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eording to the Itin. Ant. (pp.308, 310) Adria was the pint of junction of the Via Salaria and Valeria, a circumstance which probably contributed to its importance and flourishing condition under the

H is now generally admitted, that the coins of Adria (with the legend Hat.) belong to the city of Kcenum; but great difference of opinion has been entertained as to their age. They belong to the class commonly known as Aea Grave, and are even among the heaviest specimens known, exceeding in weight the most ancient Roman asses. On this account they have been assigned to a very remote antiquity, some referring them to the Etruscan, others to the Greek, settlers. But there seems much reason to believe that they are not really so ancient, and belong, in fact, to the Roman colony, which was founded previous to the general reduction of the Italian brass coinage. (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 98; Mtiller, Etrusker, vol. i. p. 308; Bockh, Metrologie, p. 379; Mommsen, Das livmische Muruicwen, p. 231; Millingen, Numismatujue de VItalic, p. 216.) [E.H.B.]

[graphic]

COIN OF ADRIA.

ADRIATICUM MARE (6 'Atptas), is the name given both by Greek and Latin writers to the inland aea still called the^rfriafic, which separatcsltaly from Ulyricum, Dahnatia and Epeirus, and is connected at its southern extremity with tlie Ionian Sea. It appears to have been at first regarded by the Greeks as a mere gulf or inlet of the Ionian Sea, whence the expression 6 'ASpias {k6\-tos sc.), which first came into use, became so firmly established tliat it always maintained its ground among the Greek writers of the best ages, and it is only at a later period or in exceptional cases that we find the expressions rj 'A V-ar?i or 'AiptariK^t baAaaaa. (The former expression is employed by Scymnus Chins, 368; and the latter in one instance by Strabo, iv. p. 204.) The Latins frequently termed it Mare Supekl'm, the Upper Sea, as opposed to the Tyrrhenian or Lower Sea (Mare Inferum); and the phrase is copied from them by Polybius and other Greek writers. It appears probable indeed that this was the common or vernacular expression among the Romans, and that the name of the Adriatic was a mere geographical desisrnation, perhaps borrowed in the first instance from the Greeks. The use of Adria or Ha i mi A in Latin for the name of the sea, was certainly a mere Graecism, first introduced by the poets (Hor. Cam. i.3. 15, iii. 3. 5, &c.; Catull. xxxvi. 15), though it is sometimes used by prose writers also. (Senec. Ep. 90; Mela, ii. 2,&c.)

According to Herodotus (i. 163) the Phocaeans were the first of the Greeks who discovered the Adriatic, or at least the first to explore its recesses, but the Phoenician* must have been well acquainted with it long before, as they had traded with the Venetians for amber from a very early period. It lias, indeed, been contended, that & 'A&phf* in Herodotus (both and in iv. 33, v. 9) means not the

sea or gulf so called, but a region or district about the head of it. But in this case it seems highly improbable that precisely the same expression should . have come into general use, as we certainly find it | not long after the time of Herodotus, for the sea i itself.* Uecataeus also (if we can trust to the acI curacy of Stephanus 11. s. v. 'Afyu'as) appears to have | used the full expression K6a-kos 'ASpfos,

