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which have been mentioned above, it retains no vestiges of antiquity. [E. H. B.I

AUGUSTA TREVIRORUM {Trier, or Trivet, as the French call it), a town on the right bank of the Mosel, now in the Prussian territory. It was sometimes simply called Augusta, and sometimes under the later empire Treviri, whence the modern name Trier. Caesar names no town among the Treviri. Trier is the Colonia Trevirorum of Tacitus {Hist iv. 62). It is mentioned by Mela under the name of Augusta (iii. 2), and we may conclude from the probable period of Mela that it was settled by Augustus. It appears from Tacitus {Hut. iv. 77), that the Roman colonia was connected with the opposite bank by a bridge, as the modern town is; and this suburb was called Vicus Voclanni, as we learn from sepulchral inscriptions found on the left bank. Some commentators haVe incorrectly supposed that Strabo (p. 194) speaks of this bridge; but he is speaking of bridging the Rhine. The walls of the town are also mentioned by Tacitus. Ausonius, who wrote in the second half of the fourth century of the Christian aera, places Treviri fourth in his list of " nobiles urbes," a rank to which it was entitled from being the head quarters of the Roman commanders on the Rhine, and the frequent residence of the Roman emperors or Caesars. From the middle of the third century of the Christian aera Trier was visited by the emperors, and in the fourth century it was the regular imperial residence in this division of Gallia. Trier was one of the sixty great towns of Gallia which were taken by the Franks and the Alemanni, after the death of the emperor Anrelian. and recovered by Probus. (FL Vopiscus, Probus, c. 13.) The restoration of Trier seems to be due to the emperor Constantine the Great, who from A. D. 306 to A. D. 331 frequently resided at Trier. The panegyric attributed to the rhetorician Eumenius, pronounced before Constantine at Trier in A. D. 310, speaks of the walls of the city as rising again; and the conclusion, from the words of the panegyrist, seems to be that Constantine rebuilt or repaired the walls of Trier. He may have considerably beautified the place, but it. is uncertain how much, after it had been damaged by the Germans. Eumenius mentions the great circus of Trier, the basilicae, and the forum, as royal works. The city probably received other embellishments after the period of Constantine, and it was a flourishing place when Ausonius wrote. It had establishments for education, and a mint. Trier stands on level ground, surrounded by gentle hills, the slopes of which are covered with vines, as they were when Ausonius visited the place.

The Roman bridge over the Mosel, probably the work of Agrippa, existed till the French ware of Louis XIV. in 1689, when it is said to have been blown up. All that now remains of the original structure are the massive foundations and the piers. The arches were restored in 1717—1720. The blocks of the ancient structure are from six to nine feet long, three feet wide, and three feet high, with out any cement. The piers are on an average 66 feet high and 21 wide. There are eight arches. The bridge is 690 feet long and 24 wide. One of the city gates remains, which recent excavations have shown to be in the line of the walls of the city. This Porta Martis or Porta Nigra, as it was called in the middle ages, is a colossal work. It is a kind of qnadrangle 115 feet long; and in the central or yrituinal part i> is 47, and in the two projecting

sides 67 feet deep: it is 91 feet high. It is four stories high in the flanks, but in one of the flanks only three stories remain. There are two gateways in the central part, each 14 feet wide; and over the gateways there is a chamber 52 feet lon£ and 22 feet wide. This building is constructed of great blocks of stone, without cement; some of them four to five feet in length, and others from seven to nine feet long. It is a structure of enormous strength, a gigantic and imposing monument. In the chambers there is a collection of Roman antiquities found in and about Trier; many of the sculptures are of excellent workmanship. A view and plan of the Porta Nigra are given in the Dictionary of Antiquities, p. 943. On the outside of the present town are the remains of the amphitheatre, which was included within the ancient walls. The longer axis is 219 feet, and the shorter 155. There are also remains of the ancient Thermae, which are constructed of limestone and rows of bricks alternately, except the beautiful arches, which are entirely of brick. These and other remains of Trier are described by Wyttenbach, Recherche* »ur Us Antiquites Romames, <fc., de Treves, and Forschungen, &c.; and also by other writers. [G. L.]

