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serve as an Odeum, or theatre for music Numerous other architectural fragments, attesting the existence of temples and other buildings, have also been brought to light, as well as statues, pedestals, inscriptions, and other minor relics. On an adjoining hill are great numbers of tombs excavated in the rock, while on the hill of Acremonte itself are some monuments of a singular character; figures as large as life, hewn in relief in shallow niches on the surface of the native rock. As the principal figure in all these sculptures appears to be that of the goddess Isis, they must belong to a late period. (Fazell. de Rtb. Sic. vol. i. p. 452; Serra di Falco, Antichita di Sicilia, vol. iv. p. 158,seq.; Judica, Antichita di Acre.) [E.H.B.]

ACRAE ("Afrpai), a town in Aetolia of uncertain site, on the road from Metapa to Conope. Stephanus erroneously calls it an Acaraanian town. (Pol. v. 13; Steph. B. *. v. "Anpa.)

ACRAEA ('Ajcp-ua), a mountain in Argolis, opposite the Ueraeum, or great temple of Hera. (Paus. ii. 17. § 2; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 393, Pelojxm~ nesiaca. p. 963.)

ACRAE'PHIA, ACKAEPHIAE, ACRAEPHIUM, ACRAE PUN IUM {'AKpaifia, Steph. B. s. v.; Herod, viii. 135, Acraeplua, Liv. xxxiii. 29; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; 'AKpat<p(at, Strab. p. 410; 'Atcpcd<pi-jv% Strab. p. 413.; ,AKpa.i^viovt Paus. ix. 23. § 5: rd 'AKpaupvta, Theopomp. ap. Steph. B. a. v. ; Eih. As-paupiaios, *AKpal<pios, *A*pai'(pfioj, 'AKpaupvtu)rnst AKpaKpvttvi, Steph. II. *. v.; *Atcpcu<ptcvsf Bockh, Inter. 1587: nr. Kardhitza), a town of Boeotia on the slupe of Mt. Ptomn (Tlrwov) and on the eastern bank of the lake Copais, which was here called 'Axpattpls from the town. Acraeplua

is said to have been founded by Athamas or Acraepheus, son of Apollo; and according to some writers it was the same as the Homeric Arne. Here the Thebans took refuge, when their city was destroyed by Alexander. It contained a temple of Diony.>us. (Steph. B. s. v.; Strab. p. 413; Paus. I.e.) At the distance of 15 stadia from the town, on the right of the road, and upon Mt. Ptoum, was a celebrated sanctuary and oracle of Apollo Ptous. This oracle was consulted by Mardonius before the battle of Plataea, and is said to have answered his emissary, who was a Carian, in the language of the latter. The name of the mountain was derived by some from Ptous, a son of Apollo and Euxippe, and by others from Leto having been frightened (wto&d) by a boar, when she wus about to bring forth in this place. Both Acraephia and the onicle belonged to Thebes. There was no temple of the Ptoan Apollo, properly so called; Plutarch (GryUus, 7) mentions a h6\os} but other writers speak only of a Te/iteos, Up6vt xP7l<r7"hp,0V or pMintiov. (Steph. B. *. v.; Strab. /. e.f Paus. /. c, iv. 32. § 5; Herod, viii. 135; Plut. Pdop. 16.) According to Pausanias the oracle ceased after the capture of Thebes by Alexander; but the sanctuary still continued to retain its celebrity, as we see from the great Acraephian inscription, which Bockh places in the time of M. Aurelius and his son Commodus after A.D. 177. It appears from this inscription that ii festival was celebrated in honour of the Ptoau Apollo every four years. (Bockh, Imcr. No. 1625.) The ruins of Acraephia are situated at a short distance to the S. of Kardhitza. The remains of the acropolis are visible on an isolated hill, a spur of Mt. Ptoum, above the Copuic sea, and at its foot on the N. and W. are traces of the ancient town. Here stands the church of St. George built out of the stones of the old town, and containing

