صور الصفحة

conensis, on tlie high road from Emerita to CaesarRUgusta, 22 M. 1*. NK. of Coinplutum {Alctiltt). The distance identifies it witn Guadalajara, on the Henares, where the bridge across the river is built on Roman foundations. As to the variation iu the name, it is said that one MS. of the Itinerary has the form Caraca. (Ukert, i. 2. p. 429.) [P. S.]

ARSA ("Ap<ra: Eth. 'Apnatos: Azuaga), a city of the Turduli, in the district of Baeturia in Hispania Baetica, belonging to the conventus of Corduba. It lay in the Sierra Morena (M. Marian us), and is mentioned in the war with- Viriathus. (Appiaii. Hup. 70; Plin. iii. 1. s. 3; Ptol. ii. 4. § 14; Steph. B. *. v.") Its site is identified by ruins with inscriptions. (Florez, ix. p. 20.) [P. S.]

ARSA or VARSA ("Apera, Ofapaa), a district of India intra Gangem, in the N. of the Panjab. It was that part of the country between the Indus and the upper course of the Hydaspes which lay nearer to the former river, and which contained the city of Taxiia (ta Td^tAa or Ta£fa\a), the capital, in Alexander's time, of the Indian king Taxiles. (Ptol. vii. 1. §45.) [P. S.]

ARSA'CIA. [rhagae.]

ARSADA, or ARSADUS, a town of Lycia, not mentioned, so far as appears, by any ancient writer. The modem site appears to be Arsa, '* a small village overlooking the valley of the Xanthus." (Spratt's Lycia, vol. i. p. 293.) There are rock tombs, on t wo of which Lycian inscriptions were observed. "There are several Greek inscriptions; in two of them mention is made of the name of the place." One inscription is given in Spratt's Lycia (vol. ii. p. 291), from which it appears that the ancient name was not Arsa, as it is assumed in the work referred to, but Arsadus, or Arsada (like Arycanda), as the Ethnic name, which occurs twice in the inscription, shows (bpaafewv 6 S^uor, and Apn-aSfa, in the accusative singular.) The real name is not certain, because the name of a place cannot always be deduced with certainty from the Ethnic name. The inscription is on a sarcophagus, and records that the Demus honoured a certain person with a gold crown and a bronze statue for certain services to the community. The inscription shows that there was a temple of Apollo at this place. [G. L.] A RS A MOS ATA. [ Armosata . ] ARSA'NIAS ( Apaavlas: Myrdd-chdi),B>T\affluent of the Euphrates according to Pliny (v. 24, vi. 31; com p. Tac. Ann. xv. 15 ; Pint LucuU. 31). Ritter (Erdkunde, vol. x. pp. 85, 98, 101, 646, vol. xi. j p. 110) considers it to be the S. arm of the Eu- | phrates (St. Martin, Mem. sur VArmenie, pp. 50, 51, 171). [E.B. J.]

ARSANUS, an affluent of the Euphrates according to Pliny (v. 24), but mentioned in no other writer. [E. B. J.]

ARSENA'RIA (ftin. Ant. p. 14; 'Apatvapla KoXwvia, Ptol. iv. 2. § 3; Arsennaria Latinorum, Plin. v. 2. s. I; Arsinna, Mela, i. 6. § 1: Anew, liu.), an important city of Numidia, or, according to the later division, of Mauretania Caosariensis, 3 M. P. from the sea, between Qui/.a and the mouth of the Chinalaph (a few minutes W. of the meridian of Greenwich). That it was a place of considerable importance is proved by its ruins, among which are the cisterns for collecting rain-water, which extended beneath the whole town. There are also several lioman inscriptions. (Shaw, pp. 29, 30, or p. 14, 2nd cd.; Barth, Wanderungen, tfc. p. 59.) [P. S.~

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in the S. of Armenia. Strabo (xi. p. 529) says that it was also called Thonitis (Wan/irii). which Groskurd corrects to Thospiiis (SatawTrtv, comp. Ptol. v. 13. § 7; Plin. vi. 27. s. 31). The lake Arsissa, which Ptolemy (/. c.) distinguishes from Thospitis has been identified with Arsene, and the name is said to survive in the fortress Arjish, bituated on the N. of the lake (St. Martin, Mem. sur CArmenie, vol. i. p. 56). On the other hand, Ritter (Erdkitnde, vol. ix. p. 786) identifies Arsissa with the Mantiane of Strabo, and Lake Van. It must be recollected that till lately this district has been a terra mcognifa, and but little yet has been done for the illustration of ancient authors. Till further evidence therefore has been collected, it would be premature to come to any distinct conclusion on these points. Strabo (/. c.} describes Arsene as abounding in natron, so it men so as to remove stains from cloth: the water w*s undrinkable. The Tigris, he adds, flows through it with such rapidity that the waters do not commingle; hence it has been inferred that Arsene is the same as the Arethusa of Pliny (vi. 31, coinp. Ritter, Erdhmde, vol. x. p. 90; Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopaedia). Lake Van is of an irregular shape, in extreme length from NE. to SW. about 70 miles, and in extreme breadth from N. to S. about 28 miles. The level is placed at 5467 feet above the aea. The water is brackish, but cattle will drink it, particularly near the rivers. 'Kraneir, Travels, p. 384; London Geog.Joum. vol. iii. p. 50, vol. x. pp. 391, 398,410.) [K.B.J.]

