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Rinnans, a groat number of tlie Jews took refuge in this fortress; against whom Vespasian sent Placidtu with 600 horsemen. By a feint he induced the great body to pursue him into the plain, where he slew many, and cut off the return of the multitude to the mountain; so that the inhabitants, who were suffering from want of water, made terms, and surrendered themselves and the mountain to Placidus. (Joseph. /. c.) Nothing further is heard of Mount TaW till the 4th century, when it is often mentioned by Kusebius (Onomast. s. v. Tliabor Itabyrium), but without any allusion to its being regarded as the scene of the Transfiguration. About the middle of this century, the first notice of Tabor as the place where our Lord was transfigured apj ears as a passing remark by Cyril of Jerusalem (Cat. xii. 16, p. 170); and Jerome twice mentions the same thing, though he implies that there was not yjt a church upon the summit. (Hieron. Ep. 44, ad Marcell. p. 522, Ep. 86; Epitaph, Paulae, p. 677.) Lightfoot (Hor. Ilebr. in Marc. ix. 2) and Roland (Palaest. pp. 334—336) have inferred, from the narrative of the Evangelists, that the Mount of Transfiguration is to be sought somewhere in the neighbourhood of Cacsarea Philippi. Rosenmtiller (BOA. Alt. vol. iL pt. i. p. 107) adheres to the ancient traditions connected with this mountain. The existence of a fortified city upon the spot so long before and after the event of the Transfiguration would seem, as Robinson (Palestine, vol. iii. p. 224) argues, to decide the question. At the foot of this mountain, in the time of the Crusades, many battles were fought between the Christians and Moslems; and in modern times a victory was here gained by Napoleon over the Turks. Mount Tabor consists wholly of limestone; standing out isolated in the plain, and rising to a height of about 1,000 feet, it presents a beautiful appearance. Seen from the SW., its form is that of the segment of a sphere; to the NW. it more resembles a truncated cone. The sides are covered up to the summit with the valonia oak, wild pistachios, myrtles, and other shrubs. Its crest is table-land of some 600 or 700 yards in height from N. to S., and about half as much across. Upon this crest are remains of several small halfruined tanks. Upon the ridges which enclose the small plain at the summits are some ruins belonging to different ages; some are of large bevelled stones, which cannot be of later date than the Romans. (Hiihiuson, Palestine, vol. iii. p. 213; Burkhardt, Travels, p. 332.) Lord Nugent describes the view as the most splendid he had ever seen from any natural height. (Lands Classical and Sacred, vol. ii. p. 204; Ritter, Erdknnde, West Asien, vol. xv. p. 391; Raumer, Patesttna, p. 37.) [E. B. J.]

ATABYRIS MONS. [rhodus.]

A'TAGIS. [atjiesi8.]

ATALANTA ( AraKavrn: Eth. 'AraXavTalot.) 1. (Tahndonist), a small island off Locris, in the Opuntian gulf, said to have been torn asunder from the mainland by an earthquake. In the first year of the Peloponnc ian war it was fortified by the Athenians for the purpose of checking the Locrians in their attacks upon Euboca. In the sixth year of the war a part of the Athenian works was destroyed by a great inundation of the sea. (Strab. i. p. 61, ix. pp. 395, 425; Thuc ii. 32, iii. 89; Diod. xii. 44, 59; Paus. x. 20. § 3; Liv. xxxv. 37; Plin. ii. 88, iv. 12; Sen. Ct N. vi. 24; Steph. B. *. v., Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 172.)

2. \ small island off the western coast of Attica,

between Salamis and Pciraeeus. (Strab. ix. pp. 395, 425; Steph. B. s. P.;

3. A town in Macedonia, in the upper part of the valley of the Axius. (Thuc. ii. 100.) Cramer (Ancient Greece, vol. i. p. 230) suggests that the Atalanta of Thucydides is probably the town called Allante by Pliny (iv. 12), and Stephanus B. (s. v. 'AAAdjT7)); the latter says that Theopompus named it Allantium.