AUGUSTA TRICASTINORUM, as Pliny (iii. 4) calls it, or Augusta, as it is simply called in the Itineraries. It was on the road between Valentia ( Valence), on the Rhone.and DeaVocontiorum {Die). It is said to be Aoust-en-Dioi», on the Drdme a branch of the Rhone, and in the department of Drome. D'Anville places Augusta Tricastiiiorum at St Paultrois-Chateaux, north of Orange; and the Augusta of the Itineraries at Aouste. There are said to be considerable remains at Aouste. [G. L.]


AUGUSTA VAGIENNORUM {Airyoiora Bayumm, Ptol.; an inscription, Orell. 76, has Arc. Bag. for Augusta Bagiennorum), the chief city of the Ligurian tribe of the Vagienni, is mentioned both by Pliny and Ptolemy, and the former speaks of it as a place of importance. (Plin. iii. 5. a. 7; Ptol. iii. 1. § 35.) But though the name would lead us to suppose that it was a colony of Augustus, we have no account of its foundation, nor do ancient authors afford any clue to its position. It was placed by D'Anville at Vico, near Mondavi; but a local antiquarian, Durandi, has satisfactorily proved that some Roman ruins still visible near .Bene (a considerable towu of Piedmont, situated between the valleys of the Tanaro and the Stura, about 12 miles from the site of Pollentia) are those of Augusta Vagiennorum. They comprise the remains of an aqueduct, amphitheatre, baths, and other buildings, and cover a considerable extent of ground. The name of Bene is itself probably only a corruption of Bagierma, the form of the ancient name which is found in documents of the middle ages. (Durandi, Deir Augusta de' Vagienni, Torino, 1769; Millin, Voy. en Piimont, vol. ii. p. 50.) [E. H. B.]

AUGUSTA VEROMANDUORUM, the chief town of the Vcromandui, who are mentioned by Caesar {B. G. ii. 4, 16). The name of this place first occurs in Ptolemy; and its identity with Si. Quentin, in the department of Aisne, is proved by the Roman roads from Soissons, Amiens, and Baaay, which intersected here. [G. L.]

AUGUSTA VINDEUCORUM(AfrYowrTaOi«"SeAwur: Augsburg), the capital of Vindelicta or Raetia Secunda, situated on the rivers Lech (Licus) and Wertach (ViuA-*). It was founded by Augustos about A. D. 14, after the conquest of Raetia by Drusus. This is no doubt the place to which Tacitus (Germ. 41) applies the expression "splendidissima Raetiae provinciae colonia." During the second half of the fourth century the Romans withdrew their garrison, and the place was given up to the Aieinanni, under whom it soon became again a town of great eminence. (Sext. Ruf. 10; PtoL ii. 12. § 3; comp. Von Raiser, Die Rom. DenkmaUr eu Augsburg, 1820. 4to.) [L. S.]

AUGUSTOBONA. [tricasses.]

AUGUSTOBRI'GA (Myova-rdgptya: Eth. Augustobrigenses). 1. A city of Lusitania, on the road from Emerita to Toletum, M M. P. from the former and 55 from the latter. (I tin. Ant. p. 438.) It seems to correspond to PueiUe de Arqobispo, on the N. bank of the Tagus: others seek it at VUlar Pedroso. (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 396.)

2. A city of the Vettones in Lusitania, probably near Ciudad Rodrigo. (PtoL ii. 5. § 9.)

It is uncertain which of the above is the stipendiary town of Pliny (iv. 22. s. 35.)

3. (Aldea el Moro, near Soria), a city of the Pelendones, in Hispania Tarraconensis, 23 M. P. E. of Numantia, on the road to Caesaraugusta. {Itin. Ant. p. 442; Ptol. ii. 6. § 54; Florez, Esp. Sagr. vol. xiv. p. 41; D'Anville, Mem. de lAcad. des Inter, vol. xl. p. 767; Ukert, id. p. 454.) [P. S.]

AUGUSTODUNUM. [bibracte.] AUGUSTODURUS, mentioned in the Table, is said to be Bageux, in the department of Calvados, as the Roman milestones prove (Walckenaer, Geog. fr. vol. i. pp. 385, 396), which have been found in the neighbourhood of Bageux, with the name Augustodurus on them. D'Anville identified the Araegenus of the Table with Bay tux. Co. L.]