ARSE'SA ("Apn-nffa; Arjish), a town and district of Armenia, on the NK. of Lake Van; the district is probably the Rame as that of Arsia ('Ap<n'a) mentioned by Ptolemy (v. 13. § 13). In the 10th century it was called "Apaes or "Ap(*s (Const. Porph. de A dm. Imp. c. 44. p. 144. ed. Meurs.), and was then in the possession of the Mussulman princes. In A. i>. 993 it was recovered by the Empire; but, A. r>. 107 r, was taken by the Seljuk Turks : soon after its capture by the Georgians, A. D. 1206, it iell into the hands of the Mongols. (St. Martin, Menu snr V Armenie, vol. i. p. 136; London Geog. Journal, vol. x. p. 402.) [K. B.J.]

A'RSIA, a small river of Istria, still called Arsa, which became the boundary between Italy and Ulyricum, when Istria had been annexed by Augustus to the former country. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 6, 19. s. 23; Tab. Peut.) Floras represents it as having been at an earlier period the limit between the Illyrians and Istrians (ii. 4). It flowed into the Flanaticus Sinus (Golfo di Quarnero), on the E, coast of Istria, just beyond the town of Ncsactium (Castel Nuow). The existence of a town of the name " Civitas Arsia," rests only on the authority of the geographer of Ravenna(iv.31), and is probably a mistake. [E.H.B.]

A'RSIA SILVA, a wood on the confines of the Roman and Veientine territories, where a battle was fought between the Roman consuls Brutus and Valerius Poplicola and the exiled Tarquins, snpportod by the Veientines and Tanj^nians, in which Arwis, the son of Tanjuin, and Brutus, were both slain. (Liv. ii. 6; VaL Max. i. 8. § 5; Pint. Popl. 9, who writes the name Qlpaov &Ao~os.) The name is never again mensionod: it was probably nothing more than a sacred grove. l)iony.siu.s calls it hpvubs Upbs fiputot 'Ofxirou (v. 14); but the last name i probably corrupt. [E. H. B.]

ARSIA.NA (Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6), a town of Susiaua. It may be, perhaps, the wime as the Tareiana (Tapudva.) of Ptol. (vi, 3. § 5). [V.]

ARSINA'RIUM PR. ('Ap<nrd>io* aKpov), a headland on the W. coast of Libya Interior, placed by Pudcmy (iv. 6. § 6) in 8° long., and 12° N. lat., between the two great rivers Daradus (Senegal) and Stacheir (Gambia); a position exactly answering to that of C. Verde, the westernmost point of the whole continent of Africa. It is true that Ptolemy gives point* on the W. coast of Africa more to the W., his westernmost point being the Pr. Cotes, at the mouth of the Straits, which he places in long. 6° [AairELusia]; for he mistook the whole shape of this coast, especially in its N. portion. But still his Pr. Ansinarinm is the westernmost point of the coast for a long distance on both sides of it. The geographers who place this cape N. of C Blanco have not given Ptolemy sufficient credit for the accuracy of his longitudes. [P. S.]

ARSINOE ('ApctvSy, Strab. p. 804; Plin. v. 11. B. 12, vi. 29.*. 33; Steph. B. p. 126; Mart. Capell. 6. § 677 : Eth. 'Apo-M/of-nfi, or 'Apo-tvocvs), the name of several cities which derived their appellation from Arsinoe, the favourite sister of Ptolemy Philaddphus, who erected or extended and beautified them, ami dedicated them to her honour or memory. Thenerection or improvement consequently dates between B.C. 284—246. Each of these cities apparently occupied the site of, or included, previously existing towns,

