صور الصفحة
PDF

those of the temple of Aphrodite Colitis mentioned by Pausanias.

The port of Phalerum was little used after the foundation of Peiraeeus; but the place continued to exist down to the time of Pausanias. This writer mentions among its monuments temples of Demeter Zeus, and Athena Sciras, called by Plutarch (Thes* 17) a temple of Scirus; and altars of the Unknown Gods, of the Sons of Theseus, and of Phalerus. The sepulchre of Aristides (Plut. Arist. 1) was at Phalerum. The Phaleric bay was celebrated for its fish. (For authorities, see Leake, p, 397.)

B. Peiraeeus and Munychia.

1. Division of Peiraeeus and Munychia.—Peiraeeus (Tletpaifvs: Eth. Tleipateis') was a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothontis. It contained both the rocky heights of the peninsula, and was separated from the plain of Athens by the low ground called Halipedon, mentioned above. Munychia (Mowux*a) included in Peiraeeus, and did not form a separate demos. Of the site of Munychia there can no longer be any doubt since the investigations of Curtius (De Portubus A thenarum, Halis,1842); Ulrichs also had independently assigned to it the same position as Curtius. Munychia was the Acropolis of Peiraeeus. It occupied the hill immediately above the most easterly of the two smaller harbours, that is, the one nearest to Athens. This hill is now called KwrreAAa. It is the highest point in the whole peninsula, rising 300 feet above the sea; and at its foot is the smallest of the three harbours. Of its military importance we shall speak presently. Leake had erroneously given the name of Munychia to a smaller height in the westerly half of the peninsula, that is, the part furthest from Athens, and had supposed the greater height above described to be the Acropolis of Phalerum.

2. Fortifications and Harbours. — The whole peninsula of Peiraeeus, including of course Munychia, was surrounded by Themistocles with a strong line of fortifications. The wall, which was 60 stadia in circumference (Time. ii. 13), was intended to be impregnable, and was far stronger than that of the Asty. It was carried up only half the height which Themistocles had originally contemplated (Thuc. i. 93); and if Appian (Mithr. 30) is correct in stating that its actual height was 40 cubits, or about 60 feet, a height which was always found sufficient, we perceive how vast was the project of Themistocles. *' In respect to thickness, however, his ideas were exactly followed: two carts meeting one another brought stones, which were laid together right and left on the outer side of each, and thus formed two primary parallel walls, between which the interior space (of course at least as broad as the joint breadth of the two carts) was filled up, not with rubble, in the usual manner of the Greeks, but constructed, through the whole thickness, of squared stones, cramped together with metal. The result was a solid wall probably not less than 14 or 15 feet thick, since it was intended to carry so very unusual a height," (Grote, vol. v. p. 335; comp. Thuc. i. 93.) The existing remains of the wall described by Leake confirm this account. The wall surrounded not only the whole peninsula, but also the small rocky promontory of Etioneia, from which it ran between the great harbour and the salt marsh called Ilalae. These fortifications were connected with those of the Asty by means of the Long Walk, which

have been already described. [See p. 259, seq.J It is usually stated that the architect employed by Themistocles in his erection of these fortifications, and in the building of the town of Peiraeeus, was Hippodamus of Miletus; but C. F. Hermann has brought forward good reasons for believing that, though the fortifications of Peiraeeus were erected by Themistocles, it was formed into a regularly planned town by Pericles, who employed Hippodamus for this purpose. Hippodamus laid oat the town with broad straight streets, crossing each other at right angles, which thus formed a striking contrast with the narrow and crooked streets of Athens. (Hermann, Disputatio de //ippodamo Milesio, Marburg, 1841.)