many fragments of antiquity. In this church Leake discovered the great inscription alluded to above, which is in honour of one of the citizens of the place called Epaminondas. The ruins near the f<iun ain, which is now called Perdikobrysis, probably belong to the sanctuary of the Ptoan Apollo. The poet Alcaeus (ap. Strab. p. 413) gave the epithet rpucdpavov to Mt. Ptoum, and the three summits now bear the names of Paled, Strutzina, and Skroponeri respectively. The.>e form the central part of Mt. Ptoum, which in a wider signification extended from the Tenerian plain as far as Larymna and the Euboean sea, separating the Copaic lake on the E. from the lakes of Hylae and Hanna. (Leake, Northern Greece, voL ii. p. 295, seq.; Ulrichs, Reisen in Griechenland, vol. i. p. 239, seq.; Forchhammer, Htllenika, p. 182.)

ACRAGAS. [agrioentum.]

A'CRIAE or ACRAEAE ('AKptal, Paus. in. 21, § 7, 22. §§ 4, 5; Pol. 5. 19. § 8; 'Axpalat, Strab. pp. 343, 363; "Aicpcta, Ptol. iii. 16. § 9: Eth. 'axpioT7js), a town of Laconia, on the eastern side of the Laconian bay, 30 stadia S. of Helos. Strabo (I c.) describes the Eurotas as flowing into the sea between Acriae and Gythium. Acriae possessed a sanctuary and a statue of the mother of the gods, which was said by the inhabitants of the town to be the most ancient in the Peloponnesus. Leake was unable to discover any remains of Acriae; the French expedition place its ruins at the harbour of Kokinio. (Leake, M&rea, vol. i. p. 229; Boblaye, Recherche*, p. 95.)

ACRIDO'PHAGI ('AKpiSotfxiyoi), or "Locusteaters," the name given by Diodorus (iii. 29) and Strabo (p. 770) to one of the half-savage tribes of Actliiopia bordering on the Red Sea, who received their denomination from their mode of life or their staple food. fW. R.]

ACRILLA or ACRILLAE {AitptMa), a town of Sicily, known only from Stephanus of Byzantium (s. p.), who tells us that it was not far from Syracuse. But there can be no doubt that it is the same place mentioned by Livy (xxiv. 35) where the Syracusan army under Hippocrates was defeated by Marcellus. The old editions of Livy have Accilj^ve, for which Acrillae, the emendation of Cluverius, has been received by all the recent editors. From this passage we learn that it was on the line of march trom Agrigcntum to Syracuse, and not far from Acrac; but the exact site is undetermined. Plutarch (Marcell. 18), in relating the same event, writes the name 'AxfAas or 'AxiAAaj. [E. H. B.J

ACRITAS ('Affray: C. GaUo), the mast southerly promontory in Messenia. (Strab. p. 359; Paus. iv. 34. § 12 ; Ptol. iii. 16. § 7; Plin. iv. 5. s. 7; Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 443.) ACROCERAU'NIA. [cerai:xii Montes.] ACROCORINTHUS. [cokinthus.] ACRO'NIUS LACUS. [bkigantinus Lacps.] ACROKEIA ('AKpcipfia), the mountainous district of Elis on the borders of Arcadia, in which the rivers Peneius and Ladon kike their rise. The inhabitants of the district were called Acrocreii ('A/cpwpelbi), and their towns appear to have been Thraustus, Ahum, Opus, and Eupagium. The name is used in opposition to Kol\-n or Hollow Elis. Stephanus (s. t\), who is followed by many modern writers, makes Acrocreii a town, and places it in Triphylia; but this error appears to have arisen from confounding the Acrocreii with the Pnroreataa in Triphvlia. (Diod. xiv. 17; Xen. Jleli. iii. :i. § 80. vii. 4. § 14; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 203; ]■■■... Recherche*, p. 123.)

ACROTHOTM, or ACROTHO'I ('Aicpteaov Her. vii. 22; 'Afcpli&ww, Thuc. iv. 109; Strab. p. 331; Scyl. p. 26; Steph. B. t. v.; Acroathon, Mel. ii. 2; Acrothon, PHn. iv 10. s. 17: Eth. 'AKp6dwos, 'AJc*»»0flMT7fs), a town in the peninsula of Acte, in Chalcidice in Macedonia, situated near the extremity of the peninsula, probably upon the site of the modern Isivra. Strabo, Pliny, and Mela seem to have supposed that Acrothoum stood upon the site of Mt. Athos; but this is an impossibility. [atiios.] It v. ■■ - stated by Mela and other ancient writers that the inhabitants of Acrothoi lived longer than ordinary men. Marmert and others erroneously suppose Acrothoi to have been the same place as the later Unumpolis. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 149.)