1. A city at the northern extremity of the Heroopolite gulf, in the Reel Sea.. It was the capital of the Heroopiite libme, and one of the principal harbours belonging to Egypt. It appears to have been also denominated Cleopatris (Strab. p. 780) and Arsinoites (Plin. v. 9. §9; Orelli, Inter. 516). It is also conjectured to have stood on the site of the ancient Pihachiroth (Exod. xii. 2, 9; Numb, xxxiii. 7; Winer, Biblioth. Realwbrterb. ii. p. 309). The modern A rdtckerud, a village near Suez, corresponds to this Arsinoe. It was seated near the eastern termination of the Royal canal which communicated with the iVlusiac branch of the Nile, and which Ptolemy Philadelphus carried on from tbo Bitter Lakes to the head of the Heroopolite bay. Arsinoe (Plin. v. 12) was 125 miles from Pelusium. The icvenues of the Arsinoite nome were presented by that monarch to his sister, and remained the property of successive queens or princesses of the Lag id family. The shortness of the road across the eastern tiesert and its position near the canal were the principal advantages of Arsinoe as a staple of trade. But although it possessed a capacious bar, it was exposed to the south wind, and the difficulties which ships encountered from reefs in waking up the gulf were considerable. Arsinoe, accordingly, was less eligibly situated fur the Indian traffic than either Myos Hormos or Berenice. In common, however, with other ports on the Red Sea Arsinoe improved in its commerce after the conquest of Egypt by the Humans. One hundred and twenty vessels annually sailed from Egyptian havens to bring from western India silk, precious stones, and aromatics (Gibbon, JJ. and F. ch. vi).

2. In the Heptanomis, was the capital of the Dome Arsinoites, and was seated on the western bank jf the Nile, between the river and the Lake Moeris, south-west of Memphis, in lat. 29° N. In the Pharaonic era Arsinoe was denominated the city of Crocodiles (KpoKoh*i\wv xoAis), from the peculiar reverence paid by its inhabitants to that animal. The region in which Arsinoe stood — the modern EU Ffvoa — was the most fertile in Egypt. Besides

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corn ami the usual cereals and vegetables of the Nile valley, it abounded in dates, figs, roses, and its vineyards and gardens rivalled those in the vicinity of Alexandria. Here too alone the olive repaid cultivation.

The Arsinoite nome was bounded to the west by the Lake Moeris (Btrlcet el keruri) watered by the Canal of Joseph (Ba/irJusuf), and contained, besides various pyramids, the necropolis of the city of Crocodiles, the celebrated labyrinth, which together with the Lake arc described under Moeris. Extensive mounds of ruins at Medinet-el-Fyoom, or el-Fares represent the site of Arsinoe, but no remains of any remarkable antiquity, except a few sculptured blocks, have hitherto been found there. In the later periods of the Roman empire Arsinoe wa^ annexed to the department of Arcadia, and became the chief town of an episcopal see. (Strab. xvii. p. 809, seq.; Herod, ii. 48; Diod. i. 89; Aelian. //. A. x. 24; Phn. v. 9. s. 11, xxxvi. 16; Mart. Capell. vi. 4; Belzoni's Travels, vol. ii. p. 162; Champollion, VEgypte, vol. i. p. 323, seq.)

3. A city in the Regio Troglodytica upon the western coast of the Red Sea between Philoteras (Kosseir) and Myos Hormos. (Strab. xvi. p. 769.) It was previously called Olbia (Steph. B, s. v. 'Ap(ttv&n). According to Agatharchides (cfe Rub. Mar. p. 53), there were hot springs in its neighbourhood. Arsinoe stood nearly at the point where the limestone range of the Arabian hills joins the Mons Porphyrias, and at the southern entrance of the Heroopolite Gulf.

4. A city in Aethiopia, north of Dire Berenices, and near the entrance of the Red Sea (Bab-elMandeb). (Strab. xvi. p. 773; Mela, iii. 8; Plin. vi. 34; Ptol. iv. 5. § 14.) [W. B. D.]

5. A town of Crete assigned to Lyctus. (Steph. B.) Berkelius (ad loc.) supposes that an error hud crept into the text, and that for Avktov we should read Auk fax.

Its existence has been confirmed by some coins with the types and emblems peculiar to the Cretan mints. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 304.)

6. A town in the E. of Cyprus, near the promontory of Acamas (Strab. xiv. p. 682; Ptol. v. 14. § 4), formerly called Marion (Mdptov; Steph. B. s.v.; comp. Scylax, s.v. Cyprus). Ptolemy Soter destroyed this town, and removed the inhabitants to Paphos (Diod. xix. 89). For coins of Marion see Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 86. The name of Arsinoe was given to it in honour of the Aegyptian princess of that name, the wife and sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Hierocles and Const Porphy r. (Them. i. 15) place it between Paphos and Soloi. The modem name is Folikrusoko or Cruoplwu, from the gold mines in the neighbourhood. According to Strabo (/. c.) there was a grove sacred to Zeus. Cyprus, from its subjection to the kings of the Lagid family, had more than one city of this name, which was common to several princesses of that house.

