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22 feet before the gate of the inclosure, which was 376 feet long, and 252 broad; round the inside of it, at a distance of 23 feet from the wall, are vestiges of a colonnade. In the northern wall, which still exists, are the remains of one large quadrangular recess or apartment in the centre 34 feet in length, and of two semicircular recesses nearly equal to it in diameter. The church of Megali Panaghta, which stands towards the eastern side of the inclosure, is formed of the remains of an ancient building, consisting on one side of a ruined arch, and on the other of an architrave supported by a pilaster, and three columns of the Doric order, 1 foot 9 inches in diameter, and of a somewhat declining period of art. .... The general plan was evidently that of a quadrangle surrounded with porticoes, having one or more buildings in the centre: thus agreeing perfectly with that work of Hadrian which contained stoae, a colonnade of Phrygian marble, and

a library The building near the centre of

the quadrangle, which was converted into a church of the PanagMa, may have been the Pantheon. . . , Possibly also the temple of Hera and of Zeus Panhellenius stood in the centre of the inclosure." (Leake, p. 258, seq.)

E. Fourth Fart of the Route of Pausanias.From the Prytaneium to the Stadium, (Paus. i. 18. § 4—19.)

Pausanias went straight from the Prytaneium to the Olympieium, between which buildings he notices these objects, the Temple of Sarapis, the place of meeting of Theseus and Peirithous, and the Temple of EUeithyia, After describing the Olympieium, Pausanias mentions the temples of Apollo Pythius, and of Apollo Delphinius. The Pythium (TlvBiov) was one of the most ancient sanctuaries in Athens. We know from Thucydides (ii. 15) that it was in the same quarter as the Olympieium, and from Strabo (ix, p. 404), that the sacred inclosures of the two temples were only separated by a wall, upon which was the altar of Zeus Astrapaeus. The Delphinium (AeA<ptrioi') was apparently near the Pythium. It was also a temple of great antiquity, being said to have been founded by Aegeus. In its neighbourhood Bat one of the courts for the trial of cases of homicide, called To eVi AfA<pit>i(f. (Plut. Thee, 12, 18; Pollux, viii. 119; Paus. i. 28. § 10.)

Pausanias next proceeds to The Gardens {pi Krjxot), which must have been situated east of the aoove-mentioned temples, along the right bank of the Hiss us. In this locality was a temple of Aphrodite: the statue of this goddess, called "Aphrodite in the Gardens," by Alcainenes, was one of the most celebrated pieces of statuary in all Athens. (Plin. xxxvi. 5. B. 4; Lucian, Imag. 4, 6.) Pliny (/. c), misled by the name "Gardens," places this statue outside the walls; but we have the express testimony of Pausanias in another passage (i. 27. § 3) that it was in the city.

Pausanias then visits the Cynosarges and Lyceium, both of which were situated outside the walls, and are described below in the account of the suburbs of the city. From the Lyceium he returns to the city, and mentions the Altar of Boreas, who carried off Oreithyia from the banks of the Hissus, and the Altar of the Ilissian Muses, both altars being u(>on the banks of the llissus. (Comp. Plat. Pkaedr. c 6; Herod, vu. 189.) The altar of Boreas is described by Plato (/. c) as opjtosite the temple if Artemis Agrulera, which probably stands

upon the site of the church of Stavromenos Petroa.To the east of the altar of Boreas stood the altar of the Ilissian Muses. In 1676 Span and Wheler observed, about fifty yards above the bridge of the Stadium, the foundations of a circular temple, which had, however, disappeared in the time of Stuart. This was probably the Temple of the Ilissian Muses, for though Pausanias only mentions an altar of these goddesses, there may have been also a temple.