ACTE' (\ajtt^), signified a piece of land running into the sea, and attached to another larger piece of larvl, but not necessarily by a narrow neck. Thus Herodotus gives the name of Acte to Asia Minor as compared with the rest of Asia (iv. 38), and also to Africa itself as jutting out from Asia (iv. 41). Attica also was originally called Acte. (Steph. B. *■ r-) [attica.] The name of Acte, however, was more specifically applied to the easternmost of th* three promontories jutting out from Chalcidice hi Macedonia, on which Mt. Athos stands. It is spoken of under Atiios.

A'CTIUM ('Arfw: Eth. "aktios, Actius: Adj. A v-. j-r.■><, Actiacus, also "aktios, Actius), a promontory in Ac-arnania at the entrance of the Ambraciot Gulf {Gulf of Aria) off which Augustus trained his celebrated victory over Antony and Cleopatra, on September 2nd, B. c. 31. There was a temple of Apollo on this promontory, which Thucydides mentions (i. 29) as situated in the territory of Anactorium. This temple was of great antkjuity, and Apollo derived from it the surname •f Aetims and Actiacus. There was also an ancient festival named Actia, celebrated here in honour of th« god. Augustus after his victory enlarged the temple, and revived the ancient festival, which was henceforth celebrated once in four years (w«j/TctfTijfMf, ludi tpdnquennaies), with musical and tryinnastic contests, and horse races. (Dion Cass. Ii. 1; Suet. Aug. 18.) We learn from a Greek inscription found on the site of Actiura, and which is probably prior to the time of Augustus, that the chief priest of the temple was called 'UpanoAos, and that his name was employed in official documents, like that of the first Archon at Athens, to mark the date. (Botkh, Corpus Inscript. No. 1793.) Stmbo says (p. 325) that the temple was situated on an eminence, and that below was a plain with a grove of trees, and a dock-yard; and in another passage (p. 451) he describes the harbour as situated outside of the gulf. On the opposite coast of Epirus, Augustus founded the city of Nicopolis in honour of his victory. [nicopoljs.] Actium was properly not a town, though it is sometimes described as such; but after the foundation of Nicopolis, a few buildings sprang up around the temple, and it •erred as a kind of suburb to Nicopolis.

The site of Actium has been a subject of dispute. The accompanying plan of the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf, taken from the map published by Lieut Wolfe (Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. iii.) will give the reader a clear idea of the locality.

[graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]