The natural limits of the Adriatic are very clearly marked by the contraction of the opposite shores at its entrance, so as to form a kind of strait, not exceeding 40 G. miles in breadth, between the Aeroeeraunian promontory in Epirus, and the coast of : Calabria near Hydnintum, in Italy. This is accordingly correctly assumed both by Strabo and Pliny as the southern limits of the Adriatic, as it was at an earlier period by Scylax and Polybius, the latter of j whom expressly tells us that Oricus was the first city . on the right hand after entering the Adriatic. (Strab.vii. p.317; Plin.iii. 11. a. 16; Scylax, § 14, p. 5, § 27, p. 11; Pol. vii. 19; Mela, ii. 4.) But it appears to have been some time before the appellation was received in this definite sense, and the use of the name both of the Adriatic and of the Ionian Gulf was for some time very vague and fluctuating. It is probable, that in the earliest times the name of 6 'ASpias was confined to the part of the sea in the , immediate neighbourhood of Adria itself and the mouths of the Padus, or at least to the upper part near the head of the gulph, as in the passages of Herodotus and Hecatacus above cited; but it seems that Hecataeus lumsclf in another passage {up. StepH. B. s. v. "IfTTpot) described the 1st nans as dwelling on the Ionian gulf, and Hellanicus {tip. 1 Dion. IlalA. 28) spoke of the Padus as flowing into the Ionian gulf. In like manner Thucydides (i. 24) describes Epidamnus as a city on the right hand as you enter the Ionian gulf. At this period, therefore, the latter expression seems to have been at least the more common one, as applied to the whole sea. But very soon after we find the orators Lysias and Isocrates employing the term 6 'ASptas in its more extended sense: and Scylax (who must have , been nearly contemporary with the latter) expressly tells us tliat the Adriatic and Ionian gulfs were one and the same. (Lys. Or. c. Diog. § 38, I p. 908; Isocr. Philipp. § 7;*Scylax, § 27, p. 11.) j From this time no change appears to have taken place in the use of the name, 6 'ABpfay being fami! iiarly used by Greek writers for the modern Adriatic (Theophr. iv. 5. §§ 2, 6; Pseud. Aristot. de Mirab. §§ 80, 82; Scymn. Ch. 132, 193, &c; Pol. ii. | 17, iii. 86, 87, &c.) until after the Christian era. I But subsequently to that date a very singular change ! was introduced: for while the name of the Adriatic l Gulf {d 'Atyfay, or 'ASpiarticbs Kcjatos) became re| stricted to the upper portion of the inland sea now known by the same name, and the lower portion nearer the strait or entrance was commonly known as the

* The expressions of Polybius (iv. 14, 16) cited by MUUcr {Ktrmker, i. p. 141) in support of this view, certainly cannot be relied on, as the name of 6 'A&ptas was fully established as that of the sea, long before his time, and is repeatedly used by himself in this sense. But his expressions are singularly vague and fluctuating: thus we find within a few pages, 6 Kara Tov *Ab~plav Ksattos, 6 rod waiTiJi 'ASplov u.vx^s, 6 *ASptaruc6s MUX^J» V -o» 'A&play 3dAoTTa,ctc. (See Schweighfiusers Index to Polybius, p. 197.)

Ionian Gulf, the sea without that entrance, previously known as the Ionian or Sicilian, came to be called the Adriatic Sea. The beginning of this alteration may already be found in Strabo, who speaks of the Ionian Gulf as a part of the Adriatic: but it is found fully developed in Ptolemy, who makes the promontory of Garganus the limit between the Adriatic Gulf (6 'ASpfaj Koattos) and the Ionian Sea (to 'iwviov TrdKayos'), while he calls the sea which bathes the eastern .shores of Bruttium and Sicily, the Adriatic Sea (t() 'AfyiariicoV ireAcryos): and although the later geographers, Dionysius Pericgetes and Agathcmenis, apply the name of the Adriatic within the same limits as Strabo, the common usage of historians and other writers under the Roman Empire is in conformity with that of Ptolemy. Thus we find them almost uniformly speaking of the Ionian Gulf for the lower jwirt of the modem Adriatic: while the name of the latter had so completely sajxT.-cded the original appellation of the Ionian Sea fur that which bathes the western shores of Greece, that Philostratus speaks of the isthmus of Corinth as separating the Aegaean Sea from the Adriatic. And at a still later period we find Procopius and Orosius still further extending the appellation as far as Crete on the one side, and Malta on the other. (Ptol. iii. 1. §§ 1, 10. 14, 17, 26, 4. §§ 1, 8; Dionys. Per. 92—94, 380, 481; Agathemer. i. 3, ii. 14; Appian, Syr. 63, B. C. ii. 39, iii. 9, v. 65; Dion Cass. xli. 44, xiv. 3; Herodian. viii. 1; Philost r. Itnagg. ii. 16; Pausan. v. 25. § 3, viii. 54. § 3; Hieronym. Ep. 86? Procop. B. G. i. 15, iii. 40, iv. 6, B. V. i. 13, 14, 23; Oros. i. 2.) Concerning the various fluctuations and changes in the application and signification of the name, see Larcher's Notes on Herodotus (vol. i. p. 157, Eng. transl.), and Lctronne(Reckerckes sur Dicuil. p. 170—218), who has, however, carried to an extreme extent the distinctions he attempts to establish. The general form of the Adriatic Sea was well known to the ancients, at least in the time of Strabo, who correctly describes it as long and narrow, extending towards the X\V., and corresponding in its general dimensions with the part of Italy to which it is parallel, from the Iapygian promontory to the mouths of the Pad us. He also gives its greatest breadth pretty correctly at about 1200 stadia, but much overstates its length at 6000 stadia. Agathemerus, on the contrary, while he agrees with Strabo as to the breadth, assigns it only 3000 stadia in length, which is as much below the truth, as Strabo exceeds it, (Strab. ii. p. 123, v. p. 211; Agathemer. 14.) The Greeks appear to have at first regarded the neighbourhood of Adria and the mouths of the Padus as the head or inmost recess of the gulf, but Strabo and Ptolemy more justly place its extremity at the gulf near Aquileia and the month of the Tilavemptus (Tagliamento). (Strab. ii. p. 123, iv. p. 206; Ptol. iii. 1. §§ 1,26.)