Another Arsinoe is placed near Ammochostus to the N. of the island (Strab. p. 683). A third city of the same name appears in Strabo (I. c), with a harbour, temple, and grove, and lies between Old anil New Paphos. The ancient name survives in the present Arschelia (D'Anville, Mem. de VAc\id. de$ Inscrip. vol. xxxii. pp. 537, 545, 551, 554 , Engel, Kypros, vol. i. pp. 73, 97, 137; Marat i, Viaygi, vol. i. p. 200). [E.B. J.]

7. One of the five cities of the Libyan Pent*polis in CyrenaYca: so called under the Ptolemiea:


its earlier name was Taucheira or Teucheira.


8. A place on the coast of Cilicia, mentioned by Strabo (p. 670) as having a port. Leake places it at or near the ruined modern castle, culled Sokhta Knit At, below which is a port, such as Strabo dcserib •» at Arsinoe, and a peninsula nn the east side of the harbour covered with ruins. {Asia Minor, p. 201.) This modern site is east of Anemuriuin, and west of, and near to, Cape Kizliman. (Beaufort's Kfiramanin). [G. L.]

9. [patara.]

10. In Aetulia. [coxope.]
ARSISSA. [arsksk.]
ARTABRI ("ApToffpoi, 'AporoeSai, Arrotrcbae),

a people in the extreme NW. of Htspania Tarraconensis, about the promontory Nerium (C Finisferre), and around a bay called by their name [artarrokum Sinus], on which there were several sea-port towns, which the sailors who frequented them called th" Ports of the Artabri CApr&Spaiv At/ifva?). Strabo states that in his time the Artabri were called Arotrebae. He places them in LuMtania, which he makes to extend as far as theN. coast of the peninsula. We may place them along that part of the coast "f Gallicia, which looks to the NW. between C. Orteaal and C. Finisterre (Strab. iii. pp. 147, 153, 154; Ptol. ii. 6. § 22). Strabo speaks of the Celtici, in connection with the Artabri, as it the latter were a tribe of the former (p. 153); which Mela expressly states (iii. I.§ 9 ; but the text is doubtful). Ptolemy also assigns the district of the Artabri to the (Jallueei Ijlicenses (KaAAatvuf AouK7)t>(riQ)i>t i,e, having LucusAugusti for their capital: §§2.4).

Pliny (iv. 20, 22. s. 34, 35) places the Arrotrebae, belonging to tlie convent us of Lucus Augusti, about the promontory Celticum, which, if not the same as the Nerium of the others, is evidently in its immediate neighbourhood; but he confuses the whole matter hy a very curious error. He mentions a promontory called Artabri mi as the headland at the X\V. extremity of Spain; the coast on the one side of it looking to the N. and the Gallic Ocean, on the other side to the W. and the Atlantic Ocean. But he considers this promontory to be the W. headland of the estuary of the Tagus, and adds that some called it Magnum Pr., and others Olisipone, from the city of Olisipo (Lisbon). He assigns, in fact, all the W. coast of Spain, down to the mouth of the Tagus, to the N. coast; and, instead of being led to detect his error by the resemblance of name between his Artabrum Pr. and his Arrotrebae (the Artabri of his predecessors, Strabo and Mela) he perversely finds fault with those who had placed about the promontory Artabrum a people of the same name, who never were there (ibi gentem Artabrum quae nunqnam fuit, manifesto errore. A rrotrebas enim, quos ante Celticum diximus promonUfrium, hoc in loco posuere, litteris permutatis: Plin. iv. 22. s. 35; conip. ii. 118. 8. 112).

Ptolemy (/. c.) mentions Claudioneriuni (KAau6<m'fj>[<n>) and Novium (Nooiiioc) as cities of the Artabri.

Strabo relates, on the authority of Posidonius, that, in the land of the Artabri, the earth on the surface contained tin mixed with silver, wluch, being carried down by the rivers, was sifted out by the women on a plan apparently similar to the "goldwashings " of California (Strab.iii.p. 147). [P.S.]

ARTABRO'Rt'M P0RTlTS (*ApTa6>£» Kififa). a sea-port town of the Artabri (Gallaeci) S. of Pr. Nerium. (Ptol. ii. 6. § 22; Agathem. i. 4). Strabo (iii. p. 153) uses the name in the plural for the sea-ports of the Artabri further N. on the Bay of Ferrol and Coruna. [artabri.]