The entrances to the three harbours of Peiraeeus were rendered very narrow by means of moles, which left only a passage in the middle for two or three triremes to pass abreast These moles were a continuation of the walls of Peiraeeus, which ran down to either side of the mouths of the harbours; and the three entrances to the harbours (ra KKtiBpa Tan' Ai/uwv) thus formed, as it were, three large sea-gates in the walls. Either end of each mole was protected by a tower; and across the entrance chains were extended in time of war. Harbours of this kind were called by the ancients closed ports (leAfwrol Ai^tVfi), and the walls were called xv^} or claws, from their stretching out into the sea like the claws of a crab. It is stated by ancient authorities that the three harbours of the Peiraeeus were closed ports (Hesych. s. v. Zea; Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. 145; comp. Thuc. ii. 94; Plut. Demetr. 7; Xen. Hell. ii. 2. § 4); and in each of them we find remains of the chelae, or moles. Hence these three harbours cannot mean, as Leake supposed, three divisions of the larger harbour since there are traces of only one set of chelae in the latter, and it is impossible to understand how it could have been divided into three closed ports.

(i.) Phandri, the smallest of the three harbours, was anciently called Munychia, from the fortress rising above it. It was only used by ships of war; and we learn, from the inscriptions already referred to, that it contained 82 rcwwcoi, or ship-houses. This harbour was formerly supposed to be Phalerum; but it was quite unsuitable for trading purposes, being shut in by steep heights, and having no direct communication with the Asty. Moreover, we can hardly conceive the Athenians to have been so blind as to have used this harbour for centuries, and to have neglected the more commodious harbours of Straiiotiki and Drdko, in its immediate vicinity. The modern name of Phandri is probably owing to a lighthouse having stood at its entrance in the Byzantine period.

(ii.) Stratiotiki (called Paschalimdni by Ulrichs), the middle of the three harbours, is the ancient Zea (Na), erroneously called by the earlier topographers Munychia. (Timeaus, Lex., Plat.; Phot. Lex. s. v. ZioC) It was the largest of the three harbours for ships of war, since it contained 196 ship-houses, whereas Munychia had only 82, and Cantharus only 94. Some of the ship-houses at Zea appear to have been still in existence in the time of Pausanias; for though he does not mention Zea, the vtdxroiKQi which he speaks of (i. 1. § 3) were apparently at this port. This harbour probably derived its name from Artemis, who was worshipped among the Athenians under the surname of Zea, and not, as Meursius supposed, from the corn-vessels, which were confined to the Emporium in the great harbour.

(lii.) Drako or Porto Leone, the largest of the three harbours, was commonly called by the ancients simply Peiraeeus (rWipau!••$), or The Harbour ($ A.uTjr). It derives its modern name from a colossal lion of while marble, which Spon and Wheler observed upon the beach, when they visited Athens; and which was carried to Venice, after the capture of Athens by the Venetians in 1687. Drdko is the name used by the modern Greeks, since Sod*mi-. which originally meant only a serpent, now signifies a monster of any kind, and was hence applied to the marble lion.

It has been already stated that Leake and other writers, misled by a passage of the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Pac. 145), divided the harbour of Peiraeeus into three separate ports, named Cantharufl, Aphrodisium, and Zea, but the words of the Scholiast warrant no such conclusion:—6 Tltipaitvs \ifitras tya rpus, wdmas K\tnTTo6sm tts ufo & KavBdpov \iftvv iv $ ret vttl-pia, tJra To 'Atppo&l(Tiov tlra KVKXtp Tov \tfj.tvos aroal ircVrc. It is evident that the Scholiast does not intend to give the names of the three harbours of Peiraeeus; but, after mentioning Cantharus, he proceeds to speak of the buildings in its immediate vicinity, of which the Aphrodisium, a temple of Aphrodite, was one; and then followed the five Stone or Colonnades. Leake supposed Zea to be the name of the bay situated on the right hand after entering the harbour, Aphrodisium to be the name of the middle or great harbour, and Cantharus to be the name uf the inner harbour, now filled up by alluvial deposits of the Cephissus. It is, however, certain that the last-mentioned spot never formed part of the harbour of Peiraeeus, since between this marsh and the harbour traces of the ancient wall have been discovered; and it is very probable that this marsh is the one called Halae (*AAa£) by Xenophon. (Hell. ii. 4. § 34.)