The navigation of the Adriatic was much dreaded on account of the frequent and sudden storms to which it was subject : its evil character on this account is repeatedly alluded to bv Horace. (Carta, i. 3. 15, 33. 15, ii. 14. 14, iii. 9." 23, &c.)

There is no doubt that the name of the Adriatic was derived from the Etruscan city of Adria or Atria, near the mouths of the Padus. Livy, Pliny, and Strabo, all concur in this statement, as well as in extolling the ancient power and commercial influence of that city [Al>UIA, No. 1], and it is probably only by a confusion between the two cities of ,

the same name, that some later writers have derived the appellation of the sea from Adria in Pioeuuin, which was situated at some distance from the coast and is not known to have been a place of any importance in earlv times. [E. H. B.J

ADRUME'TUM. [hadrumetum.]

ADRUS (Albaragena), a river of Hispania Lusitanica, flowing from the N. into the Anas (GuadU ana) opposite to Badajoz {/tin. Ant. p. 418; Ukert, vol. ii. pt 1, pp. 289—392). [P. S.]

ADUATICA or ADUA'TUCA, a castellum or fortified place mentioned by Caesar (S. G. vi. 32) as situated about the centre of the country of the Eburones, the greater part of which country lay between the Mosa (Maas) and the Rhenus. There is no further indication of its position in Caesar. Q. Cicero, who was posted here with a legion in B. c. 53, sustained and repelled a sudden attack of the Sigambri (B. G. vi. 35, &c.), in the same camp in which Titurius and Auranculeius had wintered in B. c. 54 (B. G. v. 26). If it be the same place as the Aduaca Tungrorum of the Antonine Itinerary, it is the modern Tongtrn, in the Belgian province of Limburg, where there arc remains of old walls, and many antiquities. Though only a castellum or temporary fort in Caesar's time, the place is likely enough to have been the site of a larger town at a later date. [G. L.]

ADUA'TICI (jArovaTiKoit Dion Cass.), a people of IMgic Gaul, the neighbours of the Eburones: and Nervii. They were the descendants of 6000 Cimbri arid Teutones, who were left behind by the rest of these barbarians on their march to Italy, for the purpose of looking after the baggage w hich their comrades could not conveniently take with them. After the defeat of the Cimbri and Teutones, near Aix by C. Marius (b. C. 102), and again in the north of Italy, these 6000 men maintained themselves in the country. (Caes. B. 0. ii. 29.) Their head quarters were a strong natural position on a steep elevation, to which there was only one approach. Caesar does not give the place a name, and no indication of its site. D'Anville supposes that it is Falais on the Mehaigne. The tract occupied by the Adnatici appears to be in South Brabant. When their strong position was taken byCaesar, 4000 of the Aduatici perished, and 53,000 were sold for slaves. {B. G. ii. 33.) [G. L.]

ADU'LA MONS (<S ASouAas). the name given to a particular group of the Alps, in which, according to the repeated statement of Strabo, both the Rhine and the Addua take their rise, the one flowing northwards, the other southward into the Larian Lake. This view is not however correct, the real source of the Addua being in the glaciers of the Rhaetian Alps, at the head of the ValteUine, while both branches of the Rhine rise much farther to the W. It is probable that Strabo considered the river which descends from the Splugen to the head of the lake of Como (and which flows from N. to S.) ass the true Addua, overlooking the greatly superior magnitude of that wliich comes down from the ValteUine. The sources of tins river arc in fact not far from those of the branch of the Rhine now called the Ilintcr Rhein, and which, having the more direct course from S. to N., was probably regarded by the ancients as the true origin of the river. Mt. Adula would thus signify the lofty mountain group about the passes of the Splugen and 5. Bernardino, and at the head of the valley of the Ilintcr Rhein, rather than the Mt. St. (fvtfiard, as supposed by most

