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direction, and terminating on the sea coast above the promontory Khamnus. The modern name of Parnes is Nozid; that of Cithaeron, or at least of its highest point, is Elate, derived from its fir-trees. These two chains of mountains, together with the central one of Cithaeron, completely protect the peninsula of Attica from the rest of Greece. It thus appears that Megaris naturally forms a part of the peninsula: it was one of the four ancient divisions of Attica, but was afterwards separated from it. [meGakis.]

There are two passes across the mountains from Corinth into the Megaris, which are spoken of under Megaris. Through the range of Cithaeron and Parnes there are three principal passes, all of which were of great importance in ancient times for the protection of Attica on the side of Boeotia. The most westerly of these passes was the one through which the road ran from Thebes and Plataeae to Eleusis; the central one was the pass of Phyle, through which was the direct road from Thebes to Athens; and the eastern one was the pass of De celeia, leading from Athens to Oropns and Delium. A more particular account of these important passes is given below. [See Nos. 43,48,51.] The highest points of Mt Parnes lie between the passes of Phyln and Deceleia: one of the summits rises to the height of 4193 feet.

From this range of mountains there descend several other ranges into the interior, between which there lie four plains of greater or less extent.

On the NW. boundary of Attica a range of mountains runs down to the south, terminating on the west side of the bay of Eleusis in two summits, formerly called Cerata (jh Kipara, Strab. ix. p.395) or the Hornt, now Kandili: this range forms the boundary between Attica and Megaris. Another mountain range, extending from Parnes to the south, terminates on the eastern side of the bay of Eleusis, and at the narrow strait which separates the island of Salamis from the mainland: it bore the general name of Aegaleos, and parts of it were also called Poecilum and Corydallus. [akgai.eos.] Between the range of Cerata and that of Aegaleos lies the Eleusinian and Thriasian Plain.

Eastward of this plain lies the Athenian Plain, frequently called simply The Plain (to IlcSior). It is bounded on the west by Aegaleos, as has been already mentioned. Through this range of mountains there is an important pass leading from the Eleusinian into the Athenian plain. It is a narrow rocky opening between Mt. Corydallus, and is now called the pass of Dhafni: through it the Sacred Way from Eleusis to Athens formerly ran. Further north, towards Achamae, are some openings in the heights, where are found ruins of a rampart, seven feet high, and five feet and a half thick, built along the crest of the hills: the summit of the wall forms a commanding platform towards the Eleusinian plain. (Leake, p. 143.) On the west the Athenian plain is bounded by a range of mountains, which also descends from Parnes. The northern part of this range appears to have been anciently called Brilessus (Thuc. ii. 23), and subsequently Pentelicus (to T\tvTtKtK&v 6. ov, Paus. i. 32. § 1; Mons Pentelcnsis, Yitruv. ii. 8), now Mendeli or Penteli. The first Greek writer who applies the name of Pentelicus to this mountain is Pausanias; but as Strabo (ix. p. 399) speaks of Pentelic marble, we may infer with Leake that the celebrity of the marble quarried in the demus of Pentele, upon the side of Mt. Brilessus, had

caused the name of Pentelicus to supplant that of the ancient Brilessus. The plain of Athens is bounded on the south-east by the lofty range of Mt. Hymettus, which is separated from that of Pentelicus by a depression about two miles in length. Hymettus, the highest point of which is 3506 feet, is separated by a remarkable break into two parts, the northern or greater Hymettus, now called TeloVuni, and the southern or lesser Hymettus, which formerly bore also the name of Anhydrus ("AvvlSpos, Theophr. de Sign. Pluv. p. 419, Heins.) or the Waterless, now called Mavro- Vuni. The latter terminates in the promontory Zoster.

The hill of Lycabettus, in the neighbourhood of Athens, is spoken of elsewhere. [See p. 303, b.]

Sometimes both the Eleusinian and Athenian plains are included under the general name of The Plain; and the coast of these two plains was more specifically called Acte. (Strab. ix. p. 391.)