The entrance of the Ambraciot gulf lies between the low point off Acamania, on which stands Fort La Punta (5), and the promontory of Epirus, on which stands the modem town of Prtresa (1), near the site of the ancient Nicopolis. The narrowest part of this entrance is only 700 yards, but the average distance between the two shores is half a mile. After passing through this strait, the coast turns abruptly round a small point to the SE.t forming a bay about 4 miles in width, called the Bay of Prevesa (P). A second entrance is then formed to the larger ba'-in of the gulf by the two high capes of La Scara (2) in Kpeirus, and of Madonna (4) in Acamania, the width of tins second entrance being about one mile and a half. Now some modem writers, among others D'Anvils*, suppose Actium to have been situated on Caj>e Madonna, and Anactorium, which Strabo (p. 451) describes as 40 stadia from Actium, on La Punta. Two reasons have led them to adopt this conclusion: first, because the ruins on C. Madonna are sometimes called Azio (6), which name is apj»arently a comiption of the ancient Actium; and, secondly, because the temple of Apollo is said by Strabo to have stood on a height, which description answers to the rocky eminence on C. Madonna, and not to the low peninsula of La Punta. But the.se reasons are not conclusive, and there can be uo doubt that the site of Actium corresponds to La Punta. For it should be observed, first, that the name Azio is unknown to the Greeks, and appears to have been introduced by the Venetians, who conjectured that the ruins on C. Madonna were those of Actium, and therefore invented the word; and, secondly, that though Strabo places the temple of Apollo on a height, he does not say that this height was on the sea, but on the contrary, that it was at some little distance from the sea. In other respects Strata's evidence is decisive in favour of the identification of Actium with La Punta. He says that Actium is one point which forms the cotrance of the bay; and it is clear that he considered the entrance of the bay to be between Prvvexa and La Punta, because he makes the breadth of the strait "a little more than four stadia," or half a mile, which is true when applied to the first narrow entrance, but not to the second. That the strait between Prevesa and /ja Punta was regarded as the entrance of ths Ambraciot gulf, is clear not only from the distance assigned to it by Stiabo. but from the statements of Polybius (iv. 63), who makes it 5 stadia, of Scylax (c. KatrcwTrof), who makes it 4 stadia, and of Pliny (iv. 1) who makes it 500 paces. Anactorium is described by Strabo as "situated within the bay," while Actium makes "the mouth of the bay." (Strab. pp. 325, 451.) Anactorium, therefore, must be placed on the promontory of C. Madonna. [For its exact site, see Anactorium.] The testimony of Strabo is confirmed by that of Dion Cassius. The latter writer says (1. 12) that "Actium is a temple of Apollo, and is situated before the mouth of the strait of the Ambraciot gulf, over against the harbours of Nicopolis." Cicero tells us (ad Fain. xvi. 6, 9) that in coasting from Patrae to Corcyra he touched at Actium, which he could hardly have done, if it were so far out of his way as the inner strait between C. La Scara and C. Madonna. Thus we come to the conclusion that the promontory of Actium was the modern La Punta (3), and that the temple of Apollo was situated a little to the S., outside the strait, probably near the Fort La Punta (5).

A few remarks are necessary respecting the site of the battle, which has conferred its chief celebrity upon Actium. The fleet of Antony was stationed in the Bay of Prevesa (P). His troops had built towers on each side of the mouth of the strait, and they occupied the channel itself with their ships. Their camp was near the temple of Apollo, on a level spacious ground. Augustus was encamped on the opposite coast of Epirus, on the spot where Nicopolis afterwards stood; his fleet appears to have been stationed in the Bay of Gomaros, now the harbour of Mitika, to the N. of Nicopolis, in the Ionian sea. Antony was absent from his army at Patrae; but as soon as he heard of the arrival of Augustus, he proceeded to Actium, and after a short time crossed over the strait to Prevesa, and pitched his camp near that of Augustus. But having experienced some misfortunes, he subsequently rc-crosf-ed the strait and joined the main body of his army at Actium. By the advice of Cleopatra he now determined to return to Egypt, He accordingly sailed out of the strait, but was compelled by the manoeuvres of Augustus to fight. Afu.r the battle had lasted some hours Cleopatra, who was followed by Antony, sailed through the middle of the contending fleets, and took to flight They succeeded in making their escape, but most of their ships were destroyed. The battle was, therefore, fought outside of the strait, between La Punta and Prevesa ruv artvoiv, Dion Cass.

1. 31), add not in the Bay of Prevesa, as is stated by some writers. (Dion Cass. 1. 12, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 28, sq.; Wolfe, I. c.)

A'DADA ("ASaoa: Eth. "AfiaSevj, PtaL; 'ASaBorij in old edit, of Strabo; 'OSaoa, Hierocl.), a town in Pisidia of uncertain site. On coins of Valerian and Gallienus we find AAAAEflN. Adada is mentioned in the Councils as the see of a bishop. (Artemiod. ap. Strab. xii. p. 570; Ptol. v. 5. §8; Hierocl. p. G74, with Wcsseling's note.)

A'DANA (ret "Aoava: Eth. *ASavtvs), a town of Cilicia, which keeps its ancient name, on the west side of the Sarus, now the Syhoon or Span. It lay on the military road from Tarsus to Issus, in a fertile country. There are the remains of a portico. Pompey settled here some of the Cihcian pirates whom he had compelled to submit (Appian, Mith. 96.) Dim Cassius (xlvii. 31) speaks of Tarsus and Adam being always quarrelling. [G. L.]