modern geographers, but we mast not expect great accuracy in the use of the term. Ptolemy, who also represents the Rhine as rising in Mt. Adula, says nothing of the Addua; but erroneously describes this part of the Alps as that where the chain alters its main direction from N.to E. (Strab.iv.pp. 192, 204, p. 213; Ptol. ii. 9. § 5, iii. 1. § I.) [E. H. B.] ADU LE or ADU'LIS ('asoisatj, Ptol.ir. 7. § 8, nli. 16- § 11; Arria.ii. Pcripl; Eratosth. pp. 2, 3; "ABouXti, Steph. B. s. v.; 'AHovKft, Joseph. Antiq. ii. 5; Procop. B. Pcrs. i. 19; oppidum adouliton, Plin. H. S. vi. 29. s. 34: Eth. 'ASovKirns, Ptol. iv. 8; Adulita, Plin. 1. c.: Adj. 'a5o»aitiko*s), the principal haven and city of the Adulitae, a people of mixed origin in the regio Troglodytica, situated on a bay of the Red Sea called Adulieus Sinus ('A5oi/\i*bs icoXiroy, Anncsley Bay). Adule is the modern Thnlla or Zulla, pronounced, according to Mr. Salt, .4 coot, and stands in lat. 15° 35' N. Ruins are said to exist there. D'Anville, indeed, in his Map of the Red Sea, places Adule at Arkeeko on the same coast, abmt 22° N. of Thulla. According indeed to Cosma?, Adule was not immediately on the cnast.but about two miles inland. It was founded by fugitive slaves from the neighbouring kingdom of Egypt, and under the Romans was the haven of Axurae. Adule was an emporium for hides (riverhorse and rhinoceros), ivory (elephant and rhinoceros tusks), and tortoise-shell. It had also a large slave- market, and was a caravan station for the trade of the interior of Africa. The aj#s which the hV>man ladies of high birth kept as pets, and for which they often gave high prices, came principally from Adule. At Adule was the celebrated Monumenium Aduiitanutn, the inscription of which, in Greek letters, was, in the 6th century of the Christian era, copied by Cosmas the Indian merchant (Indicopleostes; see Diet, of Biog. art. Cosmas) into the second book of his "Christian Topography." The monument is a throne of white marble, with B slab of some different stone behind it. Both throne and slab seem to have been covered with Greek characters, Cosmas appears to have put two inscriptions into one, and thereby occasioned no little perplexity to learned men. Mr. Salt's discovery of the inscription at Axume,and the contents of the Adulitan inscription itself, show that the latter was bipartite.

The first portion is in the third person, and records that Ptolemy Euergetea (b. C. 247—222) received from the Troglodyte Arabs and Aethiopians certain elephants which his father, the second king of the Macedonian dynasty, and himself, had taken in hunting, in the region of Adule, and trained to war in their own kingdom. The second portion of the inscription is in the first person, and commemorates the conquests of an anonymous Aethiopian king in Arabia and Aethiopia, as far as the frontier of Egypt. Among other names, which we can identify with the extant appellations of African districts, occurs that of the most mountainous region in Abyssinia, the Semenae, or Samen, and that of a river which is evidently the Astaboras or Tacazzc, a main tributary of the Nile. The Adulitan inis printed in the works of Cosmas, in the Nov. Pair, et Script. Graec. by Montfaacon, pt. ii. PF 113—346; in ChisulFs Antiq. Atiat.; and in Fabricius, Bibl. Graec. iv. p. 245. The best commentary upon it is by Buttmann, Ma. der AUerthumsw. ii. 1. p. 105. [W. B. D.] ADULITAE. [adul-e-j ADTRMA'CHIDAE ('AJypMax^), a people of

