms the X. boundary of India. (Strab. xv. p. 689.) On the authority of Apollodorus the name is applied to some parts of Persia and Media, and to the N. Bactrians and Sogdians (Strab. xv. p. 723); and Bactriana is also specified as a principal part of Ariana. (Strab. xv. p. 686.) The tribes by whom Ariana «a> inhabited (besides the Persians and Bactrians, who are occasionally included), as enumerated by Strabo, are the Paropamisadae, Arii, Drangae, Arachoti, and Gedrosii. Pliny (vi. 25) specifies the Arii, Dorlsc.i, Drangae, Everge.ae, Zaraugae, and Gedrusii, and some others, as the Methorici, Augutturi, Crbi, the inhabitants of Daritis, the Pasires and lctlm phagi, —who are probably referred toby Strabo (xv. p. 726), where he speaks of the Gedroscni, and uthers along the coast towards the south. Pliny (vi. 23) says that some add to India four Satrapies tu the W. of that river! —the Gcdroeii, Arachitsii, Arii, and Paropamisadue, M far as the fiver Cophe* (the river of Kabul), Pliny therefore agrees on the whole with Strabo. Dionysius Periegetes (1097) agrees with Strabo in extending the N. boundary of the Artani to the Paropamisua, and (71-4) speaks of them as inhabiting the chores of the Erythraean Sea. It is probable, from Strmbo (xv. p. 724), that that geographer was induced to include the E. Persians, Bacthans, and Sogdians, with the people of Ariana below the mountains, because they were for the most part of one speech. There can be no doubt the modern Iran represents the ancient Ariana,—a word itself of native origin; a view which is borne out by the traditions of the country preserved in the Mohammedan writers >f the ninth and tenth centuries,—according to whom, consistently with the notices in ancient authors, the greater part of Ariana was Iran or Persia. (Firdusi, in the Shah Xamah; Mirkhond, Kozat-as-safa.)

The names Aria and Ariana, and many other ancient Lilies of which Aria is a component element, are connected with the Hindu term Arya, " excellent," u honourable." In Manu, Arya icartta is the " holy land or abode," a country extending from the eastern to the western sea, and bounded on the N. and S. by the ffimdla and Vindhya Mountains. The native name of the Hindus was Aryans, The ancient Persian name of the same district was, according to Anquetil Duperron, Aryanem Vaejo (Sansc. Aryavarsha). Bornouf calls it Airyana or Airyadagya (Sansc. Arya-dtsa, and Arya-bhumi, "the land of the Arians "); and the researches of De Sacy, St. Martin, Longperier, and others, have discovered the ward Iran on the coins of the Sassanian princes. We may therefore conclude that Airya or Airyana are old Persian words, and the names of that region to which the Hindus extended the designation of Arya, which the Sassanian coins denominate Iran, and which the Greeks of Alexanders time understood. On the Persian cuneiform inscription the original word is Ariya. (Hawlinson, As. Journ, xi. Pt- I-)

The towns, rivers, and mountains of Ariana are described under its provinces. [auachosia, DranGiana, 6rc] (Wilson,Ariana, pp.119—124; BuriKwf, Comm. sur U 1'ocna, Text. Zend. p. exxxvi. and not. p. cv.; Pott, Etym. Forsch. pp. Ixx. lxxii.; Lassen, Ind. Alterth. vol. i. pt 2; De Sacy, Antiq. de la Perse; St. Martin, Hist de VArmen.) [V.]

AKIASPAE ('Apidwat, Arrian, iii. 37; Curt, vii. 3. § 1), a tribe of the province of Drangiana, who fired apparently at its southern extremity, adjoining Gedrosia. Their name has been spelt variously, as Agriaspae (Curt vii. 3. 1), Zanaspae (Plin. vi. 23. 25), and Arimaspae (Died. xvii. 81). Arrian (iii. 27) states that this was their original title, but that, having aided Cyrus in his Scythian expedition, they were subsequently called Evergetae (benefactors). Diodorus has prubably confounded them with the Scythian tribe of the Arimaspi. (Herod, iii. 116.) Ptolemy (vi. 19. § 5,andviii. 25.§ 9) speaks of m city called Ariaspa {'Apidamj), which was the second city of Drangiana, probably situated on the Ety—nirf—■ (Elmend). Wilson and Burnouf agree in considering the Greek Ariaspa as equivalent to the Sanscrit Aryaswa, "rearers or riders of excellent hones." (Wilson, Ariana, p. 155; Burnouf, Comm. sur le Yacna, not. p. cv.) [V.]

ARIASSUS (*Apioff<ros), a city of Pisidia, which may be, as Cramer suggests {Asia Mm. vol. H.

p. 299), the same city which Strabo (p. 570), f rllowing Artentidoras, mentions as one of the cities of Pisidia. There are coins of Ariassus of the time uf Sept Severn*. [G. L.]

A'RICHI ("Apixo-, "Atftxoi), a people of Sarmatia Asiatics, near M. Corax, probably identical with the Arrechi. (Ptol. v. 9. § 18.) [P. S.]