AUGUSTOMAGUS (Senile), is placed in the Antonine Itin. on the road between Caesaromagus (BeauvaW) and Suessonae (Sui&sons). In the Notitia Imperii the Silvanectes are mentioned as belonging to Belgica Secunda, and the Civitas Silvanectum is mentioned in the Notitia of the provinces of GalJia. The name Silvanectes points to the modern Heidi*, in the department of Oise. [G. L.] AUGUSTOMANA. [tricasses.] AUGUSTONE'METUU (Auyoucrroytueroy), the chief town of the Arverni, which Strabo calls Nemossus (p. 191), and places on the Loire; but he either placed it on the Loire through mistake, or by the Loire be means that branch of the Loire called the Elaver (AUier). The name Angustonemetum occurs in Ptolemy and in the Table. The place was afterwards simply called Arverni ( Ammian. xv. 11), though in the passage of Amniianus the people may be meant. It seems that Pliny (34, C, D, when he speaks of the colossal statue of Mercury made "in civitate Galliae Arvemis," must mean the city and not the territory; and this, as D'Anville observes (Notice, <etc.), is singular, because the practice of giving the name of a people to the chief town of the people did not come in use until after Pliny's time. Clernumt, in the Auvergne, which represents Augustonemetum, does not bear either the ancient name or the name of the people, but the identity is certain. An old Latin historian of Pippin, quoted by D'Anville, makes the "urbs Arverna and "Clarus Mons," that is, Clermont, identical; and Aimoin also speaks of "Arvemis quae Clarus mons dicitur." Clermont Ferrand, the capital of the department of Pug de Dime, is on a small stream which flows into the 4Bitrtl^mt Co. L.]

AtGUSTORITUM {Mr/ovai6oeroii), the capital of the Lemovices, a Gallic tribe, the neighbours of the Arverni on the west. In the Table, Augustoritum is abbreviated or corrupted into Ausrito. The Anton. Itin. between Burdigala, Bordeaux, and Argentomagus, Argenton, agrees with the motlein measurements, and determines the position of Augus toritum to be Limoges, the former capital of the Limousin. Co. L-]

AULAEI TICIIOS or CASTRUM (AoAalou TtiXos: Kurudere f), a Thracian town on the coast of the Euxine, south of Apollonia. (Arrian, Peripl. p. 24.) It is probably the same place as Thera, mentioned in the Tabul. Peuting., and as the Thera-s Chorion in the Periplus Anonymus(p. 14). I S.J

AULERCI, appears to be a generic name, which included several Celtic tribes. Caesar (B. G. ii. 34) names the Aulercj with the Veneti and the other maritime states In B. G. vii. 75, he enumerates, among the clients of the Aedui, the Aulerci Brannovices and Brannovii, as the common text stands; but the names in this chapter of Caesar are corrupt, and " Brannovii " does not appear to be genuine. If the name Aulerci Brannovices is genuine in vii. 75, this branch of the Aulerci, which was dependent on the Aedui, must be distinguished from those Aulerci who were situated between the Lower Seine and the Loire, and separated from the Aedui by the Senones, Carnutes, and Biturii.es Cubi.

Again, in vii. 75, Caesar mentions the Aulerci Cenomani and the Aulerci Eburones, as the text stands; but it is generally agreed that for Eburones we must read Eburovicea, as in B. G. iii. 17. Iu this chapter (vii. 75) Caesar also mentions the maritime states (ii. 34) under the name of the Armoric states; but his list does not agree with the list in ii. 34, and it does not contain the Aulerci. Caesar (iii. 17) mentions a tribe of Diablintes or Diablintres, to whom Ptolemy gives the generic name of Aulerci. It seems, then, that Aulerci was a general name under which several tribes were included [c'eko

MANI, DlABLIJtTES, Eburovices]. co. L.J

AULIS (AuAd: Elh. KbkiUm,fem. Au'Ai8u), a town of Boeotia, situated on the Euriijus, and celebrated as the place at which the Grecian fleet assembled, when they were about to sail against Troy. Strabo says that the harbour of Aulis could only hold fifty ships, and that therefore the Grecian fleet must have assembled in the large port in the neighbourhood, called Paths (Strab. ix. p. 403.) Livy states (xlv. 27) that Aulis was distant three miles from Chalcis. Aulis appears to have stood upon a rocky height, since it is called by Homer (11. ii. 303) AiAlj neroTifaoa, and by Strabo (/. c.) «rpwSfS xwPThese statements agree with the position assigned to Aulis by modern travellers. About three miles south of Chalcis on the Boeotian coast are 11 two bays separated from each other by a rocky peninsula; the northern is small and winding, the southern spreads out at the end of a channel into a large circular basin. The latter harbour, as well as a village situated a mile to the southward of it, is called Vathg, a name evidently derived from fSaBvs Auav" (Leake.) We may therefore conclude that Aulis was situated on the rocky peniusula between these two bays.

