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road (a.uafiTo'y), which was carried across it. (Harpocrat., Suid. s. v. aXiwriov] Xen. JlelL ii. 4. § 30.) Under these circumstances the only spot which the ancient Athenians could use as a harbour was the south-eastern corner of the Phaleric bay, now called, as already remarked. Tp*is Tlvpyot, which is a round hill projecting into the sea. This was accordingly the site of Phalerum {^dXrjpoy, also ♦oatjpo's: Elk. ♦oAjjpm), a demus belonging to the tribe Aeantis. This situation secured to the original inhabitants of Athens two advantages, which were not possessed by the harbours of the Peiraic peninsula: first, it was much nearer to the most ancient part of the city, which was built for the most part immediately south of the Acropolis (Thuc. ii. 15); and, secondly, it wad accessible at every season of the year by a perfectly dry road.

The true position of Phaleram is indicated by many circumstances. It is never included by ancient writers within the walls of Peiraeeus and Munychia. Strabo, after describing Peiraeeus and Munychia, speaks of Phalerum as the next place in order along the shore (m*t<* T^y n«jpaia 4»aAnp«ir Si/fios iv Tt} * • ifj irapaAuz, i\. p. 398). There is no spot at which Phalerum could have been situated before reaching Tp«7r Tlvpyot, since the intervening shore of the Phaleric gulf is marshy (to *oaijpiko>, Plut. y'it. X. Oral. p. 844, Them. 12; Strab. ix. p. 400; S bol. ad Aruivph. Av. 1693). The account which

Herodotus gives (v. 63) of the defeat of the Spartans, who bad landed at Phalerum, by the Thessalian cavalry of the Peisistratidae, is in accordance with the open country which extends inland near the chapel of St. George, but would not be applicable to the Bay of Fhandri, which is completely protected against the attacks of cavalry by the rugged mountain rising immediately behind it. Moreover, Ulrichs discovered on the road from Athens to St. George considerable substructions of an ancient wall, apparently the Phaleric Wall, which, as we have already seen, Whs rive stadia shorter than the two Long Walls. [See p. 259, b.]

That there was a town near St. George is evident from the remains of walls, columns, cisterns, and other ruins which Ulrichs futmd at this place; and we learn from another authority that there may still be seen under water the remains of an ancient mole, upon which a Turkish ship was wrecked during the war of independence in Greece. •(Westermann, in Zeitschrift fur die AlUrthuuistcissengchafty 1843, p. 1009.)

Cape Colias (KwAtas), where the Persian ships were cast ashore after the battle of Sal amis (Herod, viii. 96), and which Pausanias states to have been 20 stadia from Phalerum (i. 1. § 5), used to be identified with Tpus Uvpyoi, but must now be placed SE. at the present Cape of St. Kosmas: near the latter are some ancient remains, which are probably § 2) as a Hmall mountain with a statue of Zeus Anchesmius. Pausanias is the only writer who mentions Anehesmus; but since all the other hills around Athens have names assigned to them, it was supposed that the hill of St George must have been Anehesmus. But the same argument applies with still greater force to Lycabettus, which is frequently mentioned by the classical writers; and it is impossible to believe that so remarkable an object as the Hill of St. George could have remained without a name in the classical writers. Wordsworth was, we believe, the first writer who pointed out the identity of Lycabettus and the Hill of St. George; and his opinion has been adopted by Leake in the second edition of his Topography, by Forchhammer, and by all subsequent writers. The celebrity of Lycabettus, which is mentioned as one of the chief mountains of Attica, is in accordance with the position and appearance of the Hill of St. George. Strabo (x. p. 454) classes Athens and its Lycabettus with Ithaca and its Neriton, Rhodes and its Atabyris, and Lacedaemon and its Taygetus. Aristophanes {Ran. 1057), in like manner, speaks of Lycabettus and Parnassus as synonymous with any celebrated mountains:

ffv olv ah K&YVS AvKaSijrroits

Kal Tlapvaa&v 7)n7r jwyefb;, Tout' 4ot\ To

Xpl/ffTA $l$d<TKttV.