North east of the Athenian plain, between Parnes, Pentelicus, and the sea, is a mountain district, known by the name of Diacria (Aiairp/a) in antiquity. Its inhabitants, usually called Diacreu or Diacrii (Aiaxpels, Auurptm), were sometimes also termed Jfyperacrii ^TtrepaKploi, Herod, i. 59). apparently from their dwelling on the other side of the mountain from the city. The only level part of this district is the small plain of Marathon, open to the sea. At the north-eastern extremity of this district, west of Cape Kdlamo, there rises an eminence 2038 feet in height, which is probably the ancient Phelleus (4>€AA*iij), a name which came to be used by the Athenians for any rocky heights adapted for the pisture of goats. (Aristoph. A'a4.71, Acharn. 272; Isaeus, de Ciron. Bered. p. 227, Beiske; Harpocrat., Suid., ». v. 4>eAAeo; Hesych. t. v. *^AAoi.)

South-east of the Athenian plain is an undulating district, anciently called Mesogaea (Mta-fryaia') or the Midland district, and now Mtsoahia, It is bounded by Pentelicus on the north, C^nieftui on the west, the sea on the east, and the hills of Paralia on the south

Paralia or Parahu (JlapaXla, TldpaXos), i. e. the Sea-coast district, included the whole of the south of Attica, extending from the promontory Zoster on the west, and from Brauron on the east, to Sunium. It was a hilly and barren district, but contained the rich silver-mines of Laurium. (Thuc ii. 55; Steph. B., Suid. t. ».)

It appears, then, that Attica is distributed into five natural divisions. 1. The Eleusinian or Thriasian Plain. 2. The Athenian Plain. 3. The Diacria or Highlands, including the Plain of Marathon. 4. The Mesogaea or Midland District. 5. The Paralia or Sea-coast District. This geographical distribution gave rise also to political divisions, as we shall see presently.

The small plain of Oropns, lying north of Fames upon the Euboean channel, generally belonged to Attica, though physically separated from it, and properly a part of Boeotia. [orofus.]

The area of Attica is about 700 square miles, not including the island of Salamis, which is about 40 more. The length of the west coast from Cerata or the Horns to Sunium is about 60 miles, and the length of the east coast is about the same. (There is a good account of the physical features of Attica in the Penny Cyclopaedia, vol. hi. p. 59.)

III. Rivert. — The rivers of Attica are little better than mountain torrents, almost dry in summer, and only full in winter, or after heavy rains. The Athenian plain is watered by two rivers, the Cephissus and the Ilissua. The Cephissus (Kn<t>iiro6i), which is the more important of the two, flows southwards from Mt. Fames on the west side of Atheas, and after crossing the Long Walk falls into the Phaleric bay. Strabo (x. p. 400) places its sources at Trinemii. Leake observes: The most distant sources of the river are on the western side of Mt. Pentelicus, and the southern side of Mt. Parnes, and in the intermediate ridge which unites them; but particularly at Kicieia, at the foot of Pentelicus,—near Faeidhero, in the part of Diacria adjoining to the same mountain, — at Tatdy, near the ancient Deceleia, and in the steepest part of Mt. Parnes, from whence descends a broad torrent, which, passing near the village Menidhi, pours a large occasional supply into the main channel of the Cephissus." Strabo says (/. c.) that 11 the Cephissus is only a torrent stream, and that in summer it fails altogether;1* but this is not in accordance with the account of most modem travellers, who represent it as the only river in Attica which is supplied with water during the whole year. In ancient times "it flowed in a single channel, and was probably carefully embanked: it is now allowed to find its way through the olive-groves in several streams, from which there are many smaller derivations, for the purpose of watering olive-trees and gardens." (Leake.)

The Ilissus ("lAnTO-ifs) is a more insignificant river. It was composed of two branches, one of which was named Eridanus ('HpiSiwo'i, Paus. i. 19. § 5). The main branch rises at the northern extremity of Hymettus, and receives near the Lyceium, on the east side of Athens, the Eridanus, which rises on the western slope of Hymettus at a spot called Syrian*. The united stream then flows through the southern portion of the city, towards the Phaleric bay; but it scarcely ever reaches the sea, and in the neighbourhood of Athens it is always dry in the summer. The spreading plane trees, and the shady banks of this stream, which have been immortalized by the beautiful description in the Phaedrvt of Plato, have been succeeded by sun-burnt rocks and stunted bushes. (Dodwell, vol. i. p. 475.) The source of the river at Syriini is a beautiful spot, and is apparently described in the passage of Ovid (Ar. Am. iti. 687), beginning:

"Est prope purpureos colles florentis Hymetti Fons sacer, et viridi cespite mollis humus."