ATARANTES ('ATdpaircj), a people of Inner Libya, in the N. part of the Great Desert (Sahara), in an oasis formed by salt hills, between the Garamantes and Atlantes, at a distance of ten days* journey from each (Herod, iv. 184), apparently in Fezzan, They used no individual names; and they were accustomed to curse the Sun for its burning heat (qAt'y Owtp€dWovrt, the sun as it passes over their heads, or when its heat is excessive; the commentators differ about the meaning). In all the MSS. of Herodotus, the reading is 'Ar\ayrts. But, as Herodotus goes on to speak separately of the Atlantes, the editors are agreed that the reading in the first passage has been corrupted by the common confusion of a name comparatively unknown with one well known; and this view is confirmed by the fact that Mela (i. 8. § 5) and Pliny (v. 8) give an account of the Atlantes, copied from the above statements of Herodotus, with the addition of what Herodotus affirms in the second passage of the Atlantes (where the name is right), that they saw no visions in their sleep. The reading 'Ardparres is a correction of Salmasius (ad Solin. p. 292), on the authority of a passage from the Achaica of the Alexandrian writer Rhianus (ap. Eustath. ad Dion, Perieg. 66: comp. Steph. B. s v/ArAnvrts; Nicol. Damasc. ap. Stob. Tit. xliv. vol. ii. p. 226, Gaisf.; Diod. Sic. iii. 8; Solin. I.e.; Baehr, ad Herod, Lc; Meineke, Anal. Alex. pp. 181, 182.) [P. S.]

ATAJiNEUS or ATARNA ('Arapvtte, 'Arapva: Eth. 'Arapvtvs, 'Arapvfi'TTjs), a city of Mysia, opposite to Lesbos, and a strong place. It was on the road from Adramyttium to the plain of the Caicus. (Xen. Anab. vii. 8. § 8.) Atarneus seems to be the genuine original name, though Atama, or Atarnea, and Aterne (Pliny) may have prevailed afterwards. Stephanus, who only gives the name Atama, consistently makes the ethnic name Atarneus. Herodotus (i. 160) tells a story of the city and its territory, both of which were named Atarneus, being given to the Chins by Cyrus, for their having surrendered to him Pact-yes the Lydian. Stephanus (s, v. "Awaiffoj) and other ancient authorities consider Atarneus to be the Tame of Homer (II, v. 44); but perhaps incorrectly. The territory was a good com country. Histiaeus the Milesian was defeated by the Persians at Malcne in the Atarneitis, and taken prisoner. (Herod, vi. 28, 29.) The place was occupied at a later time by some exiles from Chios, who from this strong position sallied out and plundered Ionia. (Diod. xiii. 65; Xen. Hell iii. 2. § II.) This town was once the residence of Heraieias the tyrant, the friend of Aristotle. Pausanias (vii. 2. § 11) says that the same calamity betel the Atarneitae which drove the Myusii from their city [myus]; but as the position of the two cities was not similar, it is not quite clear wliat he means. They left the place, however, if his statement is true; and Pliny (v. 30), in his time, mentions Atarneus as no longer a city. Pausanias (iv. 35. § 10) speaks of hot springs at Astyra, opposite to Lesbos, in the Atarneus. [amtyka.]

The site of Atarneus is generally fixed at DiieliKoi. There aro autonomous coins of Atarneus, with Hie epigraph ATA. and ATAP.

There was a place near Pitane called Atarneus. (Strab. p. 614.) [G. L.]