N. Africa, mentioned by Herodotus as the first
Libyan people \V. of Egypt. (Herod, iv. 168.) Their
extent was from the frontier of Egypt (that is, ac-
cording to Herodotus, from the Sinus Piinthinetes
(ii. 6), but according to Scylax (p. 44, Hudson),
from the Canopic mouth of the Nile), to the harbour
of Plynos, near the Catabathmus Major. Herodotus
distinguishes them from the other Libyan tribes in
the E. of N. Africa, who were chiefly nomade (iv.
191), by saying that their manners and customs
resembled those of the Egyptians (iv, 168). He
also mentions some remarkable usages which pre-
vailed amongst them (/. c). At a later period they
are found further to the S., in the interior of liar-
marica. (Ptol.; Plin. v. 6; 60. Ital. iii. 278, Ml.
ix. 223, foil.) [P.S.]
AEA. [colchis.]
AEACE'UM. [aegina.]
AEA'NTIUM (Aidvrwv: Tnkeri), a promontory
in Magnesia in Thessaly, forming the entrance to
the Pagasaean bay. According to Ptolemy there
was a town of the same name upon it. Its highest
summit was called Mt. Tisaeum. (Plin. iv. 9. s. 16;
Ptol. iii. 13. § 16; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv.
p. 397.) [tisaeum.]
AEAS. [Aous.]

Aebij"ra {AX€oupa: Eth. AiGovpatos: prob. Cuerva), a town of the Carpetani, in Hispania Tarraconensis (Liv. xl. 30; Strab. ap. Steph. B. *. v.\ probably the Aifiopa of Ptolemy (ii. 6). Its name appears on coins as Aipora and Apora. (Mionnet, vol. i. p. 55, Supp. vol. i. pp. 111, 112). [P. S.]

AECAE (A/*ax: Etk. Accanus: Troja), a town of Apulia mentioned both by Polybinsand Livy, during the military operations of Hannibal and Fabius in that country. In common with many other Apulian cities it had joined the Carthaginians after the battle of Cannae, but was recovered by Fabius Maximus in B. c. 214, though not without a regular siege. (Pol. iii. 88; Liv. xxiv. 20.) Pliny also enumerates the Aecani among the inland towns of Apulia (iii. 11); but its posit ion is more clearly determined by the Itineraries, which place it on the Appian Way between Eqnus Tuticus and Herdonia, at a distance of 18 or 19 miles from the latter city. (Itin. Ant. p. 116; Itin. Hier. p. 610; the Tab. Peut. places it between Equus Tuticus and Luceria, but without giving the distances.) This interval exactly accords with the position of the modern city of Troja, and confirms the statements of several chroniclers of the middle ages, that the latter was founded about the beginning of the eleventh century, on the ruins of the ancient Aecao. Cluverius erroneously identified Aecae with Accadia, a village in the mountains S. of Bovino; but his error was rectified by Holstcnius. Troja is an episcopal see, and a place of some consideration; it stands on a hill of moderate elevation, rising above the fertile plain of Puglia, and is 9 miles S. of Lucera, and 14 SW. of Foggia. (Hulstcn. Not. in Cluver. p. 271; Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 227; Giustiniani, Diz. Geogr. vol. ix. p. 260.) [E.H.B.] AECULA'NUM, or AECLA'NUM {AiKo6\avov, Appian, Ptol.: Eth. Aeculanus, Plin.; but the contracted form Aeclanus and Aeclanensis is the only one found in inscriptions:—the reading Aeculanum in Cic. ad AH. xvi.2, is very uncertain:—later inscriptions and the Itineraries write the name Eolanum), a city of Samnium, in the territory of the Hirpini, is correctly placed by the Itinerary of Antoninus on I the Via Appia, 15 Roman miles from Beneventum *j (Plin. iii. 11. a. 16; Ptol. iii. 1. § 71; Itin. Ant. p

120; Tab. Peat.) No mention of it is found in history during the wars of the Romans with the Samnites, though it appears to have been one of the chief cities of the Hirpini: but during the Social War (b. C. 89) it was taken and plundered by Sulla, which led to the submission of almost all the neighbouring cities. (Appian, B. C. i. 51.) It appears to have been soon after restored: the erection of its new walls, gates, and towers being recorded by an inscription still extant, and which probably belongs to a date shortly after the Social War. At a later period we find that part of it.s territory was portioned out to new colonists, probably under Octavian, but it retained the condition of a municipium (as we learn from Pliny and several inscriptions) until hmg afterwards. It was probably in the rei^n of Trajan that it acquired the rank and title of a colony which we find assigned to it in later inscriptions. (Lib. Colon, pp. 210, 260; Orell. Inter, no. 566, 3108, 5020; Zumpt, de Coloniu, p. 401.)