There was a torrent in the Athenian plain called Cycloborus (KvK\6Gopos'), described as rushing down with a great noise (Aristoph. Equit. 137, with Schol., Acham. 381; Hesych., Suid.): it is probably the large and deep channel, called Megalo 0, which descends from Parnes, and flows ; miles, until lost in the olive-groves. (Dodwell, vol. L p. 477.)

Two small streams water the Eleusinian plain; one called the Cephissus (JSarandaforo'), rises in Mt. Cithaeron, and traverses the narrow plain of Eleutherae, before it descends into that of Eleusis (Paus. L 28. § S); the other, now named lunula, has its origin in tie range of Parnes, near Phyle. A small stream called lapis ('Iain's) formed the boundary between the territory of Eleusis and Megaris. (Scylax, I. v. Mtyapa; Callim. ap. Steph. B. $. v. 'Io*(j.)

The only other rivulets of Attica deserving notice t three on the eastern coast: one flowing through

the plain of Marathon; a second rising on the southeastern side of Pentelicus, and flowing into the sea a little below Hattna; and a third, now called the river of Vraona, which descends from Hymettus, and flows into the bay of Livadhi : the last is probably the ancient Erasmus ( EpoaiVos, Strab. viii. p. 371).

IV. Products.—The mountains of Attica are chiefly calcareous. The best marble was obtained from Mt. Pentelicus, which supplied inexhaustible materials for the public buildings and statues of Athens. The Pentelic marble is of a dazzling white colour, hard, and fine-grained; but, owing to the little pieces of quartz or flint imbedded in it, not easy to work. Hymettus also produced fine marble: it is not so brilliantly white as the Pentelic, and in some places is almost grey. It was much used by the Romans in architecture. (" Trabes Hymettiae," Hor. Carm. ii. 18. 3.) Blue or black marble, which was frequently used in the Athenian architecture, is found at Eleusis, and was also obtained from a quarry near the promontory of Amphiale. (Strab. ix. p. 395.) Marble was an article of export from Attica. (Xen. de Vect. 1. §4.) Between Pentelicus and Parnes, the mass of rocks appears to have been mica slate, which is also the basis of Pentelicus. Near the Horns, on the boundaries of Megaris, there is a large deposit of couchiferous limestone, which Pausanias mentions (i. 44. § 6).

The hilly district of Laurium, above the promontory of Sunium, contained valuable silver mines, which contributed to raise Athens at an early period to a foremost rank among the Grecian states. These mines require a separate notice. [laurium.]

The soil of Attica is light and dry, and produces at present little wheat. In antiquity, however, agriculture was held in great honour by the Athenians, who cultivated their land with extraordinary care. Some remarks are made elsewhere respecting the quantity of com probably grown in Attica in ancient times. [athenak, p. 262.]

The soil is better adapted for the growth of fruits. The olives and figs were particularly delicious; they both ripened earlier and continued longer in season than those in other countries. (Xen. de Vect. 1.) The olive-tree was regarded as the gift of Athena, and its cultivation was always under the especial care and protection of the goddess. From the olivetree which grew in the temple of the goddess on the Acropolis, there came the Moriae (/lopfai), or fcacred olive-trees in the Academy [see p. 303]; and from these again all the other olive-trees, which grew in the precincts of the temples and the grounds of private persons. Even in the present day there are extensive groves of olive-trees along the banks of the Cephissus. The fig-tree was under the protection of Detneter, as the olive was under the care of Athena. Like the sacred olive-tree on the Acropolis, there was a sacred fig-tree at Eleusis, which the goddess Demcter is said to have produced. Olives were exported from Attica, and so probably were figs also; for the law which is said to have prohibited the exportation of the latter became obsolete in historical times, if indeed it ever existed. (Bockh, Publ. Economy of Athene, p. 41, 2nd ed.)