On the other side of the llissus Pausanias entered the district Agrae or Agra, in which was the Temple of Artemis Agrotera, spoken of above. A part of this district was sscred to Demeter, since we know that the lesser Eleusinian mysteries were celebrated in Agiue, and were hence called To, iv "Aypats. (Steph. B. s. v. "Aypa; Plut. Demetr. 26.) Stephanas (/. c.) says that Agra was a spot before the city (*-p2> Tt\s wdAfajs), but this appears to be only a conclusion drawn from the name, which would seem to indicate that it was in the country, and may be classed together with the above-mentioned error of Pliny about the gardens. The Panathenaic Stadium was also in Agrae, after describing which [see p. 292], Pausanias retraces his steps to the Prytaneium. He has omitted to mention the hill Ardettus ('Ao57rrTO*s), situated above the Stadium, where the Dicasts were sworn. (Harpocrat., Hesych., Suid. *. v.; Pollux, viii. 122.) The high ground of Agrae appears to have been called Helicon in ancient times. (Cleidemus, ap. Bekker, Anted. Grace, i. p. 326.)

F. Fifth Part of the Rout* of Pausanias. From the Prytaneium to tJte Propylaea of the Acropolis. (Paus. i. 20—22. § 3.)

In this part of his route Pausanias went round the eastern and southern sides of the Acropolis. Starting again from the Prytaneium, he went down the Street of the Tripods, which led to the Lenaeum or sacred enclosure of Dionysus. The position oi this street is marked by the existing Choragic Monument of Lysicrates [see p. 291}, and by a number of small churches, which probably occupy the place of the tripod temples. The Lenaeum, which contained two temples of Dionysus, and which was close to the theatre, was situated in the district called Limnae. It was here that the Dionysiao festival, called Leuaea, was celebrated. (Thuc. ii. 15; Diet, of Ant p. 411, b. 2nd ed.) The Lenaeum must be placed immediately below the theatre to the south. Immediately to the east of the theatre, and consequently at the north-eastern angle of the Acropolis, was the Odeium of Pericles. Its site is accurately determined by Vitruvius, who says (v. 9), that it lay on tne left hand to persons coming out of the theatre. This Odeium, which must be distinguished from the earlier building with this name near the llissus, was built by Pericles, and its roof is said to have been an imitation of the tent of Xerxes. (Plut. Per. 13.) It was burnt during the siege of Athens by Sulla, B. C. 85, but was rebuilt by Ariobarzanes II., king of Cappadocia, who succeeded to the throne about B.C. 63. (Appian, B.Mtihr. 38; Vitrav. J, a; Bockh, No. 357; DicL of Ant. pp. 822, 823, 2nd ed.) All traces of this building have disappeared.

On the western side of the theatre are some remains of a succession of arches, which Leake con jectures may have belonged to a portico, built by Uerodes Attic us, for the purpose of a covered communioiti >n between the theatre and the Odeium of I (erodes. Perhaps they are the remains of the Porticns Eumenia, which appears from Vitruvius (/. c.) to have been close to the theatre. For an account of the theatre itself, see p. 284.

In proceeding from the theatre Pausanias first locntions the Tomb of Talos or Calosy below the steep rocks of the Acropolis, from which Daedalus u said to have hurled him dowu. I'au>anias next comes to the Asclepieutm or Temple of Asclepius, which stood immediately above the Odeium of Heroics Atticus. Its site is determined by the statement that it contained a fountain of water, celebrated as the fountain at which Ares slew Haurrhothius, the son of Poseidon. Pausanias makes no mention of the Odeium of Herodes, since this building was not erected when he wrote his account of Athens. (See p. 286-] Next to the Asclenieium Pausanias, in his ascent to the Acropolis, passed by the Temple of Themis, with the Tomb of HipixUytus in front of it, the Temple of Aphrodite Pandemus and Peitho, and the Temple of Ge Curotrophus and iMmeter Chloe At the temple of Aphrodite Pandemus, Pausanias was again close to the statues of Haraiodius and Aristogeiton. [See p. 297, a.] The proximity of this temple to the tomb of Hippolytus is alluded to by Euripides (ffippol. 29, seq.). The temple of Ge and Demeter was probably situated brneath the temple of Nike Apteros. At the foot of the wall, supporting the platform of the latter temple, there are two doors, coeval with the wall, and conducting into a small grotto, which was probably the shrine of Ge and Demeter. It was situated on the right hand of the traveller, just before he commenced the direct ascent to the Propylaea; and from being placed within a wall, which formed one of tlie defences of the Acropolis, it is sometimes described as a part of the latter. (Soph, ad Oed. Col. 1600; Suid. ft v. Kovporpoipos Tij.) The position jf this temple is illustrated by a passage in the Lysistrata of Aristophanes (829), where, the Athenian women being in possession of the Acropolis, I'Vsistrata suddenly perceives a man at the temple of Demeter Chloe approaching the citadel:

AT. 'Ioi, tab, ywatKtf ....