Aulis was in the territory of Tanagra. It is called a Kiiun by Strabo. In the time of Pausaniaa it had only a few inhabitants, who were potters. Its temple of Artemis, which Agamemnon is said to have founded, was still standing when Pausanias visited the place. (Dicaearch. 88; Pans, ix. 19. §6,seq.; Phn. iv. 7. s. 12; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 262, seq.; Wordsworth, Alliens and Attica, p. 4. seq.)

Al'LOCRENAE, "a valley ten Roman miles from Apamia (Cibotus) for those who arc going to Phrygia." (Pirn, v. 29.) "The Marsyas," says Pliny, " rises and is soon hidden in the place where Marsyas contended with Ajwllo on the pipe in Aulocrenae;" whence, perhaps, the place derives its name from the legend of Apollo and Marsyas, as it means the fountains of the pipe. Strabo describes the Marsyas and Maeander as rising, according to report, in one lake above Celiienae, which produces reeds adapted for making mouth-pieces fi>r pipes; he gives no name to the lake. Pliny (xvi. 44) says, " We have mentioned the tract t^rcgio) Aulocrene, through which a man passes from Apamia into rbrygia; there a plane tree is shown from which Marsyas was suspended, after being vanquished by Apollo." But Pliny has not mentioned the " rcgio Aulocrene" before; and the passage to which he refers (v. 29), and which is here literally rendered, is not quite clear. But he has mentioned, in another passage (v. 29), a lake on a mountain Aulocrene, in which the Maeander rises. Hamilton (Researches, &c. vol. i. p. 498) found near Denaxr (Apameia Cibotus), a lake nearly two miles in circumference, full of reeds and rashes, which he considers to be the source of the Maeander, and also to be the lake described by Pliny on the Mens Aulocrene, But the Aulocrenae he considers to be in the plain of Dombai. Thus Pliny mentions a " regio Aulocrene," a " mons Aulocrene," and a valley (convallis) Aulocrenae. [makander.] [G. L.]

AULOCRE'NE. [aulocrknae.]

AULON (h.hKwv'), a hollow between hills or banks, was the name given to many such districts, and to places situated in them.

1. A valley in the north-west of Messenia, upon the confines of Elis and Messenia, and through which there was a route into the Lepreatis. Pausanias speaks of "a temple of Asclepms Aulonius in what is called Anion," which he places near the river Neda; but whether there was a town of the name of Aulon is uncertain. The French Cummission suppose that there was a town of this name, near the entrance of the defile which conducts from Cyparissia to the mouth of the Neda. and believe that its position is marked by some ruins near the sea on the right bank of the river Cyparissus. (Strab. vtii. p. 350; Xen. Hell. iii. 2. § 25, iii. 3. § 8; Polyaen. ii. 14; Paus. iv. 36. § 7; Leake, Moren, vol. i. p. 484; Boblaye, Recherches, &c. p. 116.)

2. In Mygdonia in Macedonia, situated a day's march from the Chalcidian Aniac. (Time. iv. 103.) Leake (Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 170) regards it as simply the name of the pass, through which the water* of the hike Bolbe flow by means of a river into the Strymonic gulf; but it appears to have been also the name of a place in this pass. In later times at all events there was a town called Aulon, since it is mentioned as one of the Macedonian cities lo-tored by Justinian. (De Aedif. iv. 4.)