The harbour of Peiraeeus appears to have been divided into only two parts. Of these, the smaller one, occupying the bay to the right hand of the entrance to the harbour, was named Cantharus. It was the third of the Athenian harbours for ships of war, and contained 94 ship-houses. Probably upon the shores of the harbour of Cantharus the armoury (br\o&i)Kri) of Philo stood, containing arms for 1000 ships. (Strab. ix. p. 395; Plin. vii. 37. s. 38; Cic de Oral. i. 14; Vitruv. vii. Praef.; Appian, Mithr. 41.)

The remainder of the harbour, being about twothirds of the who!*-, was called Emporium, and was appropriated to merchant vessels. (Timaeus, Lex. Plat.; Harpocrat. $. v. Auypa.) The surrounding shore, which was also called Emporium, contained the five Stoae or Colonnades mentioned above, all of which were probably appropriated to mercantile purposes. One of these was called the Macra Stoa (uaKpa aroa), or the Long Colonnade (Pans. L 1. § 3); a second was the Deigma {Atryfia), or place where merchants exhibited samples of their goods for sale (Harpocrat. s. v. Attyfta; Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 974; Dem. c L'icrit. p. 932); a third was the Alphitopolis ('AA^tTOTftrAiy), or Corn-Exchange, said to have been built by Pericles (Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 547): of the other two Stoae the names have not been preserved. Between the Stoae of the Emporium and Cantharus stood the Aphrodisium, or temple of Aphrodite, built by Conon after his victory at Cnidufl. (Pans. L c.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. t. O The limits of the Emporium toward* Can*

tharus were marked by a boundary stone discovered in situ in 1843, and bearing the inscription;—

EMnOPIO
KAIHOAO
HOP02,

i. e., 'Euiropfoi/ Kal 6$o$ Spot. The forms of the letters, and the use of the H for the spiritus asper, prove that the inscription belongs to the period before the Peloponnesian war. The stone may have been erected upon the first foundation of Peiraeeus by Themistocles, or when the town was laid out regularly by Hippodamus in the time of Pericles. It probably stood in a street leading from the Emporium to the docks of the harbour of Cantharus.

3. Topography of Munychia and Peiraeeus.— The site of Munychia, which was the Acropolis of Peiraeeus, has been already explained. Remains of its fortifications may still be seen on the top of the hill, now called Castella, above the harbour of Phanari. From its position it commanded the whole of the Peiraic peninsula, and its three harbours (vroiriirTovat 5* ainw \iutvcs rpus, Strab. ix. p. 395); and whoever obtained possession of this hill became master of the whole of Peiraeeus. Epimenides is said to have foreseen the importance of this position. (Plut. Sol. 12; Diog. Laert. i. 114.) Soon after the close of the Peloponnesian war, the seizure of Munychia by Thrasybulus and his party enabled them to carry on operations with success against the Thirty at Athens. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4.) The successors of Alexander the Great kept a Macedonian garrison in Munychia for a long period, and by this means secured the obedience of Athens. The first Macedonian garrison was placed in this fortress by Antipater after the defeat of the Greeks at Crannon, B. c. 322. (Paus. i. 25. § 4; Plut. Dem. 28.) When Athens surrendered to Cassander, in B.C. 318, Munychia was also garrisoned by the latter; and it was by the support of these troops that Demetrius Phalcreus governed Athens for the next ten years. In B.C. 307 the Macedonians were expelled from Munychia by Demetrius Poliorcetes; but the latter, on his return from Asia in B. C. 299, again placed a garrison in Munychia, and in the Museium also. These garrisons were expelled from both fortresses by the Athenians, under Olympiodorus, when Demetrius was deprived of the Macedonian kingdom in B.c. 287. (Paus. i. 25. § 4, seq., 26. § 1, seq.; Diod. xviii. 48, 74, xx. 45; Plut. Demetr. 8, seq., 46, Phoc. 31, seq.) During the greater part of the reign of Antigonus and of his son Demetrius II., the Macedonians had possession of Munychia; but soon after the death of Demetrius, Aratus purchased the departure of the Macedonian garrison by the payment of a large sum of money. (Plut. Aral. 34; Paus. ii. 8. § 5.) Strabo (L c.) speaks of the hill of Munychia as full of hollows and excavations, and well adapted for dwelling-houses. In the time of Strabo the whole of the Peiraeeus was in ruins, and the hollows to which he alludes were probably the remains of cisterns. The 6ides of the hill sloping down to the great harbour appear to have been covered with houses rising one above another in the form of an amphitheatre, as in the city of Rhodes, which was laid out by the same architect) and was also celebrated for its beauty