ARI'CIA ('Apurio, Strab., Ptol., Staph. B ; \M■rcta, Dion. Hal.: Eth, 'Apunjrof, Dion. Hal.; 'A^tKivoi, Steph. B., Ariclnus: La Hiccia), an ancient and celebrated city of Latium, situated on the Appian Way, at the foot of the Mons Albanus, and at the distance of 16 miles from Rome. Its foundation was ascribed by Cassius Hemina to a Siculian chief named Archilochus. (Solin. 2. § 10.) We have no more authentic account of its origin: but it appears in the early history of Rome as one of the most powerful and important cities of the Latin League. The first mention of it is found in the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, when its chief, Tumus Herdonius, took the lead in opposing the pretensions of Tarquin to the supremacy over Latium, in a manner that clearly indicates that Aricia was powerful enough to aspire to this supremacy for itself. (Liv. i. 50, 52; Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 549, not.) For the same reason it was the principal object against which Porsena directed his arms after having humbled Rome; but the Aricians, being supported by auxiliaries from the other cities of Latium, as well as from Cumae, proved victorious. Aruns, the son of Porsena, who commanded the Etruscan army was slain in battle, and his forces utterly defeated. (Liv. ii. 14; Dion. Hal. v. 36.) The shelter and countenance shown by the Romans to the vanquished Tuscans is said to have led the Aricians to take a prominent part in the war of the Latins against Rome, which terminated in their defeat at the Lake Regillus, B.C. 498. (Dion. Hal. v. 51, 61, 62.) But they unquestionably joined in the treaty con ■ eluded with Sp. Cassius in B. C. 493 (Niebuhr, vol. ii. pp. 17, 24), and from this time their name rarely appears as acting separately from the other Latins. In ». c 495 a great battle was fought near Aricia between the Romans and Auruncans, in which the latter were totally defeated. (Liv. ii. 26; Dion. Hal. vi. 32.) In B. C. 446 we find the Aricians waging war with their neighbours of Ardca for the possession of the territory which had belonged to Coriuli; but the dispute was ultimately referred to the Romans, who appropriated the lands in question to themselves. (Liv. iii. 71, 72; Dion. Hal. xi. 52.) No subsequent mention of Aricia occurs previous to the great Latin War in B. C 340; but on that occasion they joined their arms with the confederates, and were defeated, together with the forces of Antium, Lanuvium, and Velitrae, at the river Astura. In the general settlement of Latium which followed the Aricians were fortunate enough to obtain the full rights of Roman citizens. (Liv. viii. 13, 14; Festus, on the contrary, v. Municipium, p. 127, M., represents them as obtaining only the " civitas sine suffragio.") From this time Aricia became a mere municipal town, but appears to have continued in a flourishing condition. In B. c. 87 it was taken and plundered by Marius, but was shortly after restored and rcfortified by Sulla (Liv. Epti. lxxx.; Lib. Colon, p. 230), and Cicera speaks of it as in his time a wealthy and nourishing municipium. {Phil. iii. 6; Ascon. a I Miion, p. 32.) Alia, the mother of Augustus, and her father, M. Atius Balboa, were natives of Aricia, from whencu alio the Voconisn family derived its origin. (Cic. I. c.) Its position on the Appian Way, at a short distance from Rome (Uor. Sat i. 5. 1; I tin. Ant. p. 107), doubtless contributed much to its prosperity, which seems to have continued under the Roman empire; but the same circumstance exposed it at a later period to the incursions of the barbarians, from which it seems to have suffered severely, and fell into a state of decay early in the middle ages. (Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. x. p. 249, seq.; Westphal, Rom. Kampagite, p. 27.)

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The modern town of La Riccia occupies the site of the ancient citadel (probably that also of the original city), on a steep hill rising above a basinshaped hollow or valley, the ancient Vaiais AriCina, still called Valle Riccia, which was evidently at one time the basin of a lake, anulogous to those of Albano and Nemi, and, like them, at a still earlier period the crater of a volcano. It would seem that some traces of this lake were extant in the time of Pliny; but the greater part of the valley must have been drained in very early times. (Plin. xix. 8. a. 41; Abeken, Mittel Italien, p. 166.) In the days of Strabo the town of Aricia spread itself down into this hollow (Strab. v. p. 239), probably for the purpose of approaching the Appian Way, which was carried directly across the valley. This -part of the ancient road, resting on massive substructions, is still very well preserved. The descent from the hill above into the hollow — which, not withstanding the great work just mentioned, is still sufficiently steep — was the Clivus Aricinus, re|eatedly alluded to by ancient authors as a favourite resort of beggars. (Juv. iv. 117; Martial, xii. 32. 10; Pers. vi. 56.) Some remains of the ancient walls of Aricia still exist near the gate of the modern town leading towards Albano, as well as the ruins of a temple on the slope towards the Valle Riccia*