Its proximity to the city is indicated by several passages. In the edition of the Clouds of Aristophanes, which is now lost, the Clouds were represented as vanishing near Lycabettus, when they were threatening to return in anger to Panics, from which they had come. (Phot. Lex. s. v. Udpvrjs.) Plato (Critias, p. 112, a) speaks of the Pnyx and Lycabettus as the boundaries of Athens. According to an Attic legend, Athena, who had gone to Pallene, a demus to the north-eastward of Athens, in order to procure a mountain to serve as a bulwark in froi.t of the Acropolis, was informed on her return by a crow of the birth of Krichthonius, whereupon she dropt Mount Lycabettus on the spot where it still stands. (Antig. Car. 12; for other passages from the ancient writers, see Wordsworth, p. 57, seq.; Leake, p. 204, scq.) Both Wordsworth and Leake suppose Anehesmus to be a later name of Lycabettus, since Pausanias does not mention the latter; but Kiepert gives the name of Anehesmus to one of the hills north of Lycabettus. [See Map, p. 256.]

XL The Port-towns.

Between four and five miles SW. of the A^ty is the peninsula of Pciraeens. consisting of two rocky heights divided from each other by a narrow isthmus, the eastern, or the one nearer the city, being the higher of the two. This peninsula contains three natural bacins or harbours, a large one on the western side, now called Drdko (or Porto Leone), and two smaller ones on the eastern side, called respectively Stratiotiki (or Paschalimdni), and Fandri; the latter, which was nearer the city, being the smaller of the two. Hence Thucydides describes (i. 93) Peiraeeus as xu>Pl0V Atftivas %X0V TP<*s aurotpveis.

We know that down to the time of the Persian wars the Athenians had only one harbour, named Phalerum; and that it was upon the advice of Tliemistocles that they fortified the Peiraeeus, and made use of the more spacious and convenient harbours in this peninsula. Pausanias says (i. 1. § 2): 1 The Peiraeeus was a demus from early times, but

was not used as a harbour before Themislocles administered the affairs of the Athenians Before that time their harbour was at Phalerum, at the spot

where the sea is nearest to the city But

Tliemistocles, when he held the government, perceiving that Peiraeeus was more conveniently situated for navigation, and that it possessed three ports instead of the one at Phalerum (\tfiivas rpus av$' ivbs %x*tv T°u s>aAi7pot), made it into a receptacle of ships." From this passage, compared with the words of Thucydides quoted above, it would seem a natural inference that the three ancient ports of Peiraeeus were those now called 1%-dko, Stratiotiki, and Fandri; and that Phalerum had notlung to do with the peninsula of Peiraeeus, hut was situated more to the east, where the sea-shore is nearest to Athens. But till within the last few years a very different situation has been assigned to the ancient harbours of Athens. Misled by a false interpretation of a passage of the Scholiast upon Aristophanes (Pac. 145), modern writers supposed that the large harbour of Peiraeeus {Drdko) was divided into three ports called respectively Cantharus (Kdvdapos), the port for ships of war, Zea (Z«o) for corn-ships, and Aphrodisium ('AQpob'tatoy) for other merchantships; and that it was to those three ports that the words of Pausanias and Thucydides refer. It was further maintained that Stratiotiki was the ancient harbour of Munychia, and that Fandri, the more easterly of the two smaller harbours, was the ancient Phalerum. The true position of the Athenian ports was first pointed out by Ulrichs in a pamphlet published in modern Greek (oi AtjucVc* Ktd T& /*aKoa rttx», T&v 'A&fjvwv, Athens, 1843), of the arguments of which an abstract is given by the author in the ZeUschriftfilr die Alterthumsicissenschaft (for 1844, p. 17, seq.). Ulrichs rejects the division of the larger harbour into three parts, and maintains that it consisted only of two parts; the northern and by far the larger half being called Emporium ("E^iropioy), and appropriated to merchant vessels, while the southern bay upon the right hand, after entering the harbour, was named Cantharus, and was used by ships of war. Of the two smaller harbours he supposes Stratiotiki to be /.ea, and Phandri Munychia. Phalerum he removes altogether from the Peiraic peninsula, and places it at the eastern comer of the great Phalerie bay, where the chape] of St. George now stands, and in the neighbourlnwd of the Tprls Tlvpyoi, or the Three Towers. Ulrichs was led to these conclusions chiefly by the valuable inscriptions relating to the maritime affairs of Alliens, which were discovered in 1834, near the entrance to the larger harbour, and which were published by Bockh, with a valuable commentary under the title of Urhmden uber das Seewesm des attischen Staates, Berlin, 1834. Of the correctness of Ulrichss views there can now be little doubt; the arguments in support of them are stated In the sequel.