ATAX Cat°£: Aude), or ATTAGUS, a river of Gallia Narbonensis, which rises on the north slope of the Pyrenees, and flows by Carcassonne and Narbo (.Vorfroime), below which it enters the Mediterranean, near the E'tang de Vendres. Strabo (p. 182) makes it rise in the Cevennes, which is not correct. Mela (ii. 5) and Pliny (iii. 4) place its source in the Pyrenees. It was navigable to a short distance above Narbo. A few miles higher up than Narbottne the stream divides into two arms; one arm flowed into a lake, Rubresus or Rubrensis (the Xifivn Wap§wviTit of Strabo); and the other direct into the sea. The Rubresus is described by Mela as a very large piece of water, which communicated with the sea by a narrow passage. This appears to be the E'tang Sigean; and the canal Robine tfAude, which runs from Narbonne to this Etang, represent* the Atax of the Romans.

The inhabitants of the valley of the Atax were called Atarini. Mela calls Narbo a colony of the Atacini and the Decumani, from which Walckenaer (vol. L p. 140) draws the conclusion that this place was not the original capital of the Atacini. But Mela employs like terms, when he speaks of " Tolosa Tectosagum" and " Vienna AUobrognm;" so that we may reject Walckenaer's conclusion from this passage. There may, however, have been a " Vicus Atax," as Eusebius names it, or Vicus Atacinus, the birth-place of P. Terentius Varro: and the Scholiast on Horace (5ot i. 10. 46) may not be correct, when he says that Varro was called Atacinus from the river Atax. Polybius (iii. 37, xxxiv. 10) calls this river Narbo. [G. L.]

ATELLA ('ArtXAo: Eth. '\TtXXayls, Atellanus), a city of Campania, situated on the road from Capua to Neapolis, at the distance of 9 miles from each of those two cities. (Steph.B. s.v.; Tab. Pent.) Its name is not found in history during the wars of the Romans with the Campanians, nor on occasion of the settlement of Campania in B. c. 336: it probably followed the fortunes of its powerful neighbour Capua, though its independence is attested by its coins. In the second Punic war the Atellani were among the first to declare for the Carthaginians after the battle of Cannae (Liv. xxii. 61; Sil. Ital. xi. 14): hence, when they fell into the power of the Romans, after the reduction of Capua, B. c. 211, they were very severely treated: the chief citizens and authors of the revolt were executed on the spot, while of the rest of the inhabitants the greater part were sold as slaves, and others removed to distant settlements. The next year (210) the few remaining inhabitants were compelled to migrate to Calatia, and the citizens of Nueeria, whose own city had been destroyed by Hannibal, were settled at Atella in their stead. (Liv. xxvi. 16, 33, 34, xxvii. 3.) After this it appears to have quickly revived, and Cicero 6peaks of it as, in his time, a flourishing and important municipal town. It was under the especial patronage and protection of the great orator himself, but we do not know what was the origin of this peculiar connection between them. (Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 31, ad Fam. xiii. 7, ad Q. Fr. ii. 14.) Under Augustus it received a colony of military settlers; but continued to be a place only of municipal rank, and is classed by Strabo among the smaller towns of Campania. JPlui. iii. 5. s. 9; Strab. v. p. 249; PtoL iii. 1. § 68;

Orcll. Inter. 130.) It continued to exist as an episcopal see till the ninth century, but was then much decayed; and in A.D. 1030 the inhabitants were removed to the neighbouring town of Aversa, then lately founded by the Norman Count Rainulphus. Some remains of its walls and other ruins are still visible at a spot about 2 miles E. of Aversa, near the villages of 5. Arpitio and 5. Etpidio; and an old church on the site is still called Sta Maria di Atella. Numerous inscriptions, terracottas, and other minor antiquities, have been found there. (Holsten. Not.in Cluv.p.260; Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 592.)

