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51. Deceleia (AfKf'Afia) was situated near the entrance of the eastern pass across Mount Parnes.which leads from the north-eastern part of the Athenian plain to Oropus, and from thence both to Tanagra on the one hand, and to Delinm and Chalcis on the [ other. It was originally one of the twelve cities of j Attica. (Strab. ix. p. 397.) It was situated about j 120 stadia from Athens, and the same distance from the frontiers of Boeotia: it was visible from Athens, | and from its heights also might be seen the ships entering the har'uour of Peiraeeus. (Thuc. vii. 19; Xen. Bell. i. 1. § 25.) It was by the pass of Deceleia that Mardonius retreated from Athens into Boeotia before the battle of Plataenc (Herod, ix. 15); and it was by the same road that the grain was carried from Euboea through Oropus into Attica. (Thuc. vii. 28.) In B.C. 413 Decelcia was occupied and fortified by the Lacedaemonians under Agis, who kept possession of the place till the end of the war; and from the command which they thus obtained of the Athenian plain, they prevented them from cultivating the neighbouring land, and compelled them to bring the com from Knboea round Cape Sunium. (Thuc. ii. 27, 28.) The pass of Deceleia is now called the pass of Tatt'<y. Near the village of this name there is a peaked height, which is a conspicuous object from the Acropolis: the exact site of the demus is probably marked by a fountain, near which are many remains of antiquity. (Leake.)

52. Oeum Deceleicum (Olov Af/tfAtiKoV), of unknown site, but near Deccleia, so called to distinguish it from the Oeum Cerarneicum. (Harpocrat; Suid.) [No. 17.]

53. Sphksdale (SQivt&hri), a demus, at which Mardonius halted on his route from Deceleia to Tanagra. (Herod, ix. 15; Steph.; Hesych.) "Hence it appears to have stood not far from the church of Aio Merkurio, which now gives name to the pass leading from Deceleia through the ridges of Parnes into the extremity of the Tanagraean plain. But as there is no station in the pass where space can be found for a demus, it stood probably at Malakdm, in a plain where some copious sources unite to form tlie torrent, which joins the sea one mile and a half east of the Skala of Apostolus." (Leake.) In the territory of Sphendale there was a hill, named Hyacinthus. (Suid. s. v. Hap04t»oi, where StpepSaAeoiy should be read instead of S^cSoflwi'.)

54. Oropus ('flpunro'j), was originally a Boeotian town, and though afterwards included in Attica, was not an Attic demus. This place, together with its harbour Delphinium, and Amphiaracium, in its neighbourhood, is spoken of separately. [ouopus.]

55. Psaphis (*a<f>li), originally a town of the Oropia, but subsequently an Attic demus, lay between Oropus and Brauron, and was the last demus in the north-eastern district of Attica. (Strab. ix. p. 399.)

56. Rhamnub ('pojukoos), south of Psaphis, on the coast of the Euripus, requires a separate notice on account of its celebrated temples. [rhamnub.]

57. Apuidna ('AcfwSm), one of the twelve anricut cities of Attica, lay between Deceleia and Rliamnus. It is also spoken of separately.

58,59,60. Titacidak (titmisui), Perriiidae (rif^iSoi), and Thyrgonidap. (8up7»>'i5a,i), were probably all in the neighbourhood of Aphidna. These three demi, together with Aphidna, are said to have been removed from the Aeantis to another tribe. (Harpocr. «. v. 8i/p7wi5<u.) Porrbidae is described

as a demus in Aphidna (Hesych. Phavor. tripos h 'a^tswut); and that Titacidae was in the same locality may be inferred from the story of the capture of Aphidna by the Dioscuri in consequence of the treachery of Titacus. (Herod, ix. 73; Steph. ». v. TiTcufiSai.)

61. Trinemeia (Tptvffuia), at which one of the minor branches of the Cephissus takes its rise, and therefore probably situated at the modern village of Bmjati. (Strab. ix. p. 400; Steph. B. t. e.)

62,63,64,65. Marathon (Mapa&ix), Proba

UNTHUS (J\poGiklvdo%), Tricohythus (Tptlt6pv

0oi), and Oenoe (oikotj), four demi situated in the small plain open to the sea between Mt. Parties and Mt. Pentelicus, originally formed the Tetrapolis, one of the twelve ancient divisions of Attica. The whole district was generally known under the name of Marathon, under which it is described in this work. [marathon.]