Within the fortress of Munychia was a temple of Artemis Munychia, who was the guardian deity of this citadel. The temple was a celebrated place of asylum for state criminals. (Xen. HelL ii 4. § U • those of the temple of Aphrodite Colias mentioned by Pausanias.

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

The port of Phalerum was little used after the foundation of Peiraeeus; but the place continued to exist down to the time of Pausanias. This writer mentions among its monuments temples of Demeter Zeus, and Athena Sciras, called by Plutarch {Thes. 17) a temple of Scirus; and altars of the Unknown Gods, of the Sons of Theseus, and of Phalerus. The sepulchre of ArUteides (Plut. Arist. 1) was at Phalerum. The Phaleric bay was celebrated for its fish. (For authorities, see Leake, p. 397.)

B. Peiraeeus and Munychia.

1. Division of Peiraeeus and Munychia.—Peiraeeus (Jlupmsvs; Eth. Xlttpaius) was a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothontis. It contained both the rocky heights of the peninsula, and was separated from the plain of Athens by the low ground called Halipedon, mentioned above. Mnnychia (Mouei»x»») was included in Peiraeeus, and did not form a separate demus. Of the site of Munychia there can no longer be any doubt since the investigations of Curtius (De Portubus Atkenamm, Halis,1842); Ulrichs also had independently assigned to it the same position as Curtius. Munychia was the Acropolis of Peiraeeus. It occupied the hill Immediately above the most easterly of the two smaller harbours, that is, the one nearest to Athens. This hill is now called KairWAAa. It is the highest point in the whole peninsula, rising 300 feet above the sea; and at its foot is the small e*t of the three harbours. Of its military importance we shall speak presently. Leake had erroneously given the name of Munychia to a smaller height in the westerly half of the peninsula, that is, the part furthest from Athens, and had supposed the greater height above described to be the Acropolis of Phalerum.

2. Fortifications and Harbours. — The whole peninsula of Peiraeeus, including of course Munychia, was surrounded by Themistocles with a strong line of fortifications. The wall, which was 60 stadia in circumference (Tbuc. ii. 13), was intended to be impregnable, and was far stronger than that of the Asty. It was carried up only half the height which Themistocles had originally contemplated (Thuc i. 93); and if Appian (Mithr. 30) is correct in stating that its actual height was 40 cubits, or about 60 feet, a height which was always found sufficient, we perceive how vast was the project of Themistocles. "In respect to thickness, however, his ideas were exactly followed: two carts meeting one another brought stones, which were laid together right and left on the outer side of each, and thus formed two primary parallel walls, between which the interior space (of course at least as broad as the joint breadth of the two carts) was filled up, not with rubble, in the usual manner of the Greeks, but constructed, through the whole thickness, of squared stones, cramped together with metal. The result was a lulid wall probably not less than 14 or 15 feet thick, since it was intended to carry so very unusual a height." (Grote, vol. v. p. 335; comp. Thuc. i. 93.) The existing remains of the wall described by Leake confirm this account. The wall surrounded not only the whole peninsula, but nlso the small rocky promontory of Etioneia, from which it ran between the great harbour and the salt marsh called Ilalae. The«e fortifications were connected with those of the Asty by means of the Long Walls, which

have been already described. [See p. 259, seq.J It is usually stated that the architect employed by Themistocles in his erection of these fortifications, and in the building of the town of Peiraeeus, was Hippodamns of Miletus; but C. F. Hermann has brought forward good reasons for believing that, though the fortifications of Peiraeeus were erected by Themistocles, it was formed into a regularly planned town by Pericles, who employed Hippodamus for this purpose. Hippodamus laid oat the town with broad straight streets, crossing each other at right angles, which thus formed a striking contrast with the narrow and crooked streets of Athens. (Hermann, Disputatio de l/ippodamo Milesio, Marburg, 1841.)