The name of Atella is best known in connection with the peculiar class of dramatic representations which derived from thence the appellation of " Fabulae Atellanae," and which were borrowed from them by the Romans, among whom they enjoyed for a time especial favour, so as to be exempt from the penalties and disqualifications which attached to the actors of other dramatic performances. At a later period, however, they degenerated into so licentious a character, that in the reign of Tiberius they were altogether prohibited, and the actors banished from Italy. These plays were originally written in the Oscan dialect, which they appear to have mainly contributed to preserve in its purity. (Liv. vii. 2; Strab. v. p. 233; Tac. Ann. iv. 14. For further parti, culars concerning the Fabulae Atellanae see Bern, hardy, Romische Literatur. p. 379, &c) The early importance of Atella is further attested by its coins, which resemble in their types those of Capua, but bear the legend, in Oscan characters, "Aderl,"— evidently the native form of the name. (Millingen, A'umism. de T Italic, p. 190; Friedlandcr, Ostische Mfmzen, p. 15.) [E. H. B.]

ATER or NIGER MONS, a mountain range of Inner Libya, on the N. side of the Great Desert {Sahara'), dividing the part of Roman Africa on the Great Syrtis from Phazania (Fezzaii). It seems to correspond either to the Jebel-Soudan or Black Mountains, between 28° and 29° N. lat., and from about 10° E. long, eastward, or to the SE. prolongation of the same chain, called the Jilack Harusch, or both. The entire range is of a black basaltic rock, whence the ancient and modern nanies (Plin. T. 5, vi. 30. s. 35; Homemann, Reisen von Kairo nach Fczzan, p. 60). [P. S.]

ATERNUM ('Arfpiw: Pescara), a city of the Vestini, situated on the coast of the Adriatic, at the mouth of the river Atemus, from which it derived its name. It was the only Vestinian city on the seacoast, and was a place of considerable trade, serving as the emporium not only of the Vestini, but of the Peligni and Marrucini also. (Strab. v. pp. 241, 242.) As early as the second Punic war it is mentioned as a place of importance: having joined the cause of Hannibal and theCartbaginians,itwas retaken in B.c.213 by the praetor Sempronius Tuditanns, when a considerable sum of money, as well as 7000 prisoners, fell into the hands of the captors. (Liv. xxiv. 47.) Under Augustus it received a colony of veterans, among whom its territory was portioned out (Lib. Colon, p. 253), but it did not obtain the rank of a colony. Various inscriptions attest its municipal condition under the Roman Empire. Ono of these mentions the restoration of its port by Tiberius (Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 82); another, which commemorates the continuation of the Via Valeria by Claudius to this point (Orcll. Inscr. 711), speaks only of the " Ostia Aterni," without mentioning the town of that name; and the same expression is found both in Mela and Ptolemy, as well as in the Itinerary. (Mel.

ii. 4; Ptol. ill. 1. § 20; Itin. Ant. p. 313, but in p. 101 it is distinctly called "Aterno civiias") From existing remains we learn that the ancient city occupied both banks of the river close to its mouth, which was converted by artificial works into a port. Some vestiges of these still remain, as well as the ruins of an ancient bridge. (Romanelli, vol. iii. pp. 79—82.) The modern city of Pescara, a very poor place, though a strong fortress, is situated wholly on the S. side of the river: it appears to have been already known by its modern appellation in the time of P. Diaconus, who mentions it under the name of Piscaria(ii. 21). [E. H. B.]