ARTABRO'RUM SINUS, a bay on the coast of the Artabri, with a narrow entrance, but widening inwards, having on its shore the town of Arlkh Brica, and receiving four rivers, two of which were not worth mention ; the other two were the Mearus and the Ivia or Juvia (Mela iii. 1. § 9). This description answers exactly to the great bay on the coast of GalUcia, between fa. Corttna on the S. and C. Frvtrino, SW. of FA Ferrol, on the N.; which divides itself into the three bays of Coruria, Betamos, and Fl Ferrol, and receives the four rivers Mero, Mendoy Fume, and Juvia. Of these the first and last, whose estuaries form respectively the l*avs of Coruna and El Ferrol, correspond in name with Mela's rivers; but the other two, which fall into the estuary of Betanzos, are quite as important in resjx-i t of their size. The bay is completely land-locked; its coasts are bold and lofty; but the rivers which fall into it form tho>e secure harbours, which the ancient writers mention (see preceding article), and which have been celebrated in all ages.

Notwithstanding some confusion in the numbers of Ptolemy, this is evidently his Magnus Port us (5 u.iyas Ai/4^*-) on the coast of the Gallaeci licenses (ii. G. § 4). [P. S.] A'KTABRUM PROM. [artabri.] ARTACANA. [aria CiVitas and Aictaea.] ARTACE ('Afrrcwrn: F.th.'1 Apra.Kt\vu%, 'ApraKiov, 'ApTOKtvs: Artaki or Erdek), a town of Mysia, near Cyzicus (Herod, iv. 14), and a Milesian colony. (Strab pp. 582, 635.) It was a sea-port, and on the same peninsula on which Cyzicus stood, and about 40 stadia from it. Artace was burnt, together with Proconnesus, during the Ionian revolt, in the reign of Darius I. (Herod, vi. 33.) Probably it was not rebuilt, for Strabo does not mention it among the Mysian towns: but he sjieaks (p. 576) of a wooded mountain Artaie, with an island of the same name near to it, the same which Pliny (v. 32) calls Artacaeum. Timosthenes, quoted by Stephanas (*. v. 'ApraVn), also gives the name Artace to a mountain, and to a small island, one stadium from the land. In the time of Procopius, Artace had been rebuilt, and was a suburb of Cyzicus. (Bell. Pers. i. 25.) It is now a poor place. (Hamilton, Researches, vol. ii. p. 97.) [G. L.] ARTACE'NK, or Aractenk. [ariiktjtks.] ARTAOOANA. [aria Ci Vitas.] ARTAKA ('Aprouo, Steph. B.: Fth. "ApTaTof), a district of Persia, where, according to Hellaiiicas (Hellan. Fragm. No. lxiii. p. 97, Sturz), Perseus and Andromeda founded several cities (S'eph.) It is probably connected with the Parthian Artacana of Ptolemy (vi.5. § 4). Herodotus (vii. 61) states the native name of the Persians was Artaei ; Stcphanus and Hesjthius (ff.v. 'Aprds)say that it was a particular epithet given in the vernacular dialtct to the heroes of ancient Pe^ian romance (Rawlinson, Asiat. Journ. xi. pt. i. p. 35), no doubt nearly connected with the ancient name of the Modes, Arii, with the '/.cud Airya, ami the Sanscrit Arthya (Pott, Forsch'snn.&c. p. Ixix.) [V.]

ARTAGEIRA, a city of Inner Libya, placed bv Ptolemv on the N. side of the river Geir, in 44 ,° long., and 18° N. lat. (Ptol. iv. 6. § 32). [P.S.]

ARTAGE'RA ('Apra-y^ai, Stmb. xi. p. 529; Apraytisa, Zon. x. 36; Artugera,Vell. Pat. ii. 102), a town of Armenia, supposed to be the same as the Artagigarta of Ptolemy (' fnaytydpra, v. 13. § 22) and the Artogerassaof Amni.Marcellinus(xxvii. 12). Jt is called by the Armenian writers Artager (ArdaIxrtT) (St. Martin, Mem. mr FArmenie, vol. i. p. 122.) Before the wallsof this city C.Caesar, grandson of Augustus, received the wound from the effects of which he died. The site would appear to have been between Arsamosata and Tigranoccrta, if it be assumed that it is the same place as the Artagigarta of Ptolemy. [E. B. J.]

A'RTAMIS ('a^tomu, Ptol. vi. 11. §§2,3; Artamis, A mm. Marc, xxiii. 6), a river of Bactria, which flowed into the Zariaspis (or river of Balkh). Wilson (Ariana, p. 162) conjectures that it is the Daleash, which flows NE. in the direction of Balkh. The name itself is probably of Persian origin. [V.]