The wine of Attica was pleasant to tho taste, though not of a superior kind. The most celebrated was grown at Icaria, where Dionysus is said to have been welcomed. [See below, No. 42.] One of the varieties of the Attic grape was called the Nicostratian (NiKoo"TooT(or pdrpvt, Athen. xiv. p. 654.) The honey, however, was particularly fine, especially

from the bees which sucked the wild flowers of Mt Hymettus.

Attica is not adapted fur the breeding of horses to any extent; the country is too hilly, and the soil too poor to afford much nourishment for them. Hence they were very scarce in early rimes, and even at later times could be kept only by the wealthy. For the same reason horned cattle were also scarce, and Philochorus mentions an ancient law which prohibited the killing of these animals. (Athen. ix. p. 375.) The slopes of the mountains, however, afforded excellent pasture for sheep and goats, which were very numerous in ancient times. Goats in particular formed a large portion of the wealth of the ancient inhabitants; and, from this animal, one of tlie four ancient tribes was called Aegicoreis. Of sheep there were several different breeds, particularly of the finest kinds. (Dem. c. JSuerg. et Mnesib. p. 1153; Athen xu. p 540.) To encourage the breeding of sheep, there was an ancient law, which forbade the sacrifice of a sheep until it had lambed or had been shorn. (Athen. ix. p. 375.) The seas around the coast abounded in fish, which were a favourite article of diet among the Athenians. Leake enumerates several varieties caught in the Phaleric bay, of which the A$i»i, probably a sort of anchovy or sardine, is often mentioned. Off Cape Zoster was caught the red mullet (rp&yXrj),

On the mountains wild animals were found. Even in the time of Pausanias the bear and the wild boar were hunted on Mt. Fames. (Paus. i. 32. § I.)

V. Political Divisions.—The oldest political division of Attica is said to have been made by Cecrops, who divided the country into twelve independent communities, which were afterwards united into one state by Theseus. The names of these communities were: Cecropia, Tetrapolis, Epacria, Deceleia, Eleusis, Aphidna, Thoricus, Brauron, Cytherus, Sphettus, Cephisia, and Phalerus. (Philochor. ap. Strab. ix. p. 397; Etymol. M. *. v. 'EtraKpta; Plut. The*. 24.) Their position has been ably discussed by Finlay, in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature (vol. iii. p. 396), but as we shall liave occasion to speak of each presently, it is only necessary to state now that these names continued to exist down to the latest times of Athenian history; that Cecropia became the Acropolis of Athens; that Tetrapolis contained the four deini of Oenoe, Marathon, Tricorythus, and Prubalinthus (Strab. viii. p. 383); and that the remaining cities sunk into demi.

Another ancient division of Attica into four parts, among the sons of Pandion, has a distinct reference to the physical divisions of the country. Nisus received Megaris; Aegcus the Coastland (et/crTJ), with the capital and the adjoining plain (veSicCs); and the two other brothers Diacria (oioapia), or the Highlands in the NE. of the country, and Paralia (iropa\ia), or the southern coast. (Strab. ix. p. 392; Sthol. ad Aristoph. Vesp. 1223, and ad Vesp. 58.) That this division has a reference to some historical fact, is clear from the circumstance that, after Megaris had been torn away from Athens by the Dorians, the inhabitants of the remaining pails formed three political parties in the time of Solon and Peisistratus, known by the name of the Men of the Plain, the Parali, and the Diacrii or Hyperacrii. (Herod, i. 59; Plut. Sol 13.)

Another division of the people of Attica into four <pv\ai or tribes,existed from the earliest tunes. These tribes were called by different names at different jjeriods. In the time of Cecroj* they were called