ATERNUS ('ATfpKoi: Aterno), a considerable river of Central Italy, flowing into the Adriatic Sea between Adria and Ortona. Strabo correctly describes it (v. p. 241) as rising in the neighbourhood of Ainiternum, and flowing through the territory of the Vestini: in this part of its course it has a SE. direction, but close to the site of Corfinium it turns abruptly at right angles, and pursues a SE. course from thence to the sea, which it enters just under the walls of Pescara. At its mouth was situated the town of Aternum, or, as it was sometimes called, ,; Aterni Ostia." In this latter part of its course, according to Strabo (I. c), it formed the limit between the Vestini and Marrucini j and there is little doubt that this statement is correct, though Pliny and Mela extend the confines of the Frentani as far as the Aternus, and Ptolemy includes the mouths both of that river and the Matrinus in the territory of the Marrucini. (I'lin. iii. 12. s. 17; Mela, ii.4; Ptol. iii. 1. § 20.) In the upper part of its course it flows through a broad and trough-like valley, bounded on each side by very lofty mountains, and itself elevated more than 2000 feet above the sea. The narrow gorge between two huge masses of mountains by which it escapes from this upland valley, must have always formed one of the principal Hues of communication in this part of Italy; though it was not till the reign of Claudius that the Via Valeria was carried along this line from Corfinium to the Adriatic. (Inscr. ap. Orcll. 711.) Strabo mentions a bridge over the river 24 stadia (3 miles) from Corfinium, near the sit* of the modem town of Popoti; a point which must have always been of importance in a military point of view: hence we find Domitius during the Civil War (b. C. 49) occupying it with the hope of arresting the advance of Caesar. (Caes. B. C. i. 16.) The Atemus, in the upper part of its course, still retains its ancient name Aterno, but below Popoli is known only as the Fiume di Peacara,—an appellation which it seems to have assumed as early as the seventh centnry, when we find it called " Piscarius fluvius." (P. Diac. ii. 20.) It is one of the most considerable streams on the E. side of the Apennines, in respect of the volume of its waters, which are fed by numerous perennial and abundant sources. [E. H. B.]

ATESTE (JATt<rrt, Ptol.: Eth. Atestinus: Este), a city of Northern Italy, situated in the interior of the province of Venetia, at the foot of the Euganean hills, and about 18 miles SW. of Patavium. (Ptol.

iii. 1. § 30; Plin. iii. 19 s. 23; Martial,!. 93; Itin. Ant. p. 281, where the distance from Patavium is reckoned 25 M. P.) We learn from Pliny that it was a Roman colony; and it is mentioned also by Tacitus (But. iii. 6) in a manner that clearly shows it to have been a place of consideration under the Roman Empire. But an iuscriptijn preserved by

Manei (Mus. Yeron. p. 108; Orell. Inter. 3110) proves that it was n municipal town of some importance as early as B. c. 136, and that its territory adjoined that of Vicentia. The modern city of Este is famous for having given title to one of the most illustrious families of modem Europe; it is a considerable and flourishing place, but contains no ancient remains, except numerous inscriptions. These have been collected and published by the Abbate Furlanetto. (Padova, 1837, 8vo.)

About 5 miles E. of Este is Momtlice, which is mentioned by Paulus Diaconus (iv. 26), under tho name of Mons SiLicis, as a strong fortress in the time of the Lombards; but the name is not found in any earlier writer. [E. H. B.]

ATHACUS, a town in the upper part of Macedonia, of uncertain site, probably in Lyncestis. (Liv. xxxi. 34.)

ATHAMA'NIA ^ABafiavla: Eth. 'Aflo^dV -avos; in Diod. xviii. 11, 'Atio/wrcs), a district in the SE. of Epeirus, between Mount Pindus and the river Arachthus. The river Achelous flowed through this narrow district. Its chief towns were Argithea, Tetraphylia, Heracleia, and Theudoria; and of these Argithea was the capital. The Athamanes were a rude people. Strabo classes them among the Thessalians, but doubts whether they are to be regarded as Hellenes. (Strab. ix. p. 434, x. p. 449.) They are rarely mentioned in Grecian history, but on the decay of the Molossian kingdom, they appear as an independent people. They were the last of the Epirot tribes, which obtained political power. The Athamancs and the Aetolians destroyed the Aenianes, and the former extended their dominions as far as Mt- Oeta. (Strab. p. 427.) The Athamanes were most powerful under their king Amynander (about B.C. 200), who took a prominent part in the wars of the Romans with Philip and Antioclius. (Diet, of Biogr. art. Amynander.') They were subsequently subdued by the Macedonians, and in the time of Strabo had ceased to exist as a separate people (ix. p. 429). Pliny (iv. 2) erroneously reckons Athamania as part of Aetolia.