ARTANES ('Aprivnt), also written Artannes and Artanos, a small river of Bithynia, placed by Arrian (p. 13) 150 stadia east of Cape Melaena, with a haven and temple of Venus at the mouth of the river. [G. L.]

ARTANISSA ('aotiwo-o: Telawef), a city of Iberia, in Asia, between the Cyrus and M. Caucasus (Ptol. v. 11 § 3). It was one of Ptolemy's points of recorded astronomical observations, having the longest day 15 hre. 25 min., and being one hour E. of Alexandria (viii. 19. § 5). [P. S.]

ARTAUNUM ("A/jTawoi'), is generally believed to be the fort which Drusus erected on mount Taunus (Tacit. Ann. i. 56), and which was afterwards restored by Germanicus. (Ptol. ii. 11.) Some find its site in Salburg, near Ilomburg. [L. S.]

ARTAXATA ('Apra{aTa, 'AfWafidVara, 'ApTafuurtira: Artaxata sing, and plur., Plin. vi. 10; Juv. ii. 170; Tac. Annal. ii. 56, vi. 32, xiii. 41, xiv. 23: Eth. 'Aprrc^cLTn'Os), the ancient capital of Armenia, situated on a sort of peninsula formed by the curve of the river Araxes. (Strab. xi. p. 529.) Hannibal, who took refuge at the court of Artaxias when Antiochns was no longer able to protect him, superintended the building of this city, which was so called in honour of Artaxias. (Strab. p. 528; Plut. LucuU. 31.) Corbalo, A. V. 58, destroyed the town (IHcL of Biog. a. v.), which was rebuilt by Tiridates, who gave it the name of Neronia in honour of the Emperor Nero, who had surrendered the kingdom of Armenia to him. (Dio. Cass, lxiii. 7.) The subsequent history, as given by the native historians, will be found in St. Martin {Mem. sur TArmenie, voL L p. 118). Formerly a mass of ruins called Tokt Tiridoie (Throne of Tiridates), near the junction of the Arxu and the Ztrtgue, were supposed to represent the ancient Artaxata. Col. Monteith (London Geog. Journal, vol. iii. p. 47) fixes the site at a remarkable bend in the river, somewhat low r down than this, at the bottom of which were the ruins of a bridge of Greek or Roman architecture. [E. B. J.]

ARTEMI'SIUM ('Aprttuaioy). I. The name of the northern coast and of a promontory of Euboea, immediately opposite the Thessalian Magnesia, so called from the temple of Artemis Proseoa, belonging to the town of Histiaea. It was off this coast that the Grecian fleet fought with the fleet of Xerxes, B.C. 480. (Herod, vii. 175, viii. 8; Plut. Them. 7; Diod. xi. 12.)

2. A mountain forming the boundary between Argolis and Arcadia, with a temple of Artemis on its summit. It is 5814 feet in lieight, and is now called

the Mountain of Turniti. (Paus. ii. 25. § 3, viii. 5. § 6; Leake, Peloponneeiaca, p. 203.)

3. A fortress in Macedonia, built by the emperor Justinian, at the distanco of 40 miles from Thessalonica, and at the mouth of the river Rechius. (Procop, de Aedif. iv. 3.) The Rechius, as Tafel has shown, is the river, by which the waters of the Lake Bolbe flow into the sea, and which Thucydides (iv. 103) refers to, without mentioning its name. (Tafel, Thessalonica, pp. 14, seq., 272, seq.)

4. A promontory of Caria, with a tempie of Artemis on its summit, forming the northern extremity of the bay of Glaucus (Strab. xiv. p. 651), called by others Pedalium (Mela, i. 16 ; Plin. v. 28. s. 29.)

5. A town in Spain. [dianicm.]

6. An island off Etruria. [dianium.]

7. A mountain near Aricia. [aricia.j ARTEM1TA. 1. ('Aprf^na, Strab. xi. p. 519,

xvi. p. 744; Ptol. vi. 1. § 6 ; Steph.; Isid. Char. p. 5; Artemita, Plin. vi. 26; Tab. Peutinyer ), a city of Assyria, or perhaps more strictly of Babylonia (Strab. xi. p. 519), in the district of Apolloiuatis (Isid. Char ); according to Strabo (xvi. p. 744) 500 stadia (Tab. Peuting. 71 mill.) E. of Seleucia, and 8,000 stadia N. of the Persian Gulf. (Strab. xi. p. 519.) According to Tacitus (vi. 41) it was a Parthian town, in which Stcphanus (on the auilu>rity of Strabo, though that geographer does not say so) coincides with hiin. Pliny (vi. 26) places it wrongly in Mesopotamia. It was situated on a river called the Sillas. The modern Sherbtin is supposed to occupy its site. [V.]