Cecropts, Autochthon, Actaea, and Paralia, the two former names being derived from mythical persona, and the two latter from the physical divisions of the country. In the reign of Cranaus, these names were changed into Cranais, Atthis, Mesogaea, and Diacris, where again the two former are mythical, and the two latter local denominations. Afterwards we find a new set of names, Dias, Athenais, Poseidonias, and Hephaestias, evidently derived from the deities who were worshipped in the country. But these names all disappeared before the four Ionic tribes of Geleontes, Hopletes, Argades, and Aegicores, which continued to exist down to the time of Cleisthenes (b. C. 510). One of the most important measures in the democratical revolution, brought about by Cleisthenes after the expulsion of the Peisistratidae, was the abolition of the four ancient Ionic tribe', and. the formation of ten new tribes. The names of these ten tribes, derived from Attic heroes, were, in order of precedence, Erechtheis, Aegeis, Pandionis, Leontis, Acamantis, Oeneis, Cecropis, Hippothoontis, Aeantis, Antiochis. This number remained unaltered down to B. c. 307, when it was increased to twelve by the addition of two new tribes, Antigonias and Demetrias, in honour of Antigonus and his son Demetrius, because the latter had delivered Athens from the rule of Cassander. The name of Antigonias was subsequently changed into that of Ptolemais, in honour of Ptolemy Philadelphus; and the Deinetrias into Attalis, when Attalus was the ally of Athens against Philip and the Rhodians. Finally, the number of tribes was increased to thirteen, in the reign of Hadrian, by the addition of Hadrianis, in honour of this emperor.

Each tribe was subdivided into a certain number of Sijuot, townships, cantons, or parishes. The whole territory of Attica was parcelled out into these demi, in one or other of which every Athenian citizen was enrolled. The number of these demi is not ascertained: we oidy know that they were 174 in the time of Polemo, who lived in the third century B. C (Strab. ix. p. 396; Eustath. m //. ii. 546.) It haa been supposed, from the words of Herodotus (Sc'ira 5e Ka! rovs Miftovs Kar«Vcue 4s ras <pv\dst v. 69), that there were originally one hundred demi, ten to each tribe; but it is improbable that the number of demi was increased so largely as from 100 to 174, and hence some modern critics construe oVxa with <pv\ds, and not with Syfiovs, as the least difficulty in the case.

It is important to bear in mind that the demi assigned by Cleisthenes to each tribe were in no case all adjacent to each other. The reason for this arrangement cannot be better stated than in the words of Mr. Grote (vol. iv. p. 177): "The tribe, as a whole, did not correspond with any continuous portion of the territory, nor could it have any peculiar local interest, separate from the entire community. Such systematic avoidance of the factions arising out of neighbourhood will appear to have been more especially necessary, when we recollect that the quarrels of the Parali, the Diacrii, the Pediaci, during the preceding century, had all been generated from local feud, though doubtless artfully fomented by individual ambition. Moreover, it was only by this same precaution that the local predominance of the city, and the formation of a city-interest distinct from that of the country, was obviated; which could hardly have failed to arise, had the city itself constituted either one deme or one tribe," We know that five of the city deini belonged to five different tribes:

30. KutrcaiiME (Ei'pari'Sai, Steph. B.; Bekker, Anecd i. p. 246). west or south-west of Cephisia, and adjacent to Iphistiadae. (Diog. Laert. iii. 41.)

31. Pentele (n€FTfAi7, Steph.), was situated i. the north-eastern extremity of the Athenian plain, ;it the marble quarries of Mt, Brilessus, which was called Mt. Pentelicus from this place. [See p. 322, a.] The fact of Pen tele being a demus rests upon the authority of Stephanus alone, and has not yet been confirmed by inscriptions.