ADANE ('ASa^, Philostorg. //. E. in. 4). called ATHAXA by Pliny (vi. 28. s. 32), and AliABIA FELIX (jApaSia cvSatuu-v), in the Periplus of Arrian (p. 14), now Aden, the chief seaport in the country of Homeritae on the S- coast of Arabia. It became at a very early period the great mart for the trade between Egypt, Arabia, and India; and although destroyed by the Romans, probably by Aelius Gallus in his expedition against Arabia, in the reign of Augustus, it speedily revived, and has ever since remained a place of note. It has revived conspicuously within the last few years, having fallen into the possession of the English, and become one of the stations for the steamers which navigate the Red Sea. [W. R.]

A'DDUA (i'ASouaj: Adda), a river of Gallia Cisalpina, one of the largest of the tributaries which bring down the waters of the Alps to the Po. It rises in the lihactian Alps near Bormw, and flows through the Valttlline, into the Lacus Larius or Logo di Como, from which it again issues at its south- eastern extremity near Lecco, and from thence has a course of above 50 miles to the Po, which it joins between Placentia and Cremona. During this latter part of its course it seems to have formed the limit between the Insubres and the Cenomani. It is a broad and rapid stream: the clearness of its blue waters, resulting from their passage through a deep lake, is alluded to by Claudian (De VL Cons. mm. 196) Strabo erroneously places its sources Ln Mr. Adui^a, where, according to him, the Rhine also rises: it is probable that he was imperfectly acquainted with this part of the Alps, and supposed the stream which descends from the Spliiyen to the head of the lake of Como to be the original Addua, instead of the much larger river which enters it from the pct. tettine. (Strab. iv. pp. 192,204; v. p. 213; Plin. hi. 16. s. 20; Pol. ii. 32, xxxiv. 10; Tac. Hist. ii. 40.) [E. H. B.]

ADIABE'NE ('ASia^). [assyria.]

ADiS or ADES ('ASfr/AS^s: prob. Rhodes),* considerable city of Africa, on the G ulf of Tunis, in the Carthaginian territory, which Regulus besieged and took, and before which he defeated the Carthaginians, in the 10th year of the first Punic War, B.C. 255. (Pol.i. 30.) As there is no subsequent mention of the place, it is supposed to have been supplanted, or at least reduced to insignificance, by the later town of Maxula. [P. S-]

ADO'XIS CA8«ftj: Nakr el Ibrahim), a small river of Syria, which rising in Mount Libanus enters the Mediterranean a few miles to the S. of Byblns. Maundrell records the fact which he himself witnessed, that after a sudden fall of rain, the river descending in floods is tinged of a deep red by the soil of the hills in which it takes its rise, and imparts this colour to the sea for a considerable distance. Hence some have sought to explain the legend of the beautiful Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar on Mount Libanus (Strab. p. 755; Lucian, De Dea Syr. 6; Plin. v. 20.; Nonn. Dionys. iii, 80, xx. 144.) [W.R.]

ADOREUS, the name of a mountain of Galatia now Elmah Dagh, in the neighbourhood of Pessinus, in Asia. Livy (xxxviii. 18.) says that it contains the source of the river Sangarius. [G. L.]

ADORSL [aoiisi.]