66. Epacria CETOitpIo), one of the twelve ancient districts of Attica (Strab. ix. p. 397), and subsequently, as appears from an inscription, a demus near Plotheia and Halae Araphenides. (Bockh, Jnscr. No. 82.) As the name of a district, it was probably synonymous with Diacria. (Etym. M. 'Eirawpfa; Steph. Xvpuixitai.') An ancient grammarian describes the district of Epacria as bordering upon that of the Tetrapolis of Marathon. (Bekker, Anted, i. p. 259.) Finlay and Leake place the town of this name at Pilcirmi, upon the south-eastern heights of Pentelicus, " where a strong position on a perennial stream, added to some vestiges of buildings, and several inscriptions, are proofs of an Hellenic site."

67. Semachidae (Si;/«ix"a0i described by Philochorus (ap. Steph. ». ».) as a demus in the district of Epacria, but its exact site is uncertain. (Hesych.; Phot)

68. Plotheia (n\d$tia) appears to have belonged to the district of Epacria, and to have been not far from Halae Araphenides. (Harpocr.; Suid.; Steph.; Phot; Bockh, truer. No. 82.)

69. 70. Pheoaea (♦wya/o), the name of two demi of uncertain site. (Steph.; Harpocr.; Suid.; Etym. M.; Phot; Hesych.) It is probable, however, that Stephanus speaks of one of these demi, under the name of Pheoeus, when he describes Halae Araphenides as lying between Phegeus near Marathon and Brauron. (Steph. s. v. 'AAal.)

71. Hecale ('EnaAij), probably near Marathon, since this demus is said to have obtained its name from a woman who hospitably received Theseus into her honse, when he had set out to attack the Marathonian bull, which was ravaging the Tetrapolis. It contained a sanctuary of Zeus Hecaleius. (Philochor. ap. Plut. Tkes. 14; Suid. s. w. 'EirdA7|, K«Aufy, 'EiraoAia; Steph. 8. vv. 'E*cdAn, 'lawfy, Tpivtfufh; Schol. ad Arwtoph. Acharn. 127.)

72. Elaeub ('EAaioDi, Steph.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 249), of uncertain site, but placed by Leake at Liosia, a village two mi'es to the west of Aphidna, because he considers this name a corruption of Elaeus; but this is not probable.

D. The Demi Op Paralia And Mesogaea.

Mount Hymettus, which bounded the Athenian plain on the south, terminated in the promontory of Zoster (zmctt^p), opposite to which was a small island called Phaura (*o5/w). At Zoster, upon the sea, stood four altars, sacred respectively to Athena, Apollo, Artemis, and Leto. (Strab. ix p. 398; Paus. i. 31. § 1; Steph. t. v. Zoxmfp.) "The hill of Zoster terminates in three rapes; that in the middle is a low peninsula, which shelters in the west a deep inlet called Vulias7Twni." (Lake.) The island Phaura is now called Fleva or Flega.

73. Anaoyrus ('AjtryupoGs), situated on the western coast, a little north of the promontory Zoster, on the site of the modern Pari [anagybus.]

74. Ciiolleidae (XoAAeiSai, XoAAiSau, Harpocr.; Said.; Steph.; SchoL ad Artitoph. Acharn. 404), is supposed to have been near the Nymphaeum, or Grotto of the Nymphs, situated at the southern end of Mt. Hymettus, and about three miles from Vdri by the road. From the inscriptions in this cave, we learn that it was dedicated to the nymphs and the other rustic deities by Archedemus of Pberae (not Therae, as is stated by some modern writers), who had been enrolled in the demus of Cholleidae. Hence it is inferred that the grotto was, in all probability, situated in this demus. A full and interesting description of the grotto is given by Wordsworth (p. 192, "R. ; comp. Leake, p. 57.).

75. Thorae (©opal), a little south of Anagy rum (Strab. ix. p.398; Harpocr.; Steph.; Etym. M.)

76. 77. Lamptra (Ad^irrpo, in inscr.; Aauirpa. in Strab. 4c.), the name of two demi, Upper Lamptra (Aopirroa KadvvfpQtv'), and Lower or Maritime Lamptra (Ad^Mrrpa {nrtvcpQtv or irapaAtoy). These places were between Anagyrus, Thorae, and Aegilia. (Strab, I. c.) Upper Lamptra was probably situated at LamorikA, a village between three and four miles from the sea, at the south-eastern extremity of Mt. Hymettus; and Lower Lamptra on the coast At Lamptra the grave of Cranaus was shown. (l'aus.i.31. § 2; Steph.; Hesych.; Harpoon; Suid.; Phot.)