The entrances to the three harbours of Peiraeeus were rendered very narrow by means of moles, winch left only a passage in the middle for two or three triremes to pass abreast. These moles were a continuation of the walls of Peiraeeus, which ran down to either side of the mouths of the harbours; and the three entrances to the harbours (to KAttBpa idv Aipe'iw) thus formed, as it were, three large sea-gates in the walls. Either end of each mole was protected by a tower; and across the entrance chains were extended in time of war. Harbours of this kind were called by the ancients dosed ports (leXfurrol AipcVes), and the walls were called x^°'» or claws, from their stretching out into the sea like the claws of a crab. It is stated by ancient authorities that the three harbours of the Peiraeeus were closed ports (Hesych. s. v. Zea; Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. 145; comp. Thuc. ii. 94; Plut. Demetr. 7; Xen. Sell ii. 2. § 4); and in each of them we find remains of the chelae, or moles. Hence these three harbours cannot mean, as Leake supposed, three divisions of the larger harbour since there are traces of only one set of chelae in the latter, and it is impossible to understand how it could have been divided into three closed ports,

(i.) Phandri, the smallest of the three harbours, was anciently called Munychia, from the fortress rising above it. It was only used by ships of war; and we learn, from the inscriptions already referred to, that it contained 82 V&&<toucqi, or ship-houses. This harbour was formerly supposed to be Phalerum; but it was quite unsuitable for trading purposes, being shut in by steep heights, and having no direct communication with the Asty. Moreover, we can hardly conceive the Athenians to have been so blind as to have used this harbour for centuries, and to have neglected the more commodious harbours of Stratiotiki and Drdko, in its immediate vicinity. The modern name of Phandri is probably owing to a lighthouse having stood at its entrance in the Byzantine period.

(ii.) Stratiotiki (called PaschaUmdni by Ulrichs), the middle of the three harbours, is the ancient Zba (Zla), erroneously called by the earlier topographers Munychia. (Timeaus, Lex., Plat; Phot. Lex. s. v. Z4aJ) It was the largest of the three harbours for ships of war, since it contained 196 ship-houses, whereas Munychia had only 82, and Cantbarus only 94. Some of the ship-houses at Zea appear to have been still in existence in the time of Pausanias; for though he does not mention Zea, the rsdcouttu which he speaks of (1.1. § 3) were apparently at this port. This harbour probably derived its name from Artemis, who was worshipped among the Athenians under the surname of Zea, and not., as Meursius supposed, from the corn-vessels, which were confined to the Emporium in the great harbour.

(lii.) Dr&ko or Porto Leone, the largest of the three harbours, was commonly called by the ancients simply Peiraeeus (neifcucfr), or The Harbour (<J Ai^tifr). It derives its modern name from a colossal lion of white marble, which Spoo and Wheler observed upon the beach, when they visited Athens; and which was carried to Venice, after the capture of Athens by the Venetians in 1687. Draia is the name used by the modem Greeks, since SpcbrvF, which originally meant only a serpent, now signifies a monster of any kind, and was hence applied to the marble lion.