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The Eleusinium, which Pausanias had mentioned (i. 14. § 3) in the description of his second route [see p. 297, b], Leake conjectures to have been the great cavern in the middle of the rocks at the eastern end of the Acropolis. The Elensinium is said by Clemens of Alexandria (Protrept, p. 13, fcylburg), and Arnobius (adv. Gent. vi. p. 193, Maire) to have been below the Acropolis. The Eleusimum is also mentioned by Thucydides (ii. 15) and Xenophon (ffipparch. 3), but without any p««^Uve indication of its site.

G. Sink Part of the Route of Pausanias.—The Acropolis, Areiopagus and Academy. (Pans, i. 22. § 4—30.)

The Acropolis has been already described. In descending from it Pausanias notices the cave of Pan and the Areiopagus [see pp. 286, 281], and the place near the Areiopagns, where the ship was kept, which was dragged through the city in the great I'aiiathenaic festival, surmounted by the Peplui of

Athena as a sail (i. 29. § 1). He then proceeds through Dipylum to the outer Cerameicus and the Academy. The two latter are spoken of under the suburbs of the city.

H. Districts of the A sty.

It is remarked by Isocrates that the city was divided into xuuat and the country into dijfiot (SieAoV*vot n}e pip ir6\iv Koto" K&uas, T$v Be x^Pay KaT& Wipovs, Arcop. p. 149,ed. Steph.). In consequence of this remark, and of the frequent opposition between the voAis and the OTj/toi, it was formerly maintained by many writers that none of the Attic demi were within the city. But since it has been proved beyond doubt that the contrary was the case, it has been supposed that the city demi were outside the walls when the demi were established by Cleisthenes, but were'subsequently included within the walls upon the enlargement of the city by Themistocles. But even this hypothesis will not apply to all the demi, since Melite and Cydathenaeum, for example, as well as others, must have been included within the city at the time of Cleisthenes. A little consideration, however, will show the necessity of admitting the division of the city into the demi from the first institution of the latter by Cleisthenes. It is certain that every Athenian citizen was enrolled in some demus. and that the whole territory of Attica was distributed into a certain number of demi. Hence the city must have been formed by Cleisthenes into one or more demi; for otherwise the inhabitants of the city would have belonged to no demus, which we know to have been impossible. At the same time there is nothing surprising in the statement of Isocrates, since the demi within the walls of Athens were few. and had nothing to do with the organi7ation of the city. For administrative purposes the city was divided into tcwpai or wards, the inhabitants being called xwpijrat. (Coiup. Aristoph. Nub. 966 Lysistr. 5; Hesych. s. v. Kvpax.)

The following is a list of the city demi: —

1. Cerameicus (Ktpaufticds: Eth. Kcpap^ts^) divided into the Inner and the Outer Cerameicus The Inner Cerameicus has been already described and the Outer Cerameicus is spoken of below. [Sei p. 303.] The two districts formed only one demus which belonged to the tribe Acaraantis. Wordsworth maintains (p. 171) that the term Inner Cerameicus was used only by later writers, and that during the Peloponncsian war, and for many years afterwards, there was only one Cerameicus, namely, that outside the walls. But this opinion is refuted by the testimony of Antiphon, who spoke of the two Cerameici (ap. Harpocrat. s. v.), and of Phanodemus, who stated that the Leocorium was in the middle of the Cerameicus (ap. IU--pocrat. s. v. Aewndptov).