3. A. small place in Attica in the mining district of Laurium. [lauuium.]

4. (Valona), a town on the coast of lUyrieum between Apollonia and Oicum, a little south of the A«»ns, and on a deep bay. (Ptol. iii. 13. § 3; Tab. Pent.; Hierocl )

AULON. a hill in the neighbourhood of Tarentuin,

noticed by Horace for the excellence and abundance of its wine. Martial also speaks of it as producing excellent wine as well as wool, for which the whole neighbourhood of Tarenftim was famous. (Hor. Carm. ii. 6. 18; Mart. xiii. 125.) Its site still retains its ancient celebrity in the former respect : it is now called Monte Afelone (probably a corruption of Aulone'), a sloping ridge on the sea shore about eight miles SE. of Tarentnm. (Romanelli, vol i. p. 295; Carducci, Ddiz'ie Tarantine, p. 269.) [E H. B.] AULON ('AuActff: EUtihor), the name given by the ancients to the great valley through which the Jordan flows below the Lake of Tiberias, and to its continuation quite across the whole length of the Dead Sea, and for some distance beyond. It .signifies a depressed tract of plain, usually between two mountains, and corresponds with the Ghor of the Arabian writers. (Edrisi par Janbert, pp. 337, 338; Abulf. Tab. Syr. pp. 8, 9; Schulten's In!ex Vtt. Salad, s. v. Algavrum.*) According to Eusebius its extreme limits are Mt. Libanus, and the Desert of Paran, in Arabia Petraea. Burkhardt (7'rav. p. 344) describes the course of the valley in the upper end, near Lake Tiberias, as running from N. by E. to S. by \V., and as about two hours broad. The plain through which the river flows is for the most part barren, without trees or verdure; the cliffs and slopes of the river-uplands present a wild and cheerless aspect. Opposite to Jericho its general course is the same, but the cleft which forms the valley widens, and the river flows through the broad plain which is called on the W. " the Plain of Jericho," on the K. " the Plain of M<ab." Josephus speaks of the Jordan as flowing through a desert (if. J. iii. 10. § 7, iv. 8. $ 2), and it preserves this character to the present day. The low bed of the river, the absence of inundation and of tributary streams, have combined to produce this result. The part of the valley which is S. of the Dead Sea has not yet been sufficiently explored. The whole of the valley of the Jordan may be considered as one of those long fissures which occur frequently among limestone mountains, and has given to Palestine its remarkable configuration. And it has been inferred that the phenomenon is referable to volcanic action, of which the country around exhibits frequent traces. (Robinson, Palestine, vol. ii. pp. 215, 258, 305; Von Raumers Palestina, p. 56; Reland, Palaesi. p. 364; Rosenmullcr, Bibl. Alt. vol. ii. pt 1. p. 146; Hitter, Erdhunde West Asien, vol. xv. p. 481.)

2. In Syria. [coklk Syria.]

3. A town in Crete (Steph. B. s. v.), probably the same as the Episcopal See of Aulopotamos. (Cornelius, Creta Sacra, vol. i. p. 233.) According to Hoeck (Krela, vol. i. p. 431) it is represented by a place called Aulon, S. of Retimo. [E. B. J.]

AURANITIS. [haurak.]

AURA'SIUS MONS (t6 Avpimov Spas; Jtbel Auress), a mountain of N. Africa, in the S. of Nuniidia, below the city of Lainhesa. It forms the SE. extremity of the so-called Middle Atlas, which it connects with the main chain of the Curat Atlas. [atlas.] It divides the waters which flow into the basin of the lake Tritonis (J/e/n'r) from those which flow NE. into the basin of the Bagradas. (Procop. B. V. ii. 13, 19, Aedif. vi 7.) It apj«ars to be the Audus Mons of Ptolemv (to Av$ot> opos, iv. 3. § 16). [P. SJ

AUREA CHERSONESUS (fj xpwy X*PP^nffos), in India extra Gangem, is supposed to correspond to the peninsula of Malacca. There is also an Aurca Regio (h XPV(TV X^P°0 m tliat part of the world. For particulars see India. [P. S.] AURELIANORUM URBS or CIMTAS. [gb


AUKGI, a city of Hispania Baetica, mentioned in an inscription, Municipium Flavium AubgitaM:m. (Muratori, p. 1103, No. 6.) TJkert supposes it to be Jaen (vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 370). [P. S.]

AURIXX, a city in the S. of Hispania, not far from Munda (Liv. xxiv. 42); doubtless the same place as Oringis, on the confines of the Melesses, which Hasdrubal made las head quarters against Scipio, B. c. 207. It was at that time tlic most wealthy city of the district, and had a fertile territory, and silver mines worked by the natives. (Liv. ax viii. 3.) Pliny mentions it, with a alight difference of form, Oningis, among the opptda stipendiaria of the convent us Astigitaiius. (Liv. iii. 1. s. 3.) Ukert places it between Monc'ora and Ximena de la Frontera (vol. ii. pt. I. p. 359). [P. S.]