The site of Aeculanum was erroneously referred by Cluverius (Ital. p. 1203) to Frigento. Holstenius was the first to point out its true position at a place called le Grotte, about a mile from Mirabdla, and close to the Taverna del Passo, on the modern high road from Naples into Pttglia. Here the extensive remains of an ancient city have been found: a considerable part of the ancient walls, as well as ruins and foundations of Thermae, aqueducts, temples, an amphitheatre and other buildings have been discovered, though many of them have since perished; and the whole site abounds in coins, gems, bronzes, and other minor relics of antiquity. The inscriptions found here, as well as the situation on the Appian Way, and the distance from Benevento, clearly prove these remains to be those of Aeculanum, and attest its splendour and importance under the Koman empire. It continued to be a flourishing place until the 7th century, but was destroyed in A. D. 662, by the emperor Constans II. in his wars with the Lombards. A town arose out of its ruins, which obtained the name of Quintodkcimum from its po>ition at that distance from Reneventum, and which continued to exist to the 11th century when it had fallen into complete decay, and the few remaining inhabitants removed to the castle of Mirabella, erected by the Normans on a neighbouring hill. (Holsten. Not. in Cluver. p. 273; Lupuli, Jtcr Vtnusin. pp. 74—128; Guarini, Ricerche stdf ant tea Citta di Eclano, 4to. Napoh, 1814; Romanelli, vol. ii. pp. 323—328.) [E. H. B.]

AEDEPSUS (Aftij^o*: Eth. Aftty"": Lipso), a town on the NW. coast of Eub <ca, 160 stadia from Cynus on the opposite coast of the Opuntian Locri. It contained warm baths sacred to Hercules, which were u^ed by the dictator Sulla. These warm baths are still found about a mile above Lipso, the site of Aedepsus. (Strab. pp. GO, 425 ; Allien, p. 73; Plut. Suit. 26, Stjmp. iv. 4, where ToA^os is a fills* reading; Steph. B. s. v.; PtoL iii. 15. § 23; Plin. iv. 21; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 176; Walpole, Travels, ifc., p. 71.)

AEDUI, HE'DUI (AiSouot, Strab. p. 186), a Celtic people, who were separated from the Sequani hy the Arar (Saone), which formed a large part of their eastern boundary. On the W. they were separated from the Biturigos by the upper course of the Ligeris {Loire'), as Caesar states (if. G. vii. 5). To the NE. were the Lingones, and to the S. the Scgusiani. The Acdiu Ambarri (/?. G. i. U), kinsmen of the Aedui, were on the borders

of the Allobroges. The chief town of the Aediu in Caesar's time was Bibracle, and if we assume it to be on the site of the later town of Augustodunum (Autun), we obtain probably a fixed central position in the territory of the Aedui, in the old division of Bourgogne. The Aedui were one of the most powerful of the Celtic nations, but before Caesars proconsulship of Gallia, they bad been brought under the dominion of the Sequani, who had invited Germans from beyond the Rhine to assist them. The Aedui had been declared friends of the Roman people before this calamity befel them; and Divitiacus, an Aeduan, went to Rome to ask for the assistance of the senate, but he returned without accomplishing the object of his mission. Caesar, on his arrival in Gaul (b. C. 58), restored these Aedui to their former indepen • donee and power. There was among them a Inxly of nobility and a senate, and they had a great number of cUentes, as Caesar calls them, who appear to have been in the nature of vassals. The clientes ot j the Aedui are enumerated by Caesar (B. G. vii. 75). The Aedui joined in the great rebellion against the Romans, which is the subject of the seventh book of the Gallic war (B. G. vii. 42, &c); but Caesar reduced them to subjection. In the reign of Tiberius A. D. 21, Julius Sacrovir, a Gaul, attempted an insurrection among the Aedui and seized Augustodunura, but the ri.-ing was soon put down by C. Sihus. (Tac. Ann. iii. 43—46.) The 1 head of the commonwealth of the Aedui in Caesar's time was called Vergobretus. He was elected by the priests, and held lus office for one year. He had the power of life and death over his people, as Caesar says, by which expression ho means proliaUy that he was supreme judge. (B. G. i. 16, vii. 33.)