ADRAA (*Ao>rfa, Euscb. Onomast.: *A5pa PtoL v. 15. § 23: LXX. 'Eopaffc, 'ES^aiw : Eng. Vers. EuitEi: and probably the "Aopatreros of Hierorles, p. 273 : Dram), a town in Palestine, near the sources* •f the river Hieromax, and deeply embayed in the spurs of the mountain chain of Hermon. Before the conouest of Canaan by Joshua, it was one of the chief cities of Og, king of Bashan. After his defeat and death it was assigned to the half tribe of Manasseh. which settled on the easteni side of Jordan. It was the seat of a Christian bishop at an early time, and a bishop of Adraa sat in the council of Seleucia (A.D.3S1). and <rf Chalcedon (a. D. 451). By the Greeks it was called Adraa, and by the Crusaders Adratum. Its ruins cover a circuit of about 2 miles, of which the most important is a large rectangular building, surrounded by a double covered colonnade, and with a cistern in the middle. (Numbers, xxi. 33; Deuteron. I 4, ill 10; Joshua xii. 4, xiii. 12, 31; Joseph. Antiq. iv. 5. §42; Buckingham, Travels, voLii. p.146 ; Burckhardt, id. p.241.) [W B.D.] as well as ASplas for the sea. 1. A city of Cisalpine Gaul, situated between the Padua and the Athesis, not far from their mouths, and still called Adria. It is now distant more than 14 miles from the sea, hut was originally a sea-port of great celebrity. Its foundation is ascribed to Diomed by Stephanus Byzantinus, and some other late writers: Justiu also (xx. I), probably following Theo|>ompus, calls it a city of Greek origin; but these testimonies are far outweighed by tlio>c of the Roman writers, who agree in describing it as an Etniscan colony. It was probably established at the same period with their other settlements on the north side of the Apennines, and became, from its position, the principal emporium for their trade with the Adriatic; by which means it attained to so flourishing a condition, as to have given name to the gulf, or portion Dt" the sea in its immediate neighbourhood, from whence th* apjjellatioii was gradually extended to the whole of the inland sea still called the Adriatic. To this period may also be ascribed the great canals and works which facilitated its communications with the adjoining rivers, and through them with the interior of Cisalpine Gaul, at the same time that they drained the marshes which would otherwise have rendered it uninhabitable. (Liv. v. 33; Plin. iii. 16. s.20; Strab. v. p. 214; Varro de L. L. v. 161 j Festus, p. 13, ed. Muller; Plut. Camill. 16.) Notwithstanding its early celebrity, we have scarcely any information concerning its history; but the decline of its power and prosperity may reasonably bo ascribed to the conquest of the neighbouring countries by the Gauls, and to the consequent neglect of the canals and streams in its neighbourhood. The increasing commerce of the Greeks with the Adriatic probably contributed to the same result. It has been supposed by some writers that it received, at different periods, Greek colonies, one from Epidamnus and the other from Syracuse; but both statements appear to rest upon misconceptions of the passages of Diodorus, from which they are derived. (Died, ix. Exc. Vat. p. 17, xv. 13; in both of which passages the words rbv 'A&plav certainly refer to the Adriatic sea or gulf, not to the city, the name of which is always feminine.') The abundance of vases of Greek manufacture found here, of precisely similar character with those of Nola and Vulci, sufficiently attests a great amount of Greek intercourse and influence, but cannot be admitted as any proof of a Greek colony, any more than in the j*anillel case of Vulci. (R.Rochctte in the Annali dell Inst. Arch. vol. vi. p. 292; Welcker, Vasi dt Adria in the Bullettino dell Inst. 1834, p. 134.) Under the Romans Adria appears never to have been a place of much consequence. Strabo (/.c.) sjieuks of it as a email town, communicating by a short navigation with the sea; and we learn from Tacitus {Hist. iii. 12) that it was still accessible for the light Liburnian ships of war as late as the time of Vitellius. After the fall of the Western Empire it was included in the exarchate of Ravenna, but fell rapidly into iecay during the middle ages, though it never ceased to exist, and always continued an episcopal sec. Since the opening of new canals it has considerably revived, and has now a population of 10,000 souls. Considerable remains of the ancient city have been discovered a little to the south of the modern town towards Rawgnano; they are all of Roman date, and comprise the ruins of a theatre, baths, mosaic pavements, and part of the ancient walls, all which have L*«n buried to a considerable depth under the accu

ADKAISTAK OAfifwt/rraf), a people of N. India (the Panjab). with a capital city Pimprama (Ilt'juTpapa). which Alexander reached in a day's journey from the Ilydraotes (Ravee), on his march to Sangala. (Arrian. Anab. v. 22. § 3.) Lassen identifies them with the modern A ratios (Pentapotamia, p. 25). [P.S.]