32. Pallene (naAAi7*T7), a celebrated demus, frequently mentioned by ancient writers and in inscriptions. From the mythical story of the war of the Pallaulidae against Theseus, we learn that the demi of Pallcne. Gargettus, and Agnus were adjacent. When Pallas was marching from Sphettus in the Mesogaea against Athens, he placed a body of his troops in ambush at Gargettus, under the command of his two sons, who were ordered, as soon as he was engaged with the army of Theseus, to march rapidly upon Athens and take the city by surprise. But the stratagem was revealed to Theseus by Leos of Agnus, the herald of Pallas; whereupon Theseus cut to pieces the troops at Gargettus. In consequence of this a lasting enmity followed between the inhabitant of Pallene and Agnus. (Plat. The*, 13; Philochor. ap. Schol. ad Eurip. HippoL 35.) The road from Sphettus to Athens passed through the opening between Mt. Pentelicus and Mr. Hymettus. In this situation, on the SVV. side of Pentelicus, we find a small village, named Garito, w hich is undoubtedly the site of the ancient Gargettus. The proximity wf Pallene and Gargettus is indicated by another legend. Pallene was celebrated for its temple of Athena; and we are told that Eurystheus was buried at Gargettus in front of the temple of Athena Pallenis. (Strab. viii. p. 377; Steph., Hesych. *. v. rofryrjTTd't; trdpoiBt itapQivov HaAAjjrlSof, Eurip. HeracL 1031.) We know further that Pallene lay on one of the roads from the city to Marathon (Herod, i. 62); and as the most convenient road for warlike operations leads to Marathon around the scut hern side of Pentelicus, Ross places Pallene half an hour south of Garito, between the monastery Bieraka and the small village Charvati, ■jx the spot where was discovered a celebrated inscription respecting money due to temples, and which was probably placed in the temple of Athena Pallenis. (Bockh, Inter, n. 76.) In Hieraka there was also found the Boustrophedon inscription of Aristocles, which probably .iuu came from the same temple. (Bockh, n. 23.) Leake supposes Pallene to have stood at the foot of Hymettus, immediately opposite to Garitd at the foot of Pentelicus, and supposes its site to be indicated by some Hellenic ruins of considerable extent on a height which is separated only from the northern extremity of HyihWtus by the main road into the Mesogaea. "This place is about a mile ami a half to ti e south-westward of Garitd, near two small churches, in one of which Mr. Finlay found the following fragment: 0EO*ANH2 nAAA^HNETS). This situation, where the roads of the Mesogaea necessarily unite in approaching Athens, is such a point as would be imjiortant, and often occupied in military operations; and accordingly, we find that on three occasions in the early history of Athens, Pallene was the scene of action; first, when Eurystheus fought against the Athenians and lieracleidae; again, when Theset** was opposed to the Pallantidae; and a third Uuie when Peisistratus defeated the Alcmaeonidae."

(Leake, p. 46.) The inscription, however, in such a case, is not decisive evidence, as we have already seen. [See p. 325, a.]

Agnus is placed by Ross in the hollow which lies between the extreme northern point of Hymettus and Hieraka. Leake, on the other hand, fixes it at Markopulo, in the southern part of the Mesogaea, because Mr. Finlay found at this place an inscription, .... vAf&ijs 'Ayvofotos,

33. Gargettus (rapyrjTT6st Steph.; Hesyeh.; Phavor.; Schol. ad A ristoph. Thesm. 905), spoken of above, and celebrated as the demus of Epicurus.

34. Agnus or Hagnus ('a*yvoct or 'Ayvovs, Steph.; Phryn.; Hesych.; Suid.), also spoken of above.

(d ) East of Athens: —

35 Alopece ('AAwir*'ioj), was situated only eleven or twelve stadia from the city (Aesch. c. Timarch. p. 119, Reiske), and not far from Cynosargea. (Herod, v. 63.) It lay consequently east of Athens, near the modem village of Ambelokipo, between Lycabettus and Ilissus. It possessed a temple of Aphrodite (Bockh, Inter, n. 395), and also, apparently, one of Hermaphroditus. (Alciphr. Ep. iii. 37.) There are some remains of an ancient building in the church at Ambelokipo, which Leake supposes may be those of the temple of Aphrodite.

(e.) South of Athens: —

36, 37. Agkyle ('A7puA^, 'ApavA^, 'AypoiAif, Steph.; Harpocrat,; Suid.; Hesych.; Zonar.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 332), was the name of two demi, an upper and a lower Agryle. They lay immediately south of the stadium in the city. (Harpocrat. s. v. 'Ap57jTT(is.) It is not improbable that the district of Agree in the city belonged to one of these demi. [See p. 302, b.]

38. Halimus ('AAijuoDs, Harpocrat.; Said.; Steph.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 376; Schol. ad Aristoph. Av. 498), said to have been so called from ra &Ai/io, sea-weeds (Etym. M. s. r.), was situated on the coast between Phalerum and Aexone (Strab. ix. p. 398), at the distance of 35 stadia from the city (Dem. c. Eubulid. p. 1302), with temples of Demeter and Core (Paus. i. 31. § 1), and of Hercules. (Dem. pp. 1314, 1319.) Hence Leake places it at C. Kallimdkhi, at the back of which rises a small but conspicuous hill, crowned with a church of St. Cosmas. Halimus was the demus of Thucydides the historian.