It has been already stated that Leake and other writers, misled by a passage of the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Pac. 145), divided the harbour of Peiraeeus into three separate ports, named Cantharus, Aphrodisium, and Zea, but the words of the Scholiast warrant no such conclusion:—6 Uapaifvs A<fi«Var ?xc' TP**r» mbras KKtttrrovs' eft fiiv 6 KavBdpov Kipy\v iv $ Ta vtwpta. «7to To 'A<ppoai'jtov cfra Kvk\<p rov Ktfuevos aroal wcWc. It is evident that the Scholiast does not intend to give the names of the three harbours of Peiraeeus; but, after mentioning Cant hams, he proceeds to speak of the buildings in its immediate vicinity, of which the Aphrodisium, a temple of Aphrodite, was one; and then followed the five Stoae or Colonnades. Leake supposed Zea to be the name of the bay situated on the right hand after entering the harbour, Aphrodisium to be the name of the middle or great harbour, and Cantharus to be the name of the inner harbour, now filled up by alluvial deposits of the Cephissus. It is, however, certain that the last-mentioned spot never formed part of the harbour of Peiraeeus, since between this marsh and the harbour traces of the ancient wall have been discovered; and it is very probable that this marsh is the one called Halae ('AAoi) by Xenophon. (Hell. ii. 4. § 34.)

The harbour of Peiraeeus appears to have been divided into only two parts. Of these, the smaller one, occupying the bay to the right hand of the entrance to the harbour, was named Cantharus. It was the third of the Athenian harbours for ships of war, and contained 94 ship-houses. Probably upon the shores of the harbour of Cantharus the armoury (6v\o9r)K7}) of Philo stood, containing arms for 1000 ships. (Strab. ix. p. 395; Plin. vii. 37. s. 38; Cic de OraL i. 14; Vitruv. vii. Praef.; Appian, Jfitfr. 41.)

The remainder of the harbour, being about twothirds of the whole, was called Emporium, and was appropriated to merchant vessels. (Timaeus, Lex. Plat.; Harpocrat. s. v. Auypa.) The surrounding shore, which was also called Emporium, contained the five Stoae or Colonnades mentioned above, all of which were probably appropriated to mercantile purposes. One of these was called the Macra Stoa (ftaxpa oroa), or the Long Colonnade (Pans. L 1. § 3); a second was the Deigma (Awyjia), or place where merchants exhibited samples of their goods for sale (Harpocrat. s. v. Attyfia: SchoL ad Arisloph. Equit. 974; Dem. c Laerit. p. 932); a third was the Alphitopolis ('AA^rrar&Ajs), or Corn*Exchange, said to have been built by Pericles (Schol. ad Arittoph. Equit. 547): of the other two Stoae the names have not been preserved. Between the Stoae of the Emporium and Cantharus stood the Aphrodisium, or temple of Aphrodite, built by Conon after his victory at Cnidus. (Pans. L c.; Schol. ad Arittoph, Pae. L c.) The limits of the Emporium towards Can*

tharus were marked by a boundary stone discovered in eitu in 1843, and bearing the inscription;—

EMnOPIO
KAIHOAO
HOP02,

t. e., 'Eunopiov Kal &b"ov Bpos. The forms of the letters, and the use of the H for the spiritus aspcr, prove that the inscription belongs to the period before the Peloponnesian war. The stone may have been erected upon the first foundation of Peiraeeus by Themistocles, or when the town was laid out regularly by Hippodamus in the time of Pericles. It probably stood in a street leading from the Emporium to the docks of the harbour of Cantharus.