2. Melite (MfAfTij: Eth. M«ait«is), was a demus of the tribe Cecropis, west of the Inner Cerameicus. The exact limits of this demus cannot be ascertained; but it appears to have given its name to the whole hilly district in the west of the Asty, comprising the hills of the Nymphs, of the Pnyx and of the Museium, and including within it the separate demi of Scambonidae and Collytus. Melite is said to have been named from a wife of Hercules. It was one of the most populous parts of the city, and contained several temples as well as houses of distinguished men. In Melite were the Hephaesteium, the Eurysaceium, the Colonus Agoraeus [respecting these three, see p. 298]; the temple of Hercules Alexicacus [see p. 296, a]; the Melanippeium, in which Melanippus, the son of Theseus, was buried (Harpocrat s. v. MeAaWirweiov); the temple of Athena Aristobula, built bv Themistocles near his own house (Pint Them. 22);' the house of Callias (Plat. Parmen, p. 126, a.; Schol. ad Arigtoph. Ran, 504); the house of Phocion, which still existed in Plutarch's time (Plut Phoc. 18); and a building, called the "House of the Melitians," in which tragedies were rehearsed. (Hesych. Phot. Lex. s. v. McArreW oovos.) This is, perhaps, the same theatre as the one in which Aesohines played the part of Oenomaus, and which is said to have been situated in Collytus (Harpocrat. v. "IcxaeSpos; Anonym. Vtt. Aesch."); since the district of Melite, as we have already observed, subsequently included the demus of Collytus. It is probable that this theatre is the one of which the remains of a great part of the semicircle are still visible, hewn out of the rock, on the western side of the hill of Pnyx. The Melilian Gate at the SW. corner of the city were so called, as leading to the district Melite. [See p. 263, b.] Pliny (iv. 7. s. 11) speaks of an " oppidum Melite," which is conjectured to have been the fortress of the Macedonians, erected on the hill Museium. [See p. 284, a.]

3. Scambonidae (Swa^ffwWSai), a demus belonging to the tribe Leontis. In consequence of a passage of Pausanias (i. 38. § 2) Miiller placed this demos near Eleusis; but it is now admitted that it was one of the city demi. It was probably included within the district of Melite, and occupied the Hills of the Nymphs and of Pnyx Its connexion with Melite is intimated by the legend, that Melite derived its name from Melite, a daughter of Mynnex, and the wife of Hercules: and that this Mvnnex gave his name to a street in Scambonidae. (Harpocrat. s. v. MtKiryj; Hesych., s. v. MvpfinKQS arpav6s; comp. Aristoph. Tkesm. 100; and Phot Iscx.} This street, however, the " Street of Ants," did not derive its name from a hero, but from its being crooked and narrow, as we may suppose the streets to have been in this hilly district Scambonidae, also, probably derived its name from the same circumstance (from tritafi€4st "crooked.")

4. Collytus (koaai/to't, not Ko\vrr6s: Etk. KoAAirreis), a demus belonging to the tribe Aegeis, and probably, as we have already said, sometimes included under the general name of Melite. It appears from a passage of Strabo (i. p. 65) that Collytus and Melite were adjacent, but that their boundaries were not accurately marked, a passage which both Leake and Wordsworth have erroneously supposed to mean that these places had precise boundaries. (It is evident, however, that Collytus and Melite are quoted as an example of fi^} btntuv a.Kp:6a>v o'/wc.) Wordsworth, moreover, remarks that it was the least respectable quarter in the whole of Athens: but we know, on the contrary, that it was a favourite place of residence. Hence Plutarch says (<fe ExsiL 6, p. 601), "neither do all Athenians inhabit Collytus, nor Corinthians Craneinm, nor Spartans Pi tune," Craneium and Pitane being two favourite localities in Corinth and Sparta respectively. It is described by Himerius (ap. Phot. Cod. 243, p. 375, Bekker), as a crr*ftvxds (which does not mean a narrow street, but simply a street, comp. Diod. xii. 10; Hesych. s. v.), situated in the centre of the city, and much valued for its use of the market (ayopas xpfty Ttpubfuyot), by which words we are probably to understand that it Has conveniently situated for the use of the market.