AURUNCA, the capital or metropolis of the little mountain tribe of the Aurunci, in the more limited sense of that name [aurunci], was situated on one of the summits of the volcanic group of mountains, which rise above the plains of Campania, near Suessa and Teanum. Its name is found only in Festus (v. Ansonta), who tells us it was founded by Auson, the son of Ulys.ses and Circe; but Livy clearly alludes to its existence, though without mentioning the name. He tells us, tliat in B.C. 337, the Aurunci, being hard pressed by their neighbours the Sidichii, abandoned their city, and took refuge at Suessa, which they fortified; and that their ancient c'Uy was destroyed by the Sidicini. (Liv. viii. 15.) It was never rebuilt, and hence no subsequent notice of it is found; but some vestiges of it have been discovered on the summit of a narrow mountain ridge, now called La Serra, or La Cortinclla, about 5 miles N. of Suessa, where there are some fragments of the ancient walls, and massive substructions, probably those of a temple. The hill on which it stw<d forms part of the outer edge, or encircling ridge of an ancient volcanic crater, the highest point of which, called the Monte di Sta Croce, attains an elevation of 3,200 feet above the sea; and the site of the ancient town must have been, like that of Alba Longa, a long and narrow plateau on the summit of this ridge. It is to this elevated potation that Virgil alludes. (" De colibus altis Aurunci misere jjatres," A en. vii. 727.) For the description of the remains and site of the ancient city, see Abeken, Ann. d. Inst. 1839, p. 199 — 206, and Daubeny on Volcanoes, p. 175—178. Suessa was frequently distinguished by the epithet Aurunca, and hence Juvenal (i. 20) terms Lucilius, who was a native of that city, "Auruncae alumnus.** [E. H. B.]

ALliUNCl (AOpovvKoi), is the name given by Roman writers to an ancient race or nation of Italy. It appears certain that it was originally the appellation given by them to the people called Ausones by the Greeks: indeed, the two names are merely different forms of the same, with the c hange so common in Latin of the s into the r. (Aurunci=Auninicii=Auruni = Ausum.) The identity of the two is distinctly asserted by Servius {ad Aen. vii. 727), and clearly implied by Dion Cassias (». 2), where he says, that the name of Ansonia was properly applied only to the land of the Auruncans, between the Volscians and the Campanians. In like manner Festus (a P. Antonio) makes the mythical

hero Auson the founder of the city of Aurunca. Servius terms the Aurunci one of the most ancient nations of Italy (ad Aen. vii. 206); and they certainly appear to have been at an early period much more powerful and widely spread than we subsequently find them. But it does not appear that the name was ever employed by the Romans in the vague and extensive sense in which that of Ausones was used by the Greeks. [ausones.]

At a later period, in the fourth century B. C., the two names of Aurunci and Ausones had assumed a distinct signification, and came to be applied to two petty nations, evidently mere subdivisions of the same great race, both dwelling on the frontiers of Latiuin and Campania; the Ausones on the W. of the Litis, extending from thence to the mountains of the Volscians; the Auruncans, on the other hand, being confined to the detached group of volcanic mountains now called Monte di Sta Croce, or liocca Monjina, on the left bank of the Liris, together with the hills that slope from thence towards the sea. Their an cient stronghold or metropolis, Aurunca, was situated near the summit of the mountain, while Suessa, which they subsequently made their capital, was on its soutn -western slope, commanding the fertile plains from thence to the sea. On the E. and S. they bordered closely on the Sidicini of Teanum and the people of Cales, who, according to Livy (viii. 16), were also of Ausonian race, but were politically distinct from the Auruncans. Virgil evidently regards these hills as the original abode of the Auruncan race (Aen. vii, 727), and speaks of them as merely a petty people. But the first occasion on which they appear in Roman history exhibits them in a very different light, as a warlike and powerful nation, who had extended their conquests to the very borders of Latiuin.