A. Phalerum. The rocky peninsula of Peiraeeus is said by the ancient writers to hare been originally an island, which was gradually connected with tie mainland by the accumulation of sand. (Strab. i. p. 59; Plin, iii. 85; Suid. s. v. tfiBapot.) The space thus filled up was known by the name of Halipedum ('AAfir*oov), and continued to be a marshy swamp, which rendered the Peiraeeus almost inaccessible in the winter time till the construction of the broad carriage

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road (ojuo^iTtis), which was carried across it. (Harpocrat., Suid. ». v. oAtTtSoK; Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 30.) Under these circumstances the only spot which the ancient Athenians could use as a harbour was the south-eastern corner of the Phaleric bay, now called, as already remarked, Tp«ts Tlvpyoi, which is a round lull projecting into the sea. This was accordingly the site of Phalerum (taAqtwr, also +oA7jp<Js: Etk. ♦aAjjpfls), a demos belonging to the tribe Aeantis. This situation secured to the original inhabitants of Athens two advantages, which were not possessed by the harbours of the Peiraic peninsula: first, it was much nearer to the most ancient part of the city, which was built for the most part immediately south of the Acropolis (Thuc. ii. 15); and, secondly, it was accessible at every season of the year by a perfectly dry road.

The true position of Phalerura is indicated by many circumstances. It is never included by ancient writers within the walls of Peiraeeus and Munychia. Strabo, after describing Peiraeeus and Munychia, speaks of Phalcrum as the next place in order along the shore (fiCTd rbp Tltipaia $aA7}pt?s Sy/xos iv Tjj *■'•■.,■';> irapaAuy, ix. p. 398). There is no spot at which Phalerum could have been situated before reaching T^f*j Hvpryot, since the intervening shore of the Phaleric gulf is marshy (to 4>aAijpiKoV, Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 844, Them. 12; Strab. be. p. 400; S If J ad ArisCoph. Ac. 1693). The account which

Herodotus gives (v. 63) of the defeat of the Spartans, who had landed at Phalerum, by the Thessalian cavalry of the Peisistratidae, is in accordance with the open country which extends inland near the chapel of St. George, but would not be applicable to the Bay of Pkartdri, which is completely protected against the attacks of cavalry by the rugged mountain rising immediately behind it. Moreover, Ulrichs discovered on the road from Athens to St. George considerable substructions of an ancient wall, apparently the Phaleric Wall, which, as we have already seen, was five stadia shorter than the two Long Walls. [See p. 253, b.]

That there was a town near St. George is evident from the remains of walls, columns, cisterns, and other ruins which Ulrichs found at this place; and we learn from another authority that there may still be seen under water the remains of an ancient mole, Upon which a Turkish ship was wrecked during the war of independence in Greece. -(Westcrmann, in Zeitschrift Jur die AUerthumsunuen$chaftt 1843, p. 1009.)

Cape Colias (KwAtas), where the Persian ships were cast ashore after the battle of Sal amis (Herod, viii. 96), and which Pausanias states to have been 20 stadia from Phalerum (i. 1. § 5), used to be identified with Tpth Tlvpyoi, but must now be placed SE. at the present Cape of St. Kosmas: near the latter are some ancient remains, which are probably § 2) as a small monntain with a statue of Zens Anchesmius. Pausanias is the only writer who mentions Anchesnms; but since all the other hills around Athens have names assigned to them, it was supposed that the hill of St George must have been Anchesmus. But the same argument applies with still greater force to Lycabettus, which is frequently mentioned by the classical writers; and it is impossible to believe that so remarkable an object as the Hill of St. George could have remained without a name in the classical writers. Wordsworth was, we believe, tlie first writer who pointed out the identity of Lycabettus and the Hill of St. George; and his opinion has been adopted by Leake in the second edition of his Topography, by Forchhammer, and by all subsequent writers. The celebrity of Lycabettus, which is mentioned as one of the chief mountains of Attica, is in accordance with the position and appearance of the Hill of St. George. Strabo (x. p. 454) classes Athens and its Lycabettus with Ithaca and its Neriton, Rhodes and its Atabyris, and Lacedaemon and its Taygetus. Aristophanes {Ran, 1057), in like manner, speaks of Lycabettus and Parnassus as synonymous with any celebrated mountains:

fyv oZv <rv \eyr]s AuieaffTrrroyj

Hal Hapvaauv ripuv ftty4(h}t Tovt* 4&t\ rb

Its proximity to the city is indicated by several passages. In the edition of the Clouds of Aristophanes, which is now lost, the Clonds were represented as vanishing near Lycabettus, when they were threatening to return in anger to Parries, from which they had come. (Phot. Lex. s. v. Udpvrjs.) Plato (Crif«u, p. 112, a) speaks of the Pnyx and Lycabettus as the boundaries of Athens. According to an Attic legend, Athena, who had gone to Pallene, a demus to the north-eastward of Athens, in order to procure a mountain to serve as a bulwark in froi.t of the Acropolis, was informed on her return by a crow of the birth of Erichthonius, whereupon she dropt Mount Lycabettus on the spot where it still stands. (Antig. Car. 12; for other passages from the ancient writers, see Wordsworth, p. 57, seq.; Leake, p. 204, seq.) Both Wordsworth and Leake suppose Anchesmus to be a later name of Lycabettus, since Pausanias does not mention the latter; but Kiepert gives the name of Anchesmus to one of the hills north of Lycabettus. [See Map, p. 256.]

XI. The Port-towns.

Between four and five miles SW. of the Asty is the peninsula of Peiraeens. consisting of two rocky height* divided from each other by a narrow isthmus, the eastern, or the one nearer the city, being the higher of the two. This peninsula contains three natural basins or harbours, a large one on the western side, now called Dr&ko (or Porlo Lame), and two smaller ones on the eastern side, called respectively Stratiotiki (or Paschalinu'mx), and Fandri; the latter, which was nearer the city, being the smaller of the two. Hence Thucydides describes (i. 93) Peiraeeus as xwP^0V Ai^tevas ^xov Tf><** avrotpvets.

We know that down to the time of the Persian wars the Athenians had only one harbour, named Phalerum; and that it was upon the advice of Tliemistocles that they fortified the Peiraeeus, and made use of the more spacious and convenient harbours in this peninsula. Pausanias says (i. 1. § 2): * The Peiraeeus was a demus from early times, but

was not used as a harbour before Thcmislocles administered the affairs of the Athenians Before that time their harbour was at Phalerum, at the spot

where the sea is nearest to the city But

Themistocles, when he held the government, perceiving that Peiraeeus was more conveniently situated for navigation, and that it possessed three ports instead of the one at Phalerum (Ki/xtvas rpns dv0' iubs $xtiy T°v ♦oa'^xh), made it into a receptacle of ships." From this passage, compared with the words of Thucydides quoted above, it would seem a natural inference that the three ancient ports of Peiraeeus were those now called 3rdko, Stratiotiki, and Fanari; and that Phalerum had nothing to do with the peninsula of Peiraeeus, but was situated more to the east, where the sea-shore is nearest to Athens. But till within the last few years a very different situation has been assigned to the ancient harbours of Athens. Misled by a false interpretation of a passage of the Scholiast upon Aristophanes (Pac. 145), modern writers supposed that the large harbour of Peiraeeus (Drdko) was divided into three ports called respectively Cantharus (K<£*0apos), the port for ships of war, Zea (Z<o) for corn-ships, and Aphrodisium ('Atppooiaioy) for other merchantships; and that it was to those three ports that the words of Pausanias and Thucydides refer. It was further maintained that StratiotUci wan the ancient harbour of Munychia, and that Fanari, the more easterly of the two smaller harbours, was the ancient Phalerum. The true position of the Athenian ports was first pointed out by Ulrichs in a pamphlet published in modern Greek (of Ai/itVcr xal Ta (xa~ npa nix*, r&v *A(H)pa*r, Athens, 1843), of the arguments of which an abstract is given by the author in the ZtxUchriftjur die Alterthwnsurissenschaft (for 1844, p. 17, seq.). Ulrichs rejects the division of the larger harbour into three parts, and maintains that it consisted only of two parts; the northern and by far the larger half being called Emporium ('Ejjiropiop), and appropriated to merchant vessels, while the southern bay upon the right hand, after entering the harbour, was named Cantharus, and was used by ships of war. Of the two smaller harbours he supposes StratiotUci to be Zea, and Phandri Munychia. Phalerum he removes altogether from the Peiraic peninsula, and places it at the eastern corner of the great Phaleric bay, where the chapel of St. George now stands, and in the neighbourhood of the Tptts Tlvpyoi, or the Tkrte Towers. Ulrichs was led to these conclusions chiefly by the valuable inscriptions relating to the maritime affairs of Athens, which were discovered in 1834, near the entrance to the larger harbour, and which were published by Bockh, with a valuable commentary under the title of Urktmden uber da* Seetceten de* attiscken Staates, Berlin, 1834. Of the correctness of Ulrichs's views there can now be little doubt; the arguments in support of them are stated in the sequel