The clientes, or small communities dependent on the Aedui, were the Scgusiani, already mentioned; the Ambivareti, who were apparently on the northern boundary of the Aedui trans Mosam, (£. G. iv. 9); and the Aulerci Brannovices [aui.ekci]. The Ambarri, already mentioned as kinsmen of the Acdui, are not enumerated among the clientes (if. G. vii. 55). One of the pagi or divisions of the Acdui was called Insnbres (Liv. v. 34). Caesar allowed a body of Boii, who had joined the Helvetii in their attempt to settle themselves in Gaul, to remain in the territory of the Aedui (if. G. i. 28). Their territory was between the Loire and the Allier, a branch of the Loire. They had a town, Gergovia (if. G. vii. 9), the site of which is uncertain; if the reading Gergovia is accepted in this passage of Caesar, the place must not be confounded with tho Gerouvia of the Arvenii. [G. L.}

AKGAE in Kuroj« (Acyat: Eth. Arycuos, AryearTjs, Arya«i>s). 1. Or Akga (ai7<x), a town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, wad situated ujxm the river C rat his and upon the coast, between Acgoira and Bura. It is mentioned by Homer, and was celebrated in the earliest times for its worship of Poseidon. It was afterwards deserted by its inhabitants, who removed to the neighbouring town of Aegeira; and it had already ceased to be one of the 12 Achaean cities on the renewal of the League in B. C. 280, its place being occupied by Ceryneia. Its name does not occur in Polybius. All traces of Aegae have disappeared, but it pn>bably occupied the site of the Khan ofAkrata, which is situated upon a commanding height rising fn.n the left bank of the river. Neither Strabo nor Paumcntion on which bank of the Cratliis it Hood, but it probably stood on the left bank, since the right is low and often inundated. (Horn. II. viii. 203: Herod, i. 145; Strab. pp. 386—387; Paus. vii. 25. § 12; Leake, Morea, vol. in. p. 394; Curtius, PelopomtesoSy vol. i. p. 472.)

2. A town in Ernathia in Macedonia, and the burial-place of the Macedonian kings, is probably the same as Edessa, though some writers make them two different towns. [edessa.]

3. A town in Euboea on the western coast N. of Chakis, and a little S. of Orobiae. Strain) says that it was 120 stadia from Anthedon in Boeotia. It is mentioned by Homer, but had disappeared in the time of Strata. It was celebrated for its worship of Poseidon from the earliest times; and its temple of this god still continued to exist when Strabo wrote, being situated upon a lofty mountain. The latter writer derives the name of the Aegaean Sea from this town. Leake supposes it to have etood near LimnL (Horn. II. xiii. 21; Strab. pp. HS6, 405; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. in. p. 275.)

AEGAE in Asia, 1. (Arva/, Alyalcu, Atytcu: Eth. Atytuos, Ajytdrns; A gas Kola, or Kalassy), a town on the coast of Cilicia, on the north side of the bay of Jssua. It is now separated from the outlet of the Pyramus (Jyhoon) by a long narrow aestuary called A$a* Bag. In Strata's time (p. 676) it was a snail city with a port. (Comp. Lucan, ui. 227.) Aegae was a Greek town, but the origin of it is unknown. A Greek inscription of the Roman period has been discovered there (Beaufort, Karamania, P- 299); and under the Roman dominion it was a place of some importance. Tacitus calls it Aegeae {Ann. xiii. 8.)

2. (AiTai: Eth. Ai7oIi)5,Ai70i«i/$),anAeoIian city (Herod, i. 149), a little distance from the coast of Mysia, and in the neighbourhood of dime and Temnos. It is mentioned by Xenophon (Hellen. iv. 8. § 5) under the name Aiyeis, which Sclineider has altered into Atyat. It suffered from the great earthquake, which in the time of Tiberius (a. D. 17) desolated 12 of the cities of Asia. (Tacit. Am*. ii_ 47.) [G. L.]

AEGAEAE. [aegiae.]