ADRAMI'TAE or ATRAMITAE (Plin. vi. 28. s. 32; 'AtpauiTaii Ptol,; Annan, Ptrip. p. 15). an Arabian tribe in the district Chatramotitis of Arabia Krlix. They were situated on the coast of the Red Sea eastward of Aden, and their name is still preserved ii the modern ffadramnut. Like their immediate •teighbours in Arabia Felix, the Adrumitac were actively engaged in the drug and spice trade, of which their capital Sabbatha was the emporium. They were governed by a race of kings, who bore the family or official title of Eleazar. [chatra

MOTTTAR.] [W. B. D.]

ADRAMYE'NTTUS SINUS. [adramyttium; Aeous.]

ADRAMYTTIUM or ADRAMYTETJM ('Atyafiirrrior, 'ASpafivrTttov, 'Atpafivrriov, 'Arpafivr«(»: Kth. 'A&pafiirrrr)v6s, Adramyttenus: AdramUi or Edrtmit), a town situated at the head of the bay, called from it Adramyttenus, and on the river Caicus, in Mysia, and on the road from the Hellespontiu to Pergamum. According to tradition it was founded by Adramys, a brother of Croesus, king of Lydia; but a colony of Athenians is said to have subKquently seUjed there. (Strab. p. 606,) The place certainly became a Greek town. Thucydides (v. 1; via. ids) also mentions a settlement here from Delos, made by the Delians whom the Athenians removed from the island B. C. 422. After the establishment of the dynasty of the kings of Pergamum, it was a seaport of some note; and that it had some shipping, appears from a passage in the Acts of the Apostles (xxvii. 2). Under the Romans it was a Conventus Juridicus in the province of A-da, or place to which the inhabitants of the district resorted as the court town. There are no traces cf ancient remains. [G. L.]

ADRANA (Eder), a river of Germany in the territory of the Chatti, near Cosset (Tac. Ann. i. 56.)

ADRANS, ADRANA, ADRA'NTE^d'Atyoi'a, Zos. ii. 45; Hadrass, Itiner. Hieros. p. 560: St. Osteoid on the Drauberg), a town in Noricum, situated between the towns Aemona and Celeia, in the valley separating Mt, Cetius from Mt. Carvancas. A vestige of its Roman origin or occupation still survives in its local appellation of Trajaner-dorf or Trajan V-thorpe. (Itin. Anton.) [W. B, D.]

ADKA'XUM, or HADKA'NUM (ASpcu-oK, Diod.

Steph. B. Hadranum, Sil. Ital.: Kth,rAJtparlrnst Hadranitanus: Adernb),& city of the interior of Sicily, situated at the foot of the western slope of Mt. Aetna above the valley of the Simeto, and about 7 miles from Centuripi. We leam from Diodorus (xiv. 37) that there existed here from very ancient times a temple of a local deity named Adranns, whose worship was extensively spread through Sicily,and appears to have been connected with that of the Palici. (Hesych. s. v naAiKoi.) But there was no city of the name until the year 400 n. c. when it was founded by the elder Dionysius, with a view to extend his power and influence in the interior of the island. (Diod. c.) It probably continued to be a dependency of Syracuse; but in 345 B. C. it fell into the hands of Timoleon. (Id. xvi. 68; Pint. Timol. 12.) It was one of the cities taken by the Romans at the commencement of the First Punic War (Diod. xxiii. Exc. Hoesch. p. 501), and probably on this account continued afterwards in a relation to Rome inferior to that of most other Sicilian cities. This may perhaps account for the circumstance that its name is not once mentioned by Cicero (see Zumpt ad Cic. Verr. iii. 6, p. 437); but we learn from Pliny that it was in his time included in the class of the " stipendiariae civitates " of Sicily. (//. N. iii. 8.)

Both Diodorus and Plutarch speak of it as a small town owing its importance chiefly to the sanctity of its temple; but existing remains prove that it must have been at one time a place of some consideration. These consist of portions of the ancient walls and towers, built in a massive style of large squared blocks of lava; of massive substructions, supposed to hava been those of the temple of Adranus; and the ruins of a large building which appears to have belonged to Roman Thermae. Numerous sepulchres also have been discovered and excavated in the immediate neighbourhood. The modern town of Adernb retains the ancient site as well as name: it is a considerable place, with above 6000 inhabitants. (BisCAri, Viaggio in SiciUa, pp. 57—60; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. della Sicilia, p. 13; Bull. dell. Inst. Arch. 1843, p. 129.)