38*. Aexone (Aj£«nJ, Harpocrat.; Suid.; Zonar.; Steph.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 358; Xen. Htll. ii. 4. § 26), situated on the coast south of Halimus (Strab. I. c), probably near the promontory of Colias. [Respecting the position of Colias, see p.3u5,b.] Aexone was celebrated for its fisheries. (Athen, vii. p. 325; Hesych., Zonar., Suid., t. v. Allwv'iha rplyKnv.')

39. Halae Aexonidks ('AAot A(£wy|i5ei), a little south of the preceding, derived its name from its salt-works. (Strab. /. c.; Steph.) "They occupy a level behind a cape called Aghia, where are found numerous remains of an ancient town, and among them a lion in white marble." (Leake.)

B. The Eleusinian Or Thriasian Plain.

The celebrated Sacred Way ('Icpck 'Oo'd's), leading from Athens to Eleusis, demands a few words. It was the road along which the Bolemn prjeession in the Eleusmian festival travelled every year from Athens to Eleusis. It was lined on either side with numerous monuments. {Diet, of Ant s. v. Eleusi nil.) This road, with its monuments, is describe


of the pass of l'oecilum. (Soph. Otd. Col. 1061, Uiutisiis in v6fiav, with the Schol.; Leake, p. 151.) (6.) West of the Ccphissus, and E. of the city, in the direction from N. to S.:

17. Oeum Ckrameicum (Olov Kcpcvieiftbr), to distinguish it from Oeum Deceleicum near Deceleia. Its name shows that it was near the outer Cerameicus, and it may, therefore, be placed, with Leake, between the Sacred Way and the northern Long Wall. (Harpocrat., Suid. «. r.)

18. Scirum (Sniper, 2xlpa, Strab. ix. p. 393), a small place near a torrent of the same name, just outside the Athenian walls on the Sacred Way. It was not a demus, and derived its name from Scirus, a prophet of Dodona, who fell in the battle between the Eleusinii and Erechtheus, and was buried in this *p)t. (Paus. i. 36. § 4 ; Strab. /. c; Steph. B., Harpocrat. s. v ; comp. Schol. ad Aristoph. Eccl. 18.)

19. l.iriAHAF. (Aaitla5ai), on the Sacred Way between Sciron and the Cephissus,and near the sacred fig-tree. It is celebrated as tho demus to which the family of Miltiades and Cimon belonged. (Pans. i. 37. § 2; Plut. Cim. 4, Ale. 22; Cic. de Off ii. 18; Hesych.; Said.)

20. Colonus (K.o\t»v6i), celebrated as the demos of Sophocles, and the scene of one of the poet's tragedies, was situated ten stadia from the gate of the city, called Dipylum, near the Academy and the river Cephis>us. (Thuc. viii. 67; Cic. de Fin. v. 1.) It derived its name from two small but conspicuous heights, which rise from tho plain B little to the north of the Academy. Hence it is called by Sophocles" the white Colonus " (top apyf}Ta Ko\wv6v, Oed. Col. 670). It was under the especial care of Poseidon, and is called by Thucydides (L c.) the Up6v of this god. It is frequently called " Colonus Hippius," to distinguish it from the " Colonus Agoravens" in Athens. [athenae, p. 298, b.] Besides the temple of Poseidon, it possessed a sacred inclosure of the Eumenides, altars of Athena, Hippies, Demeter, Zeus, and Prometheus, together with sanctuaries of Peirithons, Theseus, Oedipus, and Adrastus. (Paus. i. 30. § 4.) The natural beauties of the spot are described by Sophocles in the magnificent chorus, beginning with the words:—

evlinrov, toe, raoSs x^Pas
Ikov ra KpdTiara yas imu/KQ
Tot' apyitra KoKwvov.