78. Aeoilia (AryiAia), south of Lamptra, spoken of separately. [aegilia.]

79. Anaphlystus ('Ai-cupAuffToj), now called Andvt/to, situated between the promontories of Astypalaea and Sunium, a little south of the former. It is also spoken of separately. [anaphlystus.] Opposite the promontory of Astypalaea is a small island, now called Lagontsi or Lagv&sa, in ancient times Eleubsa ('EAfoSo-o-a, Strab. /. co. Astypalaea and Zoster were the two chief promontories on the western coast of Attica.

Strabo (l. c.) speaks of a Paneium (naveiW), or Grotto of Pan, in the neighbourhood of Anaphlystus. It is no doubt the same as the very beautiful and extensive cavern above Mt. Elymbo in the Paralian range, of which the western portion bears the name of Pani.

80. Azf.xia ('Afneia), the oidy demus mentioned by Strabo (l. c.) between Anaphlybtus and Sunium. (Harpocr.; Hesych.; Steph.; Bekker, Awed. i. p. 348.) It was probably situated in the bay of which Sunium forms the eastern cape. Opposite this bay is a small island, now called Gaidharonisi, formerly the Island or Rampart of Patroclus (rioTpoKAou x&P^Z w »^ff0J)i because a fortress was built upon it by Patroclus, who commanded on one occasion the ships of Ptolemy Philadelphus. (Strab.

c.; Paus. i. 1. § 1; Steph. t. v. flaTpoKAou vijoos.) Ten miles to the south of this island, at the entrance of the Saronic gulf, is Belbina, now St. George, which was reckoned to belong to Peloponnesus, though it was nearer the coast of Attica. [belbina.]

81. Sunium (Jtavvior), situated on the southern promontory of Attica, which was also called Sunium, now Cape Kolonmj, from the columns of the ruined

temple on its summit, is noticed separately. [suNium.] Northward of the promontory of Sunium, and stretching from Anaphlystus on the west coast to Thoricus on the east coast, was Mt. Laurium, which contained the celebrated silver mines. CharsRium.]

82. Thoricus (8op»roi), north of Sunium on the east coast, was a place of importance, and also requires a separate notice. [thoricus.] Midway between Sunium and Thoricus was the harbour PaNorm us (Tldvopnoi, Ptol. iii. 15. § 8), now named Pamorimo. Parallel to the east coast, and extending from Sunium to Th iriens, stretches the long narrow island, called Macris or Helena. [helena.]

83, 84. Aulon (AtAaV) and Maroneia (mopdwcia), two small places of uncertain size, not demi, in the mining district of Mt. Laurium. [laurium.]

M. Besa (Basra), situated in the mining district, midway between Anaphlystus and Thoricus (Xen. Vect 4. §§ 43, 44), and 300 stadia from Athens (Isaeus, de Pyrrk Her. p. 40, Steph.). Xenophon (l. c.) recommended the erection of a fortress at Sea, which would thus connect the two fortresses situated respectively at Anaphlystus and Thoricus. Strabo (ix. p. 426) says that the name of this demus was written with one i, which is confirmed by inscriptions.

86. Amphitbope CA^iTpown), north of Mesa and in the district of the mines, placed by Stuart at Metropitti. (Bbckh, Inter. No. 162; Steph.; Hesych.)

87. 88. Potamus (rioTo/adj or IToTajiot), the name of two demi, as appears from an inscription quoted by Boss (p. 92), though apparently only one place. It lay on the east coast north of Thoricus, and was once a populous place: it was celebrated as containing the sepulchre of Ion. (Strab. ix. pp. 398, 399; Pans. i. 31. 8 2, vii. i. § 2; Plin. iv. 7. s. 11; Suid.; Harpocr.) Its harbour was probably the modern Dhaskalid; and the demus itself is placed by Leake at the ruins named Pahokattro or Evreokattro, situated on a height surrounded by torrents two miles to the south-west of Dha$kali6, a little to the south of the village Dardhtza, The port Dhatkalio was probably, as Leake observes, the one which received the Peloponnesian fleet in B. c. 411. (Thnc viii. MO

