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the name itself implies. The festival of Isis at Busiris came next in splendour and importance to that of Artemis at Bnbastis in the Egyptian calendar. The temple of Isis, indeed, with the hamlet which sprang up around it, stood probably at a short distance without the walls of Busiris itself, for Pliny (v. 10. s. 11) mentions "Isidis oppidum" in the neighbourhood of the town. The ruins of the temple are still risible, a little to the N. of Abousir, at the hamlet of Bahbeyt. (Pococke, Travels, vol. i. p. 34; Minutoli, p. 304.)

Busiris was also the name of a town in Middle Egypt, in the neighbourhood of Memphis and the Great Pyramid. Its site is marked by the modern village of Abomir in that district. There are considerable catacombs near the ancient town (Pliny xxxvi. 12. s. 16): indeed to the S. of Busiris one great cemetery appears to have stretched over the plain. The Heptanomite Busiris was in fact a hamlet standing at one extremity of the necropolis of Memphis. '[W. B. D.]

BUTADAE, a demus of Attica, of uncertain site. [See p. 333, No. 33.]

BUTHOE or BUTUA (Bvfliij, Steph. B. t. v.; Scylax, p. 9; Butua, Plin. iii. 23. s. 26; BovXoia, an error for Bovrova, Ptol. ii. 16. § 5: Eth. Boufouet: Budoa), a town of Dalmatia in Illyricum, said to have been founded by Cadmus, after he had migrated from Thebes and taken up his residence among the Illyrian tribe of the Enchelees.

BUTHROTUM (Boi/flpo-T-ji-, Strab., Ptol.; Bou9(M70sf Steph. B. .* Eth. Bou6pdnios\ a town of Thesprotia in Epirus, was situated upon a peninsula at the head of a salt-water lake, which is connected with a bay of the sea by means of a river three or four miles in length. This lake is now called Vutzindri, and bore in ancient times the name of PeloDes (nnAwSnv ), from its muddy waters; for though Strabo and Ptolemy give the name of Pelodes only to the harbour (aj^p), there can be little doubt that it belonged to the lake as well. (Strab. vii. p. 324; Ptol. iii. 14. § 4; called riaAdm by Appian, B. C. v. 55.) The bay of the sea with which the lake of Vutzindro is connected is called by Ptolemy the bay of Buthrotum, and must not be confounded with the inland lake Pelodes. The bay of Buthrotum was bounded an the north by the promontory Posidium.

Buthrotum is said to have been founded by Helenus, the son of Priam, after the death of Pyrrhus. Virgil represents Aeneas visiting Helenns at this place, and finding him married to Andromache. (Virg. Am. iii. 291,seq.; Ov. -3/et.xiii. 720.) Virgil describes Buthrotum as a lofty city (" eeltam B nth rot i ascendimus urbem "), resembling Troy: to the river which flowed from the lake into the sea Helenas had given the name of Simois, and to a dry torrent that of Xanthus. But its resemblance to Troy seems to have been purely imaginary; and the epithet of "lofty " cannot be applied with any propriety to Buthrotum. The town was occupied by Caesar afted he had taken Oricum (Caes. B. C. iii. 16); and it had become a Roman colony as early as the time of Strabo. (Strab. I c; Phn. iv. 1. s. 1.) Aniens had an estate at Buthrotum. (Cic. adAtt. iv. 8, ad Fam. xvi. 7.)

"The ruins of Buthrotum occupy a peninsula which is bounded on the western side by a small bay in the lake, and is surrounded from the north to the south-east by the windings of the river just above its issue. The walls of the Roman colony still exist in

the whole circumference, which is about a mile, and are mixed witli remains both of later and of Hellenic work, showing that the city always occupied the same site. The citadel was towards the hay of the lake, where the side of the peninsula is the highest and steepest." (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 99, seq.; comp. Prokesch, Ilenkwurdigk. vol. i. p. 22, seq.)

BU'TICUS I.ACUS (h Boi/t«)) Strab. xvii. p. 802), was one of the lagoons formed by the Nile near its junction with the Mediterranean Sea. The Butic Lake, the modern Burloa, was northward of the town of Butos, and contained the islet of Chemmis or Cheinbis, from which the nome Chemmites derived its appellation. (Steph. B. p. 690). This island which at one time was said to be floating, was the original site of tin* temple of Buto, since here Isis took refuge when pursued by Tvphon. (Anton. Lib. Metam. Fab. 28.) [W. B. D.]

BUTOS, or BUTO ( Odtoj, Herod, ii. 59, 63, 155; Bourti, Steph. B. p. 183, ». v.: Eth. Boirriov, Bovrotrris, Boi/Tocrns), was the capital town, or according to Herodian, merely the principal village of the Delta, which Herodotus (Z. c.) calls the Chemmite nome; Ptolemy the Phthenothite (*Sei-DTns, iv. 5. § 48) and Pliny (v. 9. s. 11) Ptenetha. Butos stood on the Sebennytic arm of the Nile, near its mouth, and on the southern shore of the Butic Lake. (bovtik)) A//ii»ij, Strab. xvii. p. 802.) The town was celebrated for its monolithite temple (Herod, ii. 155) and oracle of the goddess Buto (Aelian. V. Hist. ii. 41), whom the Greeks identified with Leto or Latona. A yearly feast was held there in honour of the goddess. At Butos there was also a sanctuary of Apollo (Horus) and of Artemis (Bubastis). It is the modern Kem Kasir. (Champollion, lEgypte, vol. ii. p. 227.) The name Buto (bout<£) of the Greeks is nearly allied to that of Muth or Maut, which is one of the appellations of Isis, as " Mother of the World." (Plut. It. et 0$ir. 18, 38.) The slirewmouse was worshipped at Butos. (Herod, ii. 67.) [W. B. D.]

BU'TRIUM (BotfrpuH-), a town of Gallia Cispadana, placed by Strabo on the road from Ravenna to Altinum. This is confirmed by the Tab. Peut., which places it 6 miles from Ravenna: Pliny also says that, it was near the sea-coast, and calls it an Umbrian city. Strabo, on the other hand, says it was a colony or dependency of Ravenna. (Strab. v. p. 214; Plin. bl. 15.s, SO; Steph. Byz. t. v. Bovrpiov; Tab. Peut.) No remains of it are extant, and its site cannot be identified: there is a place still called Budrio about 10 miles NE. of Bologna, but this is much too far from the sea-coast: the ancient Butrium must have been near the entrance of the lagunes of Comacchio. The Butrium mentioned by Ptolemy (iii. 1. § 31) among the cities of the Cenomani, in conjunction with Tridentum, must have been quite a different place. [E. H. B.]

BUTUA. [bcthok.]

BUTUNTUM (BuToyrlvos: Eth. Butnntinensis: Bilonto). an inland city of Apulia, distant 12 miles W. from Barium, .and about 5 from the sea. From its position it must certainly have belonged to the Peucetian district of Apulia, though reckoned by Pliny, as well as in the Liber Coloniarum, among the cities of Calabria (Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Lib. Colon, p. 262). It is correctly placed by the Itineraries on the road from Barium