Aricia was celebrated throughout Italy for its temple of Diana, which was situated about 3 miles from the town, in the midst of the dense forests that clothed the lower slopes of the Mons Albanus, and on the margin of a small crater-shaped lake. The sanctuary was commonly known as Nemus DiawAk (Vitrur. iv. 8. §4; Stat Silv. iv. 4; Aricinum Triviue Nemus, id. ib. iii. 1. 55; 'kprevXaov o KaAot'iri Nc'fiot, Strab. p. 239; Nepos To in 'Applet, Philostr. Vit. Apoll. iv. 36), from whence the lake came to be named Lacus Nbmorexsis (Propert. iii. 22), while Aricia itself obtained the epithet of Nkmokaijs. (ov. Fast. vi. 59; Lucan. vi. 74.) The lake was also frequently termed Speculum Dianae (Serv. ad Am. vii. 516), and is still called the Logo di Nemi, so celebrated by all travellers in Italy for its picturesque beauty. It is much smaller than the Lacus Albanus, and more regular in its crater-like form, being surrounded on all sides by steep and lofty hills covered with wood. The worship of Diana here was considered by some ancient writers to be directly derived from Tauris (Strab. v. p. 239), while others ascribed its introduction to Hippolytus, who, after having been brought to life again by Aesculapius, was supposed to liave settled in Italy under the name of Virbius. (Paus. ii. 27. § 4; Virg. Am. vii. 761—777; Serv.

* Concerning the architecture and probable date of this temple, to which a very high antiquity had been assigned by Gell and Nibby, sec Abeken, in the Ann. dell Inst. vol. xii. pp.23—34.

ad for.) It was remarkable for the peculiar and barbarous custom, retained even in the days of Strabo and Pausonias, that the high-priest (who was called Rex Kemorensis) was a fugitive slave, who had obtained the situation by killing his predecessor, on which account the priests went always armed. (Strab., Paus., U. cc.; Suet. Col. 35.) The same custom is alluded to by Chid (Art Amat. I 260) and by Statius (S/fe. iii. 1. 55). Like most celebrated sanctuaries, it acquired great wealth, and was in consequence one of those on which Augustus levied contributions during the war with L. Antonius, B. c. 41. (Appian. B. C. v. 24.) No vestiges of the temple remain; but it appears to have been situated on the east side of the lake, where there grew up around it a village or small town called Nemus, of which the modern village of Nemi is probably the successor. The lake has no visible outlet, but its waters are carried off by an artificial emissary, probably of very ancient construction. (Abeken, M.I. p. 167.) Among the sources which supplied it was a fountain sacred to Egeria, whose worship here appears to have been established at least as early as at Rome. (Strab. I. c; Virg. A en. vii. 763; Ov. Fast. iii. 261, Met xv. 488, 547; Val. Flacc. ii. 304.) So beautiful a situation could not fail to be sought by Roman nobles as a place of retirement, and we hear that J. Caesar commenced a villa here, but afterwards abandoned it in a fit of caprice. (Suet. Caes. 46.) Some foundations still visible beneath the waters of the lake have been thought to be those of this villa. (Nibby, vol. ii. p. 396.) Vitellius, too, is mentioned as dawdling away his time "in Nemore Aricino," when he should have been preparing for defence. (Tae. Hiit. iii. 36.)

The Vallis Aricina appears to have been in ancient times as remarkable for its ferti ity as at the present day: it was particularly adapted for the growth of vegetables. (Plin. xix. 6. s. 13, 8. s. 41; Columell. x. 139; Mart. xiii. 19.)

The name of Mons Artemisius has been applied by several writers (Gell, Nibby, &c.) to the summit of the Alban hills, which rises immediately above the lake of Nemi, and is now called Monte Ariano; but there is no foundation for the ancient appellation assigned to it. Strabo (pp. 239, 240) uses 'Apr<filaioy of the temple or sanctuary itself, and the word opos in the latter passage is an interpolation. (See Groskurd and Kramer, ad foe.)

For the description of the situation and existing remains both of Aricia and Nemus, see Gell ( Tvpoyr. of Rome, pp. 103—107, 324—327) and Nibby (Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. pp. 254, 255, vol. ii. pp. 395—397.) [E. H. B.]

ARICO'NIUM (Weston, in Herefordshire), the third station of the Itinerarium Antonini, on the road from Caerleon to Sili hester, between Blestuin (Monmouth), and Glevuin (Gloucester). [R.G. L.J

ARIGALUM (ApryaIo»), n city of the Pan>pamisus, in the extreme N. of India (properly beyond its boundary), in the NE. part of the territory of the Aspasii, who inhabited the valley of the Choea (Kanteli). The inhabitants abandoned and burin, it on Alexander's approach, n. c 327; but the place was so important, as commanding a passage from the valley of the Choes to that of the Guiaeus, that Alexander assigned to Craterus the task of its restoration, while he himself pursued the fugitives (Arrian. Anab. iv. 24.) Its site is supposed to have been at Ashiva or Alichurg. [P. S.J

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