Forchhammer places Collytus between the bills of Pnyx and Museium, in which case the expression of its being in the centre of the city, must not be interpreted strictly. The same writer also supposes <TT*vtair6$ not to signify a street, but the whole district between the Pnyx and the Museium, including the slopes of those hills. Leake thinks that Collytus bordered upon Diomcia, and accordingly places it between Melite and Diomeia; but the authority to which he refers would point to an opposite conclusion, namely, that Collytus and Diomeia were situated on opposite sides of the city. We are told that Collytus was the father of Diomus, the favourite of Hercules; and that some of the Melitenscs, under the guidance of Diomus, migrated from Melite, and settled in the spot called Diomeia, from their leader, where they celebrated the Metageitnia, in memory of their origin. (Plat, de ExsiL L c; Steph. B. s. v. Aufpfia; Hesych. s. v. Aio/tcicts.) This legend confirms the preceding account of Collytus being situated in Melite. We have already seen that tliere was a theatre in Collytus, in which Aeschines played the part of Oenomaus; and we arc also told that he lived in this district 45 years. (Aesch. Ep. 5.) Collytus was also the residence of Timon, the misanthrope (Lucian, Timon, 7, 44), and was celebrated as the demus of Plato.

5. Cydatkenaeum {Kv&atiiivaiov EtJi. KuSaffyFcurTs), a demus belonging to the tribe Pandionis. (Harp. Suid. Steph. Phot) The name is apparently compounded of Kvsos "glory," and 'Atfrfwuos, and is hence explained by Hesy chins (#. v.) as ccSo^s 'Afhjvaios. It is, therefore, very probable, as Leake has suggested, that this demus occupied the Theseian city, that is to say, the Acropolis, and the parts adjacent to it on the south and south-east. (Leake, p. 443; Mtiller, Dor. vol. ii. p. 72, trans].)

6. Diomeia (Aid aft a: Etk. Ato/icu), a demus belonging to the tribe Aegeis, consisting, like Cerameicus, of an Outer and an Inner Diomeia. The Inner Diomeia comprised the eastern part of city, and gave ite name to one of the city-gates in this quarter. In the Outer Diomeia was situated the Cynosarges. (Steph., Suid. «. v. Ato/uta; Hesych. s. v. Atofitis; Steph., Hesych. s. v. Kw6~ o-apyts; Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 664; Pint, de ExsiL I. c) The Outer Diomeia could not have extended far beyond the walls, since the demus Alopece was close to Cynosarges. and only eleven or twelve stadia from the- walls of the city. (Herod, v. 63; Aesch. c. Tim. p. 119, Reiske.)

7. Coele (Koi'Arj), a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. It lay partly within and partly without the city, in the valley between the Muaeium and the hills on the southern side of Ilissus. In this district, just outside the Melitian gate, were the sepulchres of Thucydides and Cimon. [For authorities, see p. 263.]

8. Ceiriadae (Kcip«£5cu), a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. (Harpocrat, Suid., Steph. B., Hesych. s. v.) The position of this demus is uncertain; but Sauppe brings forward many arguments to prove that it was within the city walls. In this district, and perhaps near the Metroum, was the Bdpadpov, into which criminals were cast. (For authorities, see Sauppe, pp 17, 18.)

9. Affrae ("Ayptu), was situated south of the Ilissus, and in the SE. of the city. Respecting its site, see p. 300, b. It does not appear to have been a separate demus, and was perhaps included in the demus of Agryle, which was situated south of it

10. l.imnttc (Afjuwu), was a district to the south of the Acropolis, in which the temple of Dionysus was situated. (Thuc. ii. 15.) It was not a demus, as stated by the Scholiast on Callimachus (//. in Del. 172), who ha* mistaken the Limnau of Messenia rnr the Limnae of Athens.

Colomu, which we have spoken of as a hill in the city, is maintained by Saupje to have been a separate dermis; but see above, p. 298, b.

The Kaboean cities of Eretria and Histiaea were said by some to have been named from Attic demi (Strab. x. p. 445); and from another passage of Srrabo (x. p. 447) it has been inferred that the socalled New Agora occupied the site of Eretria. [See p. 298, b.] It is doubtful whether Eretria was Sj mated m the city; aud at all events it is not mentioned elsewhere, either by writers or inscriptions, as a lemus.