Thus, in B. c 503, we find the Latin cities of Cora and Pometia "revolting to the Aurunci," and these powerful neighbours supporting them with a large army against the infant republic. (Liv. ii. 16, 17.) And a few years later the Auruncans took up amis as allies of the Volscians, and advanced with their army as far as Aricia, where they fought a great battle with the Roman consul Servilius. (Id. ii. 26; Dionys vi. 32.) On this occasion they are termed by Dioiiysius a warlike ]>eople of great strength and fierceness, who occupied the fairest plains of Campania; so that it seems certaiu the name is here used as including the people to whom the name of Ausones (in its more limited sense) is afterwards applied. From this time the name ot the Auruncans does not again occur till a. c. 344, when it is evident that Livy is speaking only of the petty people who inhabited the mountain of Jtocca Monjina, who were defeated and reduced to submission without difficulty (Liv. vii. 28.) A few years later (b. C. 337) they were compelled by the attacks of their neighbours the Sidicini, to apply for aid to Rome, and meanwhile abandoned their stronghold on the mountain and established themselves in their new city of Suessa, (Id. viii. 15.) No mention of their name is found in the subsequent wars of the Romans in this part of Italy; and as in B.C. 313 a Roman colony was established at Suessa (Liv. ix« 28), their national existence must have been thenceforth at an end. Their territory was subsequently included in Campania. [E. II. B-]

AUSA (ACffa), the chief city of the Ausetaxi, was called in the middle ages Ausona and Vicui I Ausonensis, Vic de Osane, whence its nTodent name of Vique, or Vich. It lies W. of Gerona, on a S. tributary of the Ter, the ancient Alba. (Plin. Hi. 3. a. 4; PtoL ii. 6. § 70; Marca, Hisp. ii. 22, p. 191.) There is a coin with the inscription Ausa; bat it is probably spurious. (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 35; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 29; Sestiili, Letter*, vol, ix. praef., Med. hp. p. 104; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 426.) [P. S.]

AUSARA (ACtrapa). 1. A city of the Sachatitae on the south coast of Arabia (Ptol. vi. 7- §11), in the modern district of Mahrah: probably the capital of Pliny's Ausaritae (vi. 28. s. 32), from which apparently a peculiar kind of incense enumerated by him (xti. 25. s. 16) derived its name. Forster identifies it with Ras-al-Sair. (Geog. of Arabia, vol. ii. pp. 177, 178.)

2. Another town of the same name as the preceding is enumerated among the inland cities of Arabia Felix by Ptolemy (vi. 7. 30), and placed by him in long. 71°, lat. 25° 30', which Forster finds in the modem town of Zarfa, in the Hedjaz. (Ibid, vol. ii. pp. 127, 130.) [G. W.]

AUSCHI'SAK (Atwrxfffai, Herod, iv. 171; Adoyvrai, Apollod. ap. Steph. B.; Advice*, D»d, Sic iii. 42; A&YTrai, PtoL iv. 5. § 21; Aftx?TM'* Nonn. Diony$. xiii. 375), a Libyan people in Cyrenaica, W. of the Asbystae, extending S. of Barca as far \V as the Hesperides (aft. Berenice), on the coast of the Greater Syrtis. Ptolemy alone places them in Mannarica.

There are some exceedingly interesting remains of forts, of an extremely ancient style of building, which are fully described by Barth, who regards them as works of the Ausehisae, and fortifies his opinion by the statement of Pliny (iv. 1), that it was the common custom of the Libyan tribes to build forts. (Beechey, Proceedings of the Expedition to explore the N. coast of Africa, pp. 251, 252; Barth, Wanderungm, &c. p. 3*54.) [P.S.]

AUSCI ((actkioi), also Auscenscs, one of the nations of Aquitania who submitted to Caesar's legatus, P. Crassus, in B.C. 56. Strabo (p. 191) says that they had the Latinitas at the time when he wrote. Mela (iii. 2) calls the Ausci the most illustrious of the Aquitanian nations. Their territory was fertile. The position of the Ausci is determined by that of Auck, or Augusta Auscorum, their chief town; and their territory may be represented pretty nearly by the French department of Gers. [augusta Auscorum.] [G. L.]