ATHAMA'NTIUS CAMPUS (AflojidWioF w»8W). 1. A plain in Boeotia, between Acraephium and the lake Copals, where Atbamas was said to have formerly dwelt. (Paus. ix. 24. § 1; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 306.)

2. A plain in Phtbiotis, in Thessaly, round Halus or Alus, so called from Atliamas, the founder of Halus. (Apoll. Rhod. ii. 514; Etym. M. s. v.; Leake, Ibid. vol. iv. p. 33'.)

ATHANA'GIA, a city of Spain, within the Iberus, the capital of tho llergetes according to Livy (xxi. 61), but not mentioned by any other writer. Ukert (vol. ii. pt. I. p. 451) takes it for Agramaut, near the ancient Ilerda. [P. S.]

ATHE'NAE ('AflijKu). Besides the celebrated city of this name, Stepbanps B. (t. v.) mentions eight others, namely in Lacouia, Caria, Liguria, Italy, Euboea, Acarnania, Boeotia, and Pantos. Of these three only are known to us from other authorities.

1. Diades (Aia'Sfs), a town in Boeotia, near the promontory Cenaeum, founded by the Athenians (Strab. x. p. 446), or according to Ephorus, by Dias, a son of Abas. (Steph. B. s. v.)

2. An ancient town of Boeotia, on the river Triton, and near the lake Copais, which, together with the neighbouring town of Eleusis, was destroyed by an inundation. (Strab. ix. p. 407; Paus,

it 24. § 2 ; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 136, 293.)

ATHE'NAE (,4renaA),a city and port of Ponlius (Steph. B. t. v. 'ABfytu), with an Hellenic tem[Je. According to Arrian (p. 4, &c), it wag 180 stadia east of the river Adienns, and 280 stadia west of the Apsanis. Brant (London Geog. Joum. vol. vi. p. 192) mentions an insignificant place, railed Atenah, on the coast between Trebizond and tbe month of the Apsanis, but the distance on his map between Aienah and the month of the Apsanis is much more than 280 stadia. The distance of Bhiziiis QJiizah), a well-known position, to Athenae is 270 stadia, which agrees pretty well with the map. II then the Apsarns [apsarus] is rightly identifier1, and Atenah is Athenae, there is an error in tli< stadia between Athenae and the Apsarns.

Procopins derives the name of the place from Hi ancient princess, whose tomb was there. Arriat speaks of Athenae as a deserted fort, but Procopiu describes it as a populous place in his time. (Bell Pers. ii. 29, Bell. Goth. iv. 2.) Mannert assume> it to He the same place as the Odeinius of Scylar (p. 32), and Cramer (Aria Minor, vol. i. p. 2!)2 assumes the site of Athenae to be a place cullec Ordouna. [G. L.]

ATHE'NAE ("AO?**; in Horn. Odvii. 80,'A£hH: Eth. 'A^raioi, feni. 'Aftjeafa, Atheniensis), tht capital of Attica.