Stephanus Byzantinus speaks of the cityas situated on a river of the same name: this was evidently no other than the northern branch of the Simeto (Symaethus) which is still often called the Fiurtie <f Adernb. [E. H. B.]

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| mutations of alluvial soil. Of the numerous minoi antiquities discovered there, the most interesting are the vases already alluded to. (See Muller, Etruske-r, i. p. 229, and the authors there cited.) The coins ascribed to this city certaiidy belong to Adria in Picenum.

A river of the same name (<$ 'A6*p/as) is mentioned by Hecatacus (ap. Steph. Byz. s. v.), and by Theopompus (ap. Strab. vii. p. 317); it is called by Ptolemy 'Arptavbs irorajud'j, and must pro| bably be the same called by the Romans Tartarus '(Plin. iii. 16. s. 20), and still known in the upper part of its course as the Tartaro. It rises in the hills to the SE. of the Lago di Garda, and flows by the modern Adria, but is known by the name of Canal Bianco in the lower part of its course; it communicates, by canals, with the Po and the Adige.

2. A city of Picenum, still called Atri, situated about 5 miles from the Adriatic Sea, between the rivers Vomanus and Matrinus. According to the Itinerary it was distant 15 Roman miles from Castrum Novum, and 14 from Teste, (ltin. Ant, pp. 308, 310, 313; comp. Tab. Peut.) It has been supposed, with much probability, to be of Etruscan origin, and a colony from the more celebrated city of the name (Mazocclu, Tab. Iieracl. p. 532; Muller, Etrwker, vol. i. p. 145), though we have no historical evidence of the fact. It has also been generally admitted that a Greek colony was founded there by Dionysius the Elder, at the time that he was seeking to establish Ms power in the Adriatic, about B.c. 385; but this statement rests on very doubtful authority (Etym. Magn. v. 'Aopfas), and no subsequent trace of the settlement is found in history. The first certain historical notice we find of Adria is the establishment of a Roman colony there about 282 B.C. (Liv. Epit. xi.; Madvig,cfe Coloniis, p. 298.) In the early part of the Second Punic War (b.c. 217) its territory was ravaged by Hannibal; but notwithstanding this calamity, it was one of the 18 Latin colonies which, in B.c. 209, were faithful to the cause of Rome, and willing to continue their contributions both of men and money. (Liv. xxii. 9, xxvii. 10; Polyb. iii. 88.) At a later period, as we learn from the Liber de Coloiiiis, it must have received a fresh colony, probably under Augustus: hence it is termed a Colonia, both by Pliny and in inscriptions. One of these gives it the titles of "Colonia Aelia Hadria," whence it would appear that it had been re-established by the emperor Hitdrian, whose family was originally derived from hence, though he was himself a native of Spain. (Lib. Colon, p. 227; Plin. H. N. iii. 13. s. 18; Oreil. Inscr. no. 148, 3018; Gruter, p. 1022 T Zutnpt de Colon, p. 349; Spartian. Hadrian. I.; Victor, Epit. 14.) The territory of Adria (ager Adrianus), though subsequently included in Picenum, appears to have originally formed a separate and independent district, bounded on the N. by the river Vomanus ( Vomano), and on the S. by the Matrinus (/a Piontba); at the mouth of this latter river was a town bearing the name of Matrixum, wliich served as the port of Adria; the city itself stood on a hill a few miles inland, on the same site still occupied by the modern Atri, a place of some consideration, with the title of a city, and the see of a bishop. Great part of the circuit of the ancient walls may be still traced, and mosaic pavements and other remains of buildings are also proserved. (Strab. v. p. 241; Sil. Ital. viii. 439; Ptol. iii. 1. i$ 52; Mela, ii. 4; Romanelli, vol. iii. p 307.) Ac

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