Respecting the city demi the best account is given by Sauppe, De Demis UrbonU Athenamm, Weimar, 1846.

X. Suburbs Op The City.

1. The Outer Cerameictu and the Academy.— The road to the Academy ('As-aS^i'a), which was distant six or eight stadia from the gate named Dipylum, ran through the Outer Cerameicus. (Liv. xxxi. 24; Time vi. 57; Hat. Parm. 2; Plut. SulL 14; Cic, de Fin. v. I; Lucian, Scyth. 2.) It is called by Thucydides the most beautiful suburb of the city Tov KaWltrrov tepoaartlou ri)s TtoArws, Thuc. ii. 34). On each side of the road were the monuments of illustrious Athenians, especially of those who had fallen in battle; for the Outer Ceraineicns was the place of burial for all persons who were honoured with a public funeral. Hence we read in Aristophanes (Aves, 395):— 6 K.tpafttitcbs ocferai v&.

Over each tomb was placed a pillar, inscribed with the names of the dead and of their demi. (Paus. i. 29. § 4; comp. Cic. de Leg. ii. 26.) In this locality was found an interesting inscription, now in the British Museum, containing the names of those who had fallen at Potidaea, B. C 432.

The Academy is said to have belonged originally to the hero Academus, and was afterwards converted into a gymnasium. It was surrounded with a wall by Hipparchus, and was adorned by Cimon with walks, groves, and fountains. (Diog. Laert. iiL 7; Suid. s. v. 'Irwdpxou Tcix"*; Plut. Cim. 13.) The beauty of the plane trees and olive plantations was particularly celebrated. (Plin. xii. 1. s. 5.) Before the entrance were a statue and an altar of Love, and wi:hin the inclosure were a temple of Athena, and al*ars of the Muses, Prometheus, Hercules, &c. (Paus. L 30. § 1.) It was from the altar of Prometheus that the race of the Lampadephoria commenced. The Academy was the place where Plato taught, who possessed a small estate in the neighbourhood, which was his usual place of residence. (Diog. Laert. I. c; Aelian, V. H. ix. 10.) His successors continued to teach in the same spot, and were benee called the Academic philosophers. It continued to be one of the sanctuaries of philosophy, and was spared by the enemy down to the time of Sulla, who, during the siege of Athens, caused its celebrated groves to be cut down, in order to obtain timber for the construction of his military machines.

(Plut. Stdl. 12; Appian, MMtr. 30.) The Academy, however, was replanted, and continued to enjoy its ancient celebrity in the time of the emperor Julian. Near the temple of Athena in the Academy were the Moriae, or sacred olives, which were derived from the sacred olive in the Erechtlicium. The latter, as we have already seen, was the first olive tree planted in Attica, and one of the Moriae was shown to Pausanias as the second. They were under the guardianship of Zeus Mori04. (Comp. Suid. s. v. f&opicu; Schol. ad Soph. Qed Col. 730.) A little way beyond the Academy was the hill of Colunus, immortalised by the tragedy of Sophocles; and between the two places were the tomb of Plato and the tower of Ti.non, (Paus. i. 30. §§ 3, 4.) The name of Akadhimia is still attached to this spot. "It is on the lowest level, where some water-courses from the ridges of Lycabettus are consumed in gardens and olive plantations. These waters still cause the spot to be one of the most advantageous situations near Athens for the growth of fruit and potherbs, and maintain a certain degree of yerdure when all the surrounding plain is parched with the heat of summer." (Leake, p. 195.)