AUSENSES ('Awflj), a Libyan people, in North Africa, dwelling about the lake Tritonis at the bottom of the Lesser Syrtis, next to the Machlyes. The Machlyes were on the S. side of the lake, and the Ausenses on the N. (E. and W. respectively, according to the view of Herodotus), the river Triton being the boundary between thein: the latter people, therefore, were in the S. of the district afterwards called Byzacena. (Ht*rod. iv. 180.) Herodotus makes them the last of the nomadc peoples towards the W., their neighbours on that side, the Maxyes, being an agricultural people. (Herod, iv. 191: it is hardly necessary to notice Rennell's allusion to. and obviously correct solution of, an inconsistency which the hypercritic may fancy between this passage and c. 186: Rennell,Geoo\*o/r>rotf. vol. ii. p. 302.) " The Machlyes," says Herodotus, '"wear the h:iir on the back of the head, but the Ausenses on the front. The Ausenses celebrated a yearly festival of Athena, whom they claimed as their native goddess, in which their virgins were divided into two parties, which fought each other with stones and clubs, and thube

who died of their wounds were esteemed not true virgins. The combat was preceded by a pnwession, in which the most beautiful of the virgins was decorated with a Corinthian helmet and a full suit of Grecian armour, and was drawn in a chariot round the lake." (Comp, Mela, i. 7.) Respecting the supposed connection of the locality with the worship of Athena, see Triton.

The Ausenses are supposed by Pacho ( Voyage dans la Marniarique, &c.) to be the same people as the Ansurii, who are mentioned by Synesins as devastating Cyrenaica in the 6th centurv. (Bahr, ad Herod. I. c.) [P. S.]

AUSER or AUSAR (Afcrap, Strab.: Serckio), a considerable river of Etruria, rising in the Apennines on the borders of Liguria, and flowing near the city of Luca, is evidently the same with the modem Serckio, though that river now flows into the Tyrrhenian Sea by a separate mouth, seven miles N. of that of the Arno, while all ancient writers represent the Auser as tailing into the Arnus. The city of Pisae was situated at the point of their junction : and the confluence of the two streams was said to give rise to a violent agitation of their waters. (Strab. v. p. 222; Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Rutil. Itin. i. 566.) The Auser appears to have retained its ancient course till about the 12th century; but the exact period of the change is unknown; the whole space between it and the Arnus, in the lower part of their course, is so flat and low that it is said that their waters still communicate during great floods. A canal or ditch between the two streams still retained the name of Osari in the days of Cluverius. The modern name of Serchio is supposed to be a corruption of Auscrculns, a form which is found in documents of the middle ages. (Clover. Ital. p. 462; Muller, Etrusker, p. 213; Targioni-Tozzetti, Viaggi in Toscana, vol. ii. p. 146—178.) [E. H. B.]

AU'SERE (Fessahf), a river of Tripolitana, in Africa Propria. (Tab. Peut) [P. S.]

AUSETA'NI (Auflnroroi, Ptol. ii. 6. § 70), one of the small peoples in the extreme NE. of Hispania Tarraconensis, at the foot of the Pyrenees, in Catalonia. Pliny (iii. 3. s. 4) places them (intus recedentes rod ice Pyrenaei) W. of the La Let Am and Indioktes, and E. of the Lacetani and Cerretani. Ptolemy (I. c.) places the Cerretani furthest to the E., and next to them the Ausetani. Their position is fixed by that of their chief cities Ausa and Gerund A {Gerona), along the valley of the river Ter, the ancient Alba. The great Roman road from Narbo in Gaul to Tarraco passed through their territory. Under the Roman empire they belonged to the conventus of Tarraco. Of their cities, Auba and Gerunda had the jus Latwtum (Plin. U); and Baecula (BaucouAa, Ptol. I. a: Eth. Baeculonenses, Plin.) was a civitas stipendiaries Ptolemy also mentions Aquae CalidaV ("tjoto &*pfid; prob. Banolas), between Ausa and Gerunda: it seems not quite certain whether this town is the same as that of the sHpendarii A quicaldenses of Pliny (I. c.)

The Ausetani are several times mentioned by Livy: as conquered by Hannibal, at the beginning of the second Punic War (xxt. 23); reconquered by Scipio (c.61): taking part in the revolt of Indibilis, B.C. 205 (xxix, 2, et seq.), and the war of the Emporiae, B.C. 195 (xxxiv. 20: see also xxxix. 56, and Caesar, B. C. i. 60.) [P. S.]

AUSOBA, in Ireland, placed by Ptolemy (ii. 2. § 4) as the third river ftvm the Roreum pronioc*

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