(c.) Farther north:

21. Acharnae ("Axap'of), the most important of all the Attic demi, described in a separate article. [acharnae.]

22. Eufvridae (EinrvpiSat, Steph. B.),

23. Cropia (KpaiTio, Steph. B.; Kpuncid, Thuc. ii. 19),

24. Peleces (iT^Ajjiret), three demi forming a community, as rpiKatfjLoi (Steph. B. s. v. El/purBat), and probably, therefore, adjacent. If the reading in Thucydides (ii. 19) is correct, Sid Kpwwtias, these dinni should be placed in the north of the Athenian plain, but many editors read 5io K«cpoir/o!. Stuart, who has been followed by most modern writers, was led, by similarity of name, to place Peleces at the modern Belikas, near Marusi; but Ross maintains that the name of this Albanian village has no connexion with Peleces.

25. Paeonidae (naio>/f8ai, Paus. ii. 18. § 9), apparently the same as the Paeonia (Jlatovli)) of Herodotus (v. 62), who describes Leipsydrium as

situated above Paeonia. It was perhaps on the site of the modern Menidhi, since we know that the modern Greeks frequently change w into n; thus rieircXi) is also pronounced Mcpt<a.i).

26. Leipsydrium (Ati^vSpiov'), was not a demus, but a fortress, in which the Alcmaeonidae fortified themselves after the death of Hipparchus, but was taken by the Peisistratidae after defeating the opposite party. (Herod, v. 62; comp. Athen. iv. p. 695.) We have already seen that Herodotus describes it as situated above Paeonia, and other authorities place it above Parnes. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Lytittr. 665; Hesych. a. v. Aeufwopioy; Hesych., Suid. tVi Aei<jn/Spiif /ua^p.) It is, however, more probable that it stood on the southern slopes of Mt, Parnes, so as to command the descent into the Athenian plain. Leake conjectures that it may have occupied the site of the .Metokhi of St. Nicolas, a small monastery, situated amidst the woods of the upper region of Mount Parnes, at the distance of three or four miles to the north of Menidhi.

27. Cf.phisia (K^iiria), was one of the ancient twelve cities of Cecrops, and continued to be an important demus down to the latest times. It retains its ancient name (Kivisia), and is situated about nine miles NE. of Athens, at the foot of MU Pentelicus, nearly opposite Achamae. It was the favourite summer residence of Herodes Atticus, who adorned it with buildings, gardens, and statues. We learn from modern travellers that a fountain of transparent water, and groups of shady trees, still remain here; and that it continues to be a favourite residence of the Athenians during the heat of summer. (Strab. ix. 397; Diog. Lae'rt. iii. 41; Philostr. Vit. Soph, ii. 1. § 12; Gel]. i. 2, xviii. 10; Harpocrat.; Phot; Wordsworth, p. 227; Stephani, Ktise durch Griechenland, p. 1.)

28. Athvionum ("ASfiovov, also 'Afyuwfa, Harpocrat.; Steph. B.; Zonar.; Suid.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 349), situated on the site of the village Marusi, which is a mile and a half from Kivisia on the road to Athens. The name of the modem village has been derived from Amarysia, a surname of Artemis, who was worshipped under this designation at Athmonum. (Paus. i. 35. § 5.) An inscription found near Madurai, in which the temenos of this goddess is mentioned, pats the matter beyond dispute. (&pos 'ApriuiSos Tt/ueVow 'Afutpvalat, Bockh, Inter. n. 528.) Athmonum also possessed a very ancient temple of Aphrodite Urania. (Paus. i. 14. § 7.) The inhabitants of this demus appear to have been considered clever wine-dressers. (Aristoph. Pac 190.)

29. Iphistiadae or Hephaestiadak ('IlpKTTiiSai, 'Htf>a«mri8ai, Steph. B.; Hesych.), are the names of one demus, and not two separate demi, as Leake maintained. Iphistiadae appears to have been the correct form of the name, not only because it occurs much more frequently in inscriptions, but also because it is much more probable that a name formed from the obscure hero Iphistius should have been converted into one derived from the god Hephaestus, than that the reverse should have been the case. (Ross, p. 74.) We learn from Plato's will (Diog. Lae'rt. iii. 41), that this demos contained an Hemcleiiim or temple of Hercules, which has probably given its name to the modern village of Arakli, about two or three miles westward of Kivisia and Marusi. Hence Arakli indicates the site of Iphistiadae, as Mari'isi does that of Athmonum.

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