2. Cynosaryts (Kvvdaapyts). was a sanctiary of Hercules and a gymnasium, situated to the east of the city, not far from the gate Diomeia. It is said to have derived lis name from a white dog, which carried off part of the victim, when sacrifices were first offered by Diomus to Hercule . (Paus. i. 19. § 3; Herod, v. 63, vi. 116; Plut. Them. 1; Harpocrat. *, v. 'h/7oka€/o; Hesych. Suid. Steph. B. 8. v. Kvvdaapyts.) Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic school, taught in the Cynosarges. (Diog. Laert vi. 13.) It was surrounded by a grove, which was destroyed by Philip, together with the trees of the neighbouring Lyceium, when he encamped at this spot in his invasion of Attica in B. C. 200. (Liv. xxxi. 24.) Since Cynosarges was near a rising ground (Isocr. Vit. X. Orat. p. 838), Leake places it at the foot of the south-eastern extremity of Mount Lycabettus, near the point where the arch of the aqueduct of Hadrian and Antoninus formerly stood. The name of this gymnasium, like that of the Academy, was also given to the surrounding buildings, which thus formed a suburb of the city. (Korchhammer, p. 368.)

3. Lyceium (Atfircioy), a gymnasium dedicated to Apollo Lyceius, and surrounded with lofty plane tr?es, was also situated to the east of the city, and a little to the south of the Cynosarges. It was the chief of the Athenian gyn nasia, and was •domed by Pcisistratus, Pericles, and Lycurgus. (Pans. i. 19. § 3; Xen. Hipp. 3. § 6; Hesych. Harpocrat. Suid. *. v. AvvfW.) The Lyceium was the place in which Aristotle and his disciples taught, who were called Peripatetics, from their practice of walking in this gymnasium while delivering their lectures. (Diog. Lai:rt. v. 5; Cic. Acad. Quaest. i. 4.) In the neighbourhood of the Lyceium was a fountain of the hero Panops, near which was a small gate of the city, which must have stood between the gates Diocharis and Diomeia. (Plat. Lys. 1; He-sych.

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4. Lycabettu* (Avfta&rrTtis), was the name of the lofty insulated, mountain overhanging the city on its north-eastern side, and now called the Hill of St. George* from the church of St. George on its summit. [See p. 255, a.] This hill was identified by the ancient geographers with Anchesmus ('A-yX«7>(fs), which is described by Pausanias (i. 3J § 2) as a small mountain with a statue of Zeus Anchesmius. Pausanias is the only writer who mentions Anchesmus; but since all the other hills around Athens have names assigned to them, it was supposed that the hill of St George must have been Anchesmus. But the same argument applies with still greater force to Lycabettus, which is frequently mentioned by the classical writers; and it is impossible to believe that so remarkable an object as the Hill of St. George could have remained without a name in the classical writers. Wordsworth was, we believe, the first writer who pointed out the identity of Lycabettus and the Hill of St. George; and his opinion has been adopted by Leake in the second edition of his Topography, by Forchhammer, and by all subsequent writers. The celebrity of Lycabettus, which is mentioned as one of the chief mountains of Attica, is in accordance with the position and appearance of the Hill of St. George. Strabo (x. p. 454) classes Athens and its Lycabettus with Ithaca and its Neriton, Rhodes and its Atabyris, and Lacedaemon and its Taygetus. Aristophanes (Ran. 1057), in like manner, speaks of Lycabettus and Parnassus as synonymous with any celebrated mountains:

oh, ah A^ypi AvKaSrrrrobs Ko\ napvaauv T^up /ifyefrij, Tout' iari To XpiftrrA ot&bnrcir. Its proximity to the city is indicated by several passages. In the edition of the Clouds of Aristophanes, which is now lost, the Clouds were represented as vanishing near Lycabettus, when they were threatening to return in anger to Pames, from which they had come. (Phot. Lex. s. v. Uipvnt.') Plato (Critias, p. 112, a) speaks of the Pnyx and Lycabettus as the boundaries of Athens. According to an Attic legend, Athena, who had gone to Pallene, a demus to the north-eastward of Athens, in order to procure a mountain to serve as a bulwark in front of the Acropolis, was informed on her return by a crow of the birth of Erichthonius, whereupon she dropt Mount Lycabettus on the spot where it still stands. (Antig. Car. 12; for other passages from the ancient writers, see Wordsworth, p. 57, seq.; Leake, p. 204, eeq.) Both Wordsworth and Leake suppose Anchesmus to be a later name of Lycabettus, since Pausanias does not mention the latter; but Kicpert gives the name of Anchesmus to one of the hills north of Lycabettus. [See Map, p. 256.]