3. Topography of Munychia and Peiraeeus. — The site of Munychia, which was the Acropolis of Peiraeeus, has been already explained. Remains uf its fortifications may still be seen on the top of the hill, now called Castellat above the harbour of Phanari. From its position it commanded the whole of the Peiraic peninsula, and its three harbours (Jmo•wiirTovffi 6"1 aintp Ai/tcVe* rptis, Strab. ix. p. 395); and whoever obtained possession of this hill became master of the whole of Peiraeeus. Epimenides is said to have foreseen the importance of this position. (Plut. Sol. 12; Diog. Laert. L 114.) Soon after the close of the Peloponnesian war, the seizure of Munychia by Thrasybulus and his party enabled them to carry on operations with success against the Thirty at Athens. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4.) The successors of Alexander the Great kept a Macedonian garrison in Munychia for a long period, and by this means secured the obedience of Athens. The first Macedonian garrison was placed in this fortress by Antipater after the defeat of the Greeks at Crannon, B. c. 322. (Paus. i. 25. § 4; Plut. Dem. 28.) When Athens surrendered to Cassander, in B.C. 318, Munychia was also garrisoned by the latter; and it was by the support of these troops that Demetrius Phalereus governed Athens for the next ten years. In B.C. 307 the Macedonians were expelled from Munychia by Demetrius Poiiorcetes; but the latter, on his return from Asia in B. C. 299, again placed a garrison in Munychia, and in the Museium also. These garrisons were expelled from both fortresses by the Athenians, under Olympiodorus, when Demetrius was deprived of the Macedonian kingdom in B.C. 287. (Paus. i. 25. § 4, seq., 26. § 1, seq.; Diod. xviii. 48, 74, uc. 45; Plut. Demetr. 8, seq., 46, Phoc. 31, seq.) During; the greater part of the reign of Antigonus and of his son Demetrius II., the Macedonians had pos>ession of Munychia; but soon after the death of Demetrius, Aratus purchased the departure of the Macedonian garrison by the payment of a large sum of money. (Plut. Arat. 34; Paus. ii. 8. § 5.) Strabo (L c.) speaks of the hill of Munychia as full of hollows and excavations, and well adapted for dwelling-houses. In the time of Strabo the whole of the Peiraeeus was in ruins, and the hollows to which he alludes were probably the remains of cisterns. The sides of the hill sloping down to the great harbour appear to have been covered with houses rising one above another in the form of an amphitheatre, as in the city of Rhodes, which was laid out by the same architect, and was also celebrated for its beauty

Within the fortress of Munychia was a temple of Artemis Munychia, who was the guardian deity of this citadel. The temple was a celebrated place of asylum for state criminals. (Xen. Hell ii 4. § 11 • Paus. LI. § 4; Dem. de Cor on. p. 222, Reiske; Lya. c. Agorat. pp. 460, 462, Reiske.) Near the preceding, and probably also within the fortress, was the Bendideium (BcrSttcjor), or temple of the Thracian Arten.is Bendis, whose festival, the Ben- dideia, was celebrated on the day before the lesser Panathenaea. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 11; Plat. de Rep. i. pp. 327, 354.) On the western slope of the hill was the Dionysiac theatre, facing the great harbour: it must have been of considerable size, as the assemblies of the Athenian people were sometimes held in it. (Thuc. viii. 93; Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 32 ; Lys. c. Agorat. pp. 464, 479 ; comp. Dem. de Fals. lug. p. 379.) It was in this theatre that Socrates saw a performance of one of the plays of Euripides. (Aelian, V. H. ii. 13.) Some modern writers distinguish between the theatre at Munychia and another in Peiraeeus ; but the ancient writers mention only one theatre in the peninsula, called indifferently the Peiraic or the Munyeliian theatre, the latter name being given to it from its situation upon the hill of Mtmychia. The ruins near the harbour of Zea, which were formerly regarded as those of the Peiraic theatre, belonged probably to another building.

The proper agora of Peiraeeus was called the Hippodameian Agora ('Imroocf/ieior iryopci), to distinguish it from the Macra Stoa, which was also used as an agora. The Hippodameian Agora was situated near the spot where the two Long Walls joined the wall of Peiraeeus; and a broad street led from it up to the citadel of Munychia. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § II; Andoc. de Myst. p. 23, Reiske; Dem. c. Timoth. p. 1190.)