2. ( Van), a town of Armenia (Ptol. v. 13. § 21), founded, according to the national traditions, by Semiramis. A canal, which in some maps has been converted into a river, under the name of Shenirum Sit, is attributed to this reputed foundress of Van. Mr. Brant (London Geog. Journal, vol. x. p. 389) speaks of a small village of the name of Artemid, at no great distance from Van. He was told that no inscriptions were to lie found, nor were there traces of any buildings of antiquity. IVAnville (Geog. Anc. vol. ii. p. 324; conip. Kinneir, Trav. p. 385) has identified it with the large and important town of Van, which St. Martin (Mem. fur CArmenie, vol. i. p. 138) considers to be the same as the Buana (Bovara) of Ptolemy (v. 13. §21). Van was considered one of the strongest places in Armenia, and is frequently mentioned by the native chroniclers in connection with their history. (St. Martin, i.e.) [E.B.J.]

ARTEMITA. [echdcades.]

ARTENA. 1. A city of the Volscians, known only from the account in Livy (iv. 61) of its siege and capture by the Romans in B. c. 404. It appears that it had a very strong citadel, which held out long after the town had fallen, and was only taken by treachery. Both town and citadel were destroyed, and the name never again occurs. Cell and Nibby have supposed the remains of ancient walls found on the summit of the hill above Monte Fortino, still called La Chita, to be those of Artena; but they are regarded by Abekeu, with more probability, as belonging to the far more important city of Ecetra. (Gell, Top. of Rome, p. 110; Nibby, Dinlorni, vol. i. pp. 263—265; Abeken, Mittel Italien, p. 75.) [ecetra.]

2. F'rom the same passage of Livy we learn that there was another small town of the name in Etruria, between Caere and Veii, and a dependency of the former city. It was destroyed by the Roman kings, and no other trace of its existence preserved. The positions ascribed to it by Gell and Nibby (11. cc.) are wholly conjectural. CE, H. B.]

ARTIGI, two cities of Hispania Baetica. 1. In the N., on the high road from Corduba to Emerita, .'!(! M. P. from Mellnria and 32 from Mctellinnm. Its site seems to be at or about Castuera. (It. Ant. p. 4 tfi.)—2. Autigi Julienses (I'lin.iii. 1 .s. 3,where the common text lias Asfiyi: 'Aprryis, Ptol. ii. 4. §11: AViama), one of the chief inland cities in the S. of Baetica, belonging to the district of Bastetania and the conventus of Corduba. It stood in the heart of M. IHpula (the Sierra Nevada), and commanded one of the chief passes from the Mediterranean coast to the valley of Granada. In the Moorish wars it was celebrated as one of the keysof Granada; and its capture by the Christians, Feb. 28, 1482, was a fatal blow to the Moors, whose feelings are recorded in the "very mournful" Arabic andSpanish ballad, uAyde mi AlhtinuC"Alas! for myAlhama /"well known by Byron's translation. (Ford, Handbook of Spain, p. 122.) [P. S.]

ARTISCTJS ('ApTio-iro'f), a tributary of the Hebms in Thrace, flowing through the land of the Odrvsae. (Herod, iv. 92.)


ARTYNIA. [dascylitis.]

ARUALTES (d 'Apoud\Tvs $pos), a mountain of Inner Libya, placed by Ptolemy a little to the N. of the Equator, in 33° long, and 3° N. lat., in a part of Central Africa now entirely unknown. In it were the peoples Nabathrac (Na€d8pai) and Xulieires (zv\ikkus Atdlones), the latter extending to M. Arangas. (PtJl iv. 6. §§ 12, 20, 23.) [P. S.]

ARU'CT CApoSm). 1. A city of the Ccltici, in Hispania Baetica, in the neighbourhood of Arundax and Acinipo, in the conventus of Hispalis; identified by inscriptions with Aroche. (Ptol. ii. 4. § 15 ; Plin. iii. 1. s. 3, where Sillig gives the true reading from one of the best MSS.; others have Aruti, Arunci, Arungi, in fact the copyists seem to have confounded the consecutive words Arunda and Aruci: Florez, Etc. S. ix. p. 120; Grater, p. 46; Ukert, ii. 1. p. 382 )— 2. (Moura), a city of Lusitania, 30 M. P. E. of Pax Julia. (ft. Ant. p. 427). [P. S.]