I. Situation.

Athens is situated about three miles from the aea coast, in the central plain of AtriYa, which is enclosed by mountains on every side except t he aonth, where it is open to the sea. This plain is bounded on the NW. by Mt. Parties, on the NE by Mt Pentelicus, on the SE. by Mt. Hymettus, ami on the W. by Mt. Aegaleoa, In the southern pirt of the plain there rise several eminences. Of these the most p ominent is a lofty insulated mountain, with a conical peaked summit, now called the Hill of St. George, which used to be identified by topographers with the ancient Anchesmns out which is now admitted to be the more celebrated I.ycabettus. This mountain, which was not included within the ancient walls, lies to the north-east of Athens, and forms the most striking feature in the environs of the city. It is to Athens, as a modern writer has aptly remarked, what Vesuvius is to Naples or Arthur's Seat to Edinburgh. South-west of Lycabettus there are four hills of moderate height, all of which formed part of the city. Of these the nearest to Lycabettus, and at the distance of a mile from the Litter, was the Acropolis, or citadel of Athens, a square craggy rock rising abruptly about 150 feet, with a flat summit of about 1000 feet long from east to west, by 500 feet broad from north to south. Immediately west of the Acropolis is a second hill of irregular form, the Arbiopagitr, To the south-west there rises a third bill, the Pnyt, on which the assemblies of the citizens were held; and to the south of the latter is a fourth hill, known as the Mt.'SEiUM. On the eastern and western sides of the city there ran two small streams, both of which are nearly exhausted by the heats of summer and by the channels for artificial irrigation before they reach the sea. The stream on the east, called the It.issus, was joined by the Eridanus clnee to the Lycehnn outside the walls, and then flowed in a southwesterly direction through the southern quarter of the city. The stream on the west, named the Ce

pmasus, runs due south, at the distance of about a mile and a half from the walls. Sonth of the city was seen the Saronic Gulf, with the harbours of Athens. ,

The Athenian soil and climate exercised an important influence upon the buildings of the city. They are characterized by Milton in his noble lines: —

"Where on the Aegean shore a city stands Built nobly, pure the air, and light the toil."

The plain of Athens is barren and destitute of vegetation, with the exception of the long stream of olives which stretch from Mt. Panics by the side of the Cephissus to the sea. "The buildings of the city possessed a property produced immediately by the Athenian soil. Athens stands on a bed of hard limestone rock, in most places thinly covered by a meagre surface of soil. From this surface the rock itself frequently projects, and almost always is visible. Athenian ingenuity suggested, and Athenian dexterity has realized, the adaptation of such a soil to architectural purposes. Of this there remains the fullest evidence. In the rocky soil itself walls have been hewn, pavements levelled, steps and seats chiselled, cistet ns excavated and niches scooped; almost every object that in a simple state of society would be necessary either for public or private fabrics, was thus, as it were, quarried in the soil of the city itself." (Wordsworth, Atiient and Attica, p. 62.)

The surpassing beauty and clearness of the Athe* nian atmosphere naturally allowed the inhabitants to pass much of their time in the open air. Hence, as the same writer remarks, "we may in part account for the practical defects of their domestic architecture, the badness of their streets, and the proverbial meanness of the houses of the noblest individuals among them. Hence certainly it was that in the best days of Athens, the Athenians worshipped, they legislated, they saw dramatic representations, under the open sky." The transparent clearness of the atmosphere is noticed by Euripides (Med. 8*1*), who describes the Athenians as iel 8ia XafxirpoTdrov jBcuVoircs aSpws cudfpos. Modern travellers have not failed to notice the same peculiarity. Mr. Stanley speaks "of the transparent clearness, the brilliant colouring of an Athenian sky; of the flood of tiro with which the marble columns, the mountains and the sea, are all bathed and pencfated by an illumination of an Athenian sunset." The epithet, which Ovid (Art. Am. iii. 389) applies to Hymettus — "purpitreos colles Hymetti," is strictly correct; and the writer, whom we have just quoted, mentions "the violet hue which Hymettus assumes in the evening sk> in contrast to the glowing furnace of the rock of Lycabettus, and the rosy pyramid of Pentelicus." (Stanley, in CUissical Mmtmm, vol. i. pp. 60, 61.)

We draw upon mother intelligent traveller for a

description of the scenery of Athens. "The great national amphitheatre of which Athens is the centre, possesses, in addition to its beauty, certain features of pe uliarity, which render it the more difficult to fnrm any adequate idea of its scenery, but from personal view. The chief of these is a certain degree of regularity, or rather of symmetry, in the arrangement of the principal parts of the landscape, which enables the eye the better to apprehend its whole extent and variety at a single glance, and thus to enjoy the full effect of its collective excellence more r*r

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