89. Prasiae (ripaoiai), on the east coast, between Potamus and Steiria, with an excellent harbour, from which the Theoria or sacred procession used to sail. Here was a temple of Apollo, and also the tomb of Erysichthon, who died at this place on his return from Delos. (Strab. ix. p. 399; Paus. i. 31. § 2; Thuc. viii. 95; Liv. xxxi. 45.) The ruins of the demos are seen on the north-east side of the bay. The harbour, now called Porto Rafti, is the best on the eastern coast of Attica, and is both deep and capacious. The entrance of the harbour is more than a mile in breadth; and in the centre of the entrance there is a rocky islet, upon which is a colossal statue of white marble, from which the harbour has derived its modern name, since it is commonly supposed to bear some resemblance to a tailor (pdavrns) at work. The best description of this statue is given by Ross, who remark, that it evidently belongs to the Roman period, and probably to the first or second century after the Christian era. (Koss, Reiten auf den Griech. Inieln, vol. ii. p. 9; comp. Leake, p. 72; Wordsworth, p. 217.) We also barn from Ron's that in the middle of the bay there is a rocky promontory with ruitis of the middle ages upon it, which promontory Koss supposes to be the Coroneia of Stephanus (<. r. Kopwvem).

90. Steiria (2itlpia, Steph.; Hesych.; Suid.; Plin. iv. 7. s. II), on the east coast, between Prasiae and Brauron. (Strab. ix. p. 399.) Wordsworth says that it is an hour's walk from Prasiae to Brauron, and that on the way he passed some ruins, which must be those of Steiria. Stiris in Phocis is said to have been founded by the inhabitants of this demus. (Pans. x. 35. § 8.) The road from Athene t<> Steiria and the harbour of Prasiae was called the 2Tttpicut^ o5os. (Plat. Hipparch. p. 229.) Steiria was the demus of Theramenes and Thrasybulus.

91. Brauron (fipavpiv), one of the twelve ancient cities, but never mentioned as a demus, though it continued to exist down to the latest times. It was situated on or near the eastern coast of Attica, between Steiria and Halae Araphenides, near the river Erasinus. (Strab. viii. p. 371, ix. p. 399.) Its name is apparently preserved in that of the two villages, called Vraona and Paled Vraona, situated south of the Erasinus. Brauron is celebrated on account of the worship of Artemis Brauronia, in whose honour a festival was celebrated in this place. ^Herod. vi. 138.) Here Orestes and Iphigeneia were supposed to have landed, on their return from Tauris, bringing with them the statue of the Taurian goddess. (Pans. i. 33. § 1, iii. 16. § 7; Eurip. Jphig. in Taur. 1450, 1462; Nonnus, Dionyt. xiii. 186.) This ancient statue, however, was preserved at Ualae Araphenides, which seems to have been the proper harbour of Brauron, and therefore the place at which the statue first landed. Pausanias (i. 33. § 1), it is true, speaks of an ancient statue of Artemis at Brauron; but the statue brought from Tauris is expressly placed by Callimachus (flymn. in Dion. 173), and Euripides (Iphig. in Taur. 1452) at Halae; and Strata (ix. p. 399) distinguishes the temple of Artemis Tauropolus at Halae Araphenides from the temple of Artemis Brauronia at Brauron. There was a temple of Artemis Brauronia on the Acropolis, containing a statue of the goddess by Praxiteles. (Paus. i. 23. § 7.)

92. Halae Araphenides ('AAal 'Apa<pi}vl$ts), so called to distinguish it from Halae Aexonides [No. 39], lay on the east coast between Brauron and Araphen, and was the proper harbour of Brauron, from whence persons crossed over to Marmarium in Euboea, where were the marble quarries of Carystus. (Strab. ix. p. 399, x. p. 446.) Hence Halae is described by Euripides (Iphig. in Taur. 1451) as yt'nav faipdtios KapwrrLas. The statue of the Taurian Artemis was preserved at this place, as has been already shown. [No. 91.]

93. Araphun (Apeuf>V), on the east coast, north of Halae and Brauron, the name of which is probably preserved in the village of Rafina, situated near the mouth of the river of that name. (Harpocr.; Suid.; Steph.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 338.)

We learn from Strata (ix. p. 399) that the demi in the Mesogaea were very numerous; and his statement is confirmed by the great number of remains of ancient buildings which occur in this district (Wordsworth, p. 226). But the names of only a few have been preserved, which we can assign with certainty to the Mesogaea; and the position of many of these is doubtful.