XI. The Port-towns.

Between four and five miles SW. of the Asty is the peninsula of Peiraeens, consisting of two rocky heights divided from each other by a narrow isthmus, the eastern, or the one nearer the city, being the higher of the two. This peninsula contains three natural basins or harbours, a large one on the western side, now called Drake (or Porto Leone), and two smaller ones on the eastern side, called respectively Stratiotiki (or Paschalimdni), and Fandri; the latter, which was nearer the city, being the smaller of the two. Hence Thucydides describes (i. 93) Pciraceus as \tapiov Mfievas $xov fpcts avrotpvtis.

We know that down to the time of the Persian wars the Athenians had only one harbour, named Phalerum; and that it was upon the advice of Themistocles that they fortified the Peiraeens, and made use of the more spacious and convenient harbours in this peninsula. Pausanias says (i. 1. § 2): * The Peiraeens was a deinus from early times, but

was not used as a harbour before Themislncles administered the affairs of the Athenians Before that time their harbour was at Phalerum, at the spot where the sea is nearest to the city. .... But Themistocles, when he held the government, perceiving that Peiraceus was more conveniently situated for navigation, and that it possessed three ports instead of the one at Phalerum (\tfi4vas rptTs <U0* Ivbs %x€iv T0" ♦aAijpoi), made it into a receptacle of ships." From this passage, compared with the words of Thucydides quoted above, it would seem a natural inference that the three ancient ports of Peiraeeos were those now called firdko, Stratiotiki, and Fanari ,* and that Phalerum had nothing to do with the peninsula of Peiraeeus, but was situated more to the east, where the sea-shore is nearest to Athens. But till within the last few years a very different situation has been assigned to the ancient harbours of Athens. Misled by a false interpretation of a passage of the Scholiast upon Aristophanes (Arc. 145), modern writers supposed that the large harbour of Peiraeeus (Drdko) was divided into three parts called respectively Cantharus (KdyOapos"), the port for ships of war, Zea (Na) for corn-ships, and Aphrodisium (*A0po8 tenor) for other merchantships; and that it was to those three ports that the words of Pausanias and Thucydides refer. It was further maintained that Stratiotiki was the ancient harbour of Munychia, and that Fanari, the more easterly of the two smaller harbours, was the ancient Phalerum. The true position of the Athenian ports was first pointed out by Ulrichs in a pamphlet published in modern Greek (ol Atptvts teal Ta paKpa r*tx\ rwv 'A(Hiva>vy Athens, 1843), of the arguments of which an abstract is given by the author in the ZeiUckrift fur die A Iterthumstcissenschajt (for 1844, p. 17, seq.). Ulrichs rejects the division of the larger harbour into three parts, and maintains that it consisted only of two parts; the northern and by far the larger half being called Emporium ('E.rnr6piov')f and appropriated to merchant vessels, while the southern bay upon the right hand, after entering the harbour, was named Cantharus, and was \ised by ships of war. Of the two smaller harbours he supposes Stratiotiki to be Yea, and Phandri Munychia. Phalerum he removes altogether from the Peiraic peninsula, and places it at the eastern corner of the great Phaleric bay, where the chapel of St. George now stands, and ia the neighbourhood of the Tom Xlvpyoi, or the Three Towers. Ulrichs was led to these conclusions chiefly by the valuable inscriptions relating to the maritime affairs of Athens, which were discovered in 1834, near the entrance to the larger harbour, and which were published by Bockh, with a valuable commentary under the title of Urhmden uber das Scetcesen des attischen Staates, Berlin, 1834. Of the correctness of Ulrichs's views there can now be little doubt; the arguments in support of them are stated in the sequel

A. Phalerum, The rocky peninsula of Peiraeeus is said by the ancient writers to have been originally an island, which was gradually connected with the mainland by the accumulation of sand. (Strab. L p. 59; Pliru iii. 85; Suid. v. ifiSapos.) The space thus filled up was known by the name of Ha ti pedum ('AAfirf. 5of), and continued to be a marshy swamp, which rendered the Peiraeeus almost inaccessible in the winter time till the construction of the broad carriage

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