AEGAEUM MAKE (to Atyatov -xtkayot, Herod, iv. 85; Aesch. Agam. 659; Strab. passim; or simply To A<7cubvT Herod, vii. 55 ; 6 Aiyatos tt4~ kayos, Herod. ii. 97), the part of the Mediterranean new called the Archipelago, and by the Turks the White Sea, to distinguish it from the Black Sea. It was bounded on the N. by Macedonia and Thrace, on the W. by Greece and on the E. by Asia Minor. At its NE. corner it was connected with the Propontis by the. Hellespont. [hei.i.espontus.] Its •xtent was differently estimated by the ancient writers; but the name was generally applied to the whole sea as far S. as the islands of Crete and Bbodes. Its name was variously derived by the ancient grammarians, either from the town of Aegae in Euboea; or from Aegeus, the father of Theseus, who threw himself into it; or from Aegaca, the queen of the Amazon*, who perished there; or from Aesaeon, who was represented as a marine god living in the sea; or, lastly, from oryfr, a squall, on account of its storms. Its real etymology is uncertain. Its navigation was dangerous to ancient navigators on account of its numerous islands and rocks, which orcasinn eddies of wind and a confused sea, and also on account of the Etesian or northerly winds, which Upv with great fury, especially about the equinoxes.

To the storms of the Aegaean the poets frequently allude. Thus Horace (Can*, ii. 16): Otium divos rogat in patenti prensns Aegaeo; and Virgil (Aen. xii. 365): Ac velut Edoni Boreae cum spiritus alto insonat Aegaeo. The Aegaean contained numerous islands. Of these the most numerous were in the southern part of the sea; they were divided into two principal groups, the Cyclades, lying off the coasts of Attica and Peloponnesus, and the SporadVs, lying along the coasts of Curia aud Ionia. [cyCi^ades; SroitADES.] In the northern part of the sea were the larger islands of Euboea, Thasos and Samothrace, and off the coast of Asia those of Sainos, Chios and Lesbos.

The Aegaean sea was divided into: 1. Mark Thracium (o QptriKtos Wovtoj, Horn. II. xxiii. 230; To BprjtKioy vtKayos, Herod, vii. 176; comp. Soph. Oed. H. 197), the northern part of the Aegaean. washing the shores of Thrace and Macedonia, and extending as far S. as the northern coast of the island of Euboea.

2. Mare Myrtoum (Hor. Carm. i. 1. 14; To Mvprtfov vfAjryor), the part of the Aegaean S. of Euboea, Attica and Argolis, which derived its name from the small island Myrtus, though others suppose it to come from Myrtilus, whom Pelops threw into this sea, or from the maiden Myrto. Pliny (iv. 11. s. 18) makes the Myrtoan sea a part of the Aegaean; but Strabo (pp. 124, 323) distinguishes between the two, representing the Aegaean as terminating at the promontory Sunium in Attica.

3. Mare Icarivm (Hor. Carm. i. 1. 15; 'Ircdptos vdvros, Horn. 77. ii. 145; 'licdptov we*Aoryof, Herod, vi. 95), the SE. part of the Aegaean along the coasts of Caria and Ionia, which derived its name from the island of Icaria, though according to tradition it was so called from Icarus, the son of Daedalus, having fallen into it.

4. Mare Creticum (to KprjTtfebv ir4\ayos, Thuc.iv. 53), the most southerly part of the Aegaean, N. of the island of Crete. Strabo (/. c), however, makes this sea, as well as the Myrtoan and Icarian, distinct from the Aegaean.

AEGA'LEOS (ArvaAfwy, Herod, viii. 90; rb Atyd\ta>v 6pos, Time. ii. 19: Skarmanga), a range of mountains in Attica, lying between the plains of Athens and Eleusis, from which Xerxes witnessed the battle of Salamis. (Herod. I.e.) It ended in a promontory, called Amimiialk ('Au<f>iaATj),opposite Salamis, from which it was distant only two stadia according to Strabo (p. 395). The southern part of this range near the coast was called Cokydalus or GOBTDallus(Ko/^i/oaAuy, Kopu5oA.Aos) from a demus of this name (Strab. /. c), and another part, through which there is a pass from the plain of Athens into that of Eleusis, was named Poecilum (noudAop, Paus. i. 37. § 7.) (Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 2, scq.)

AEGA'TES I'XSULAE, the name given to a group of three small islands, lying off the western extremity of Sicily, nearly opposite to Drepanum and Lilybaeum. The name is supposed to be derived from the Greek Alydoes, the "Goat islands;" but this form is not found in any Greek author, and the Latin writers have universally Aegates. Silius Italic us also (i. 61) makes the second syllable long1. The westernmost of the threo, which is distant about 22 G. miles from the coast of Sicily, was called Hieka ('kpd Vt\(tos, Ptol. Polyb. Diod.); but at a later period obtained the name of Maritima, from its lying »o far out to sea (Itin. Marit. p. 492), and

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