94. Pkospalta (XlpianaXTa) lay in the interior, between Zoster and Potatnos, at the modern

village of Keralia, as we may infer from an inscrijtion discovered at this place. (Paus. i. 31. § 1; Dem. c. Macart. p. 1071; Harpocr.; Phot; Suid.; Steph.)

95. MrRRHtNUs (Mu^u-oCj) lay to the east of Prasiae or Porto Raphti, at Meronda, as appears from inscriptions found at this place. Artemis Colaenis was worshipped at Myrrhinus (Paus. i. 31. § 4; Schol. ad Arisloph. Av. 874); and in one of the inscriptions at Meronda mention is made of a temple of Artemis Colaenis. (Bockh, Inter. No. 100.) (See also Strab. ix. p. 399; Steph.; Phot.)

96 Phlya (4>\<>a, *Aud), the site of which cannot be determined, though there can be little doubt that it lay in the Mesogaea from the position which it occupies in the list of Pausanias. It must have been a place of importance from the number of temples which it contained, and frcm its frequent mention in inscriptions. (Paus. i. 31. § 4, iv. 1. § 5; Plut Them. 1; Athen. x. p. 424; Harpocr.; Suid.; Steph.; Phot)

97, 98. Paeania (naioi'lo), divided into Upper and Lower Paeania, was situated on the eastern side of Hymettus, near the modem village of Liogeti. It was the demus of Demosthenes. (Paus. i. 23. §12; Harpocr.; Suid.; Phot; Boss, in Annal. de!T Intl. Arch. vol. ix. p. 5, foil.)

99. Philaidae (#iao/8oi) appears to have been near Brauron, since it is said to have derived its name from Philaeus, the son of the Telamonian Ajax, who dwelt in Brauron. PhilaTdae was the demus of Pcisistratus. (Plut. Sol. 10; Plat. Hipparch. p. 228; Pans. L 35. § S; Herod, vi. 35.)

100. Cephale (KfipoA^) appears, from the order in which it occurs in the list of Pausanias (i. 31. § I), to have been situated south or east of Hymettus, perhaps in the neighbourhood of Brauron and Vraona, where Koss found an inscription containing the name of this demus. Cephale possessed a temple of the Dioscuri, who were here called the Great Gods. (Paus. I. c; Harpocr.; Suid.; Phot.; Schol. ad Arutoph. Av. 417.)

101. Sphettus (2<f>7rrros), one of tie twelve ancient cities, and subsequently a demus. Its position has given rise to much dispute. Leake places it in the northern part of the Mesogaea, and thinks that Spata may be a corruption of Sphettus. That it was situated either in the Mesogaea or the Paralia is certain from the legend, that Pallas, who had obtained these districts, marched upon Athens from Sphettus by the Sphettian Way. (Plut. Thet. 13; Philochor. ap. Schol. ad Eurip. Hipp. 35.) Now we have seen good reasons for believing that Palhis must have marched round the northern extremity of Hymettus [see above, No. 32]; and consequently the Sphettian road must have taken that course. Although the Sphettian road cannot therefore have run along the western coast and entered Athens from the south, as many modern writers maintain, Sphettus was probably situated further south than Leake supposes, inasmuch as Sphettus and Anaphlystus are represented as sons of Troezen, who migrated into Attica; and, seeing that Anaphlystus was opposite Troezen, it is inferred that Sphettus was probably in the same direction. (Paus. ii. 30. § 9; Steph. t. rv. VcdipAuffToy, 2<p77TT<is.)

102. Cytherru8 (Kilhip'pos, Insrr.; Kufrjpoj, KvBnpov, Strab. ix. p. 397; Harpoc.; Suid.; Steph.; Phot.), one of the twelve ancient cities, and afterwards a demus. Its position is quite uncertain. Ijeakc conjectures that its territory as one of the twelve cities may have occupied the southern end of the inland country, on the supposition that the territo*"* of Sphettus occupied the northern half of this district. Ross however conjectures, from a passage of l'ausanias (vi. 22. § 7), that Cytherus may have been near Gargettus. l'ausanias states that the nymphs of the river Cytherus in Elis were called Innides from Ion, the son of Gargettus, when he migrated from Athens to Elis.

(The best works on the derrjj are by Leake, The Demi of Attica, London, 1841, 2nd ed., and Ross, IHe Demen von Attika, Halle, 1846; from both of which great assistance has been derived in drawing up the preceding account. The other most important works upon the topography of Attica are Grotefend, De Demi* five Pagis Atticae, Giitt. 1829; Finlay, in Transactions of the Royal Society of

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