A. Phalerum. The rocky peninsula of Peiraeeus is said by the ancient writers to have been originally an island, which was gradually connected with die mainland by the accumulation of sand. (Strab. i. p. 59; Plin. iii. 85; Suid. s. v. fufiopoy.) The space thus filled up was known by the name of Halipedum ('AAfirfoW), and continued to be a marshy swamp, which rendered the Peiraeeus almost inaccessible in the winter time till the construction of the broad carriage

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rood (axia(tr(fr), which was carried across it. (Harpu rat., Suid. s. v. oAnrtoor; Xen. Hell, ii. 4. § 30.) Under these circumstances the only spot which the ancient Athenians could use as a harbour was the south-eastern corner of the Phaleric bay, now called, as already remarked. Tpets Uvpyot, which is a round hill projecting into the sea. This was accordingly the site of Phalerum (4aAnpw, also 4»aA7jpo*s: Eth. ♦oatjp«is), a demus belonging to the tribe Aeantis. This situation secured to the original inhabitants of Athens two advantages, which were not possessed by the harbours of the Peiraic peninsula: first, it was much nearer to the most ancient part of the city, which was built for the most part immediately south of the Acropolis (Thuc. ii. 15); and, secondly, it was accessible at every season of the year by a perfectly dry road.

The true position of Phalerum is indicated by many circumstances. It is never included by ancient writers within the walls of Peiraeeuaand Munychia. Strabo, after describing Peiraeeus and Munychia, speaks of Phalerum as the next place in order along the shore (j*cto Top Utipaia 4»aATjpety oy/xos iv rp *I ys irafxiAf?, ix. p. 398). There is no spot at which Phalerum could have been situated before reaching Tp*?s Tlupyot, since the intervening shore of the Phaleric gulf is marshy (d ♦oA.TjpiKoV, Pint. Vit. X. Orat. p. 844, Them. 12; Strab. \x. p. 400; Schol. ad AriUoph. Av. 1693). The account which (

Herodotus gives (v. 63) of the defeat of the Spartans, who had landed at Phalerum, by the Thessalian cavalry of the Peisistratidae, is in accordance with the open country which extends inland near the chapel of St. George, but would not be applicable to the Bay of Phandri, which is completely protected against the attacks of cavalry by the rugged mountain rising immediately behind it. Moreover, Ulrichs discovered on the road from Athens to St. George considerable substructions of an ancient wall, apparently the Phaleric Wall, which, as we have alroiuly seer., was five stadia shorter than the two Long Walls. [Sea p. 259, b.]

That there was a town near St. George is evident from the remains of walls, columns, cisterns, and other ruins which Ulrichs found at this place; and we learn from another authority that there may still be seen under water the remains of an ancient mole, upon which a Turkish ship was wrecked during the war of independence in Greece. (Westennann, in ZrtUchri/t fur die Atterthwiiswi&enschaft, 1843, p. 1009.)

Cape Cohas (KcuAias), where the Persian ships were cast ashore after the battle of Salamis (Herod. viii. 90), and which Pausanisa states to have been 20 stadia from Phalerum (i. 1. § 5), used to be identified with Totts Tlvpyot, but must now be placed SE. at the present Cape of St. Kosmaa: near the latter ure some ancient remains, which are p robahly

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