At the entrance to the great harbour there was on the right hand the promontory Alcimus (*AAfttfios), on the left hand the promontory Eetionia ("HeTiftiWa, or 'Hertuipeta). On Alcimus stood the tomb of Themistocles, whose bones are said to have been brought from Magnesia in Asia Minor, and buried at this place. (Plut. Them. 32; Paus. i. 1. § 2). Eetionia was a tongue of land commanding the entrance to the harbour ; and it was here that the Four Hundred in B.C. 411 erected a fort, in order to prevent more effectually the entrance of the Athenian fleet, which was opposed to them. (Thuc. viii. 90; Dem. c, Theocr. p. 1343; Harpocrat., Suid., Steph. B. a. v. 'Htrtwyeia.) The small bay on the outer side of the promontory was probably the Kbxpbs \tfirjy mentioned by Xenophon. Well. ii. 4. §31.)

The buildings around the shore of the great harbour have been already mentioned. Probably behind the Macra Stoa was the temenus of Zeus and Athena, which Pausanias (i. 1. § 3) mentions as one of the most remarkable objects in Peiraeeus, and which is described by other writers as the temple of Zeus Soter. (Strab. ix. p. 396; Liv xxxi. 30; PHn. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 14.) Phreattys, which was one of the courts of justice fur the trial of homicides, was situated in Peiraeeus; and as this court is described indi tie rent ly iv Z«'<jt or iv Qpcarroi, it must be placed either in or near the harbour of Zea. The accused pleaded their cause on board ship, while the judges sat upon the shore. (Pans. i. 28. § 11; Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 645; Pollux, viii. 1-0; Becker, A need. Graec. i. p. 311.)

Peiraeeus never recovered from the blow inflicted upon it by its capture by Sulla, who destroyed its fortifications and arsenals. So rapid was its decline that in the time of Strabo it had become "u small

village, situated around the ports and the tempi* of Zeus Soter." (Strab. it. p. 395.)

The most important work on the Topography of Athens is Col. I^eake's Topography of A tJtens, London, 1841, 2nd edition. In common with all other writers on the subject, the writer of the present article is under the greatest obligations to Col. Leake, although he has had occasion to differ from him on some points. The other modern works from which most assistance have been derived are Forchhammer, Topograpkie. von A then, in Kieler Phtlologische Studien, Kiel, 1841; Kruse, Hellas, vol. ii. pt. i., Leipzig, 1826; K. 0. Miiller, art. Attika in Ersch and Gruber's Encychpddie vol. vi., translated by Lockhart, London, 1842 t Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, London, 1836; Stuart and Revett, Antiquities of Athens, London, 1762—1816, 4 vols., fo. (2nd ed. 1825—1827); DodweM, Tour through Greece, vol. i. London, 1819; Prokesch, Denheurdigkeiten, <fc., vol. ii., Stuttgart, 1836; Mure, Journal of a Tour in Greece, Tel. ii. Edinburgh, 1842.

[graphic]

COINS OF

ATHENAEON (JkBrivtu&vx Sudak or Sugdajaf) also called "a harbour of the Scythotauri," was a port on the south coast of the Tauric Chersoncsus. (Anon. Peripl. p. 6.)

ATHENAEUM (' 6nvaiav\ 1. A fortress in the S. of Arcadia, and in the territory of Megalopolis, is described by Plutarch as a position in advance of the Lacedaemonian frontier {itiSoKr) Ttjs AaK-ctf^iK^s), and near Belcmina. It was fortified by Cleomencs in B.C. 224, and was frequently taken and retaken in the wars between the Achaean League and the Spartans. Leake supposes that it occupied the summit of Mount Tzimbani, on which there are some remains of an Hellenic fortress. In that (ase it mu>t have been a different place from the Athenaeum mentioned by Pausanias on the pad from Megalopolis to Asea, and 20 stadia from the latter. (Plut. Cleom. 4; Pol. ii. 46. 54. iv. 37, 60, 81; Paus. viii. 44. §§ 2, 3; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 248.)

2. A fortress in Athamania in Epeirus. described by Livy as ** fiiubus Macedonia* subjectnm," and apparently near (iumphi. Lake places it on a height, a little above the deserted village of Apdno Porta, or Porta PanaghSa. (Liv. xxviii. l,xxxix.25 Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. pp. 212, 625.)

« السابقةمتابعة »