ARUNDA (ApoDVSo: Honda), a city of the Celtici, in Hispania Baetica, in the conventus of Hispalis (Ptol. ii. 4. § 15; Plin. iii. 1. s. 3, ed. Sillig, comp. Aruci, Inscr. ap. Muratori, p. 1029, No. 5.). Some writers place Arunda at Ronda la vieja, which is usually taken, on the authority of inscriptions there, for Acinipo; on the ground that the inscriptions at Ronda bearing the name of Arunda, have been brought from the ruins at Honda la vieja (Ford, p. 98) ; but both Pliny and Ptolemy make Acinipo and Arunda different places. [P.S.]

ARU'PIUM (It. Ant.: Arypium, Tab. Peut.; 'Apovitivoi, 'Apwirtni'oy, Strab. : Eth. hvpovirivm, App.; Anerspergf or nr. Mungava), a town of the Iapydes in lllyricum, which was taken by Augustus, after it had been deserted by its inhabitants. (Appian, III. 16; Strabo, iv. p. 207, vii. p. 314.)

ARUSl'M CAMPI. [benevkxtitm.]

ARVA (Alcolea, Ru.), a municipium of Hispania Baetica, on the right bank of the Baetis (Guadalquivir), two leagues above Corduba (Cordova). The river is here crossed by a fine bridge of dark marble. There are considerable ruins, with numerous inscriptions, one of which runs thus: Ordo MDjnarn. Flavii. Arvf.nsis. (Grater, P. 476,

No. 1.) There are coins of A'va extant, inscribed ARVA. and M. Arvkn. (Eckhel, vol. i. pp. 14, 15.) Pliny mentions Arua among the Celtic towns in the conventus of Hispalis (iii. 1. s. 3). [P-S.J ARVAI). [audi's.]

ARVARXI ('Apnvawoi), a people of India intra Gangern, W. of the river Macsolns along the river Tyna, and as far N. as the Orudi M.; having, among other cities, the emporium and royal residence Malanga(MdAa7yci), which some suppose to be Madras. (Ptol. vii. 1. §§ 14, 92.) [P. S.]

ARVERNI ('hpovtpvoi, Strab. p. 190), a nation of Celtica, and in Caesar's time one of the most powerful of the Gallic nations, and the rival of the Aedui for the supremacy (B. G. i. 31). In the great rising of the Galli under Vercingetorix, n. c 52, the Eleutheri Cadurci, Gabali, and Vellauni are mentioned (B. G. vii. 75) as being accustomed to yield obedience to the Arvemi. It is doubtful if Eleutheri is a qualification of the name Cadurci: it is probable that under this corrupt form the name of some other people is concealed. The reading Vellauni is also doubtful: the people are called Vellavi in Strabo's text (p. 190; W'alckenaer, Geog. des Gaules, fr., vol. i. p. 339).

On the SE. Caesar makes the Mons Cebcnna (Cevennes) the boundary of the Arverni, and their neighbours on this side were the Hclvii in the Provincia, afterwards called Gallia Narbonensis (B. G. vii. 8). But the proper territory of the Arverni did not extend so far, for the Vellavi and the Gabali lay between them and the Helvii. Strabo makes their territory extend to the Loire. They seem to have possessed the valley of the Elaver (Allier), perhaps nearly to its junction with the Loire, and a large part of the highlands of central France. The name is still perpetuated in that of the mountain region of Auvergne. Their neighbours on the E. were the Aedni, on the W. the Lemovices, and on the NW. the Bituriges. The Cadurci were on the SW. Their actual limits are said to coincide with the old dioceses of Clermont and S. Flour, a determination which is only useful to those who can consult the maps of the old diocesan divisions of France. The Arverni arc represented by Strabo as having extended their power as far as Narbonne and the frontiers of Marseille; and even to the Pyrenees, the Rhine, and the Ocean. (Strab. p. 191.) If this statement is true, it does not represent the extent of their territory, but of their power or influence when they were the dominant people in Gallia. In Caesar's time, as we have seen, the states in subjection to them were only those in their immediate neighbourhood. Their pretended consanguinity with the Romans (Luean, i. 427)—if it means any thing at all, and is not a blunder of Lucan—may merely indicate their arrogance before they felt the edge of the Roman sword. Livy (v. 34) mentions Arverni among those who accompanied Bellovesus in the Gallic migration into Italy.

The position of the Arverni is determined with some precision by that of their capital Augostonometum, which Strabo calls Ncmossus, which is now Clermont, the chief town of the Auvergne. Caesar does not mention this place. In his time the capital of the Arverni was Gergovia (B. G. vii. 36), which he unsuccessfully besieged.

When Hasdruhal pas.-*d into Gallia on his road to Italy, to join Hannibal, t he Arverni received him in a friendly way. (Liv. xxvii. 39.) W hether any of them joined him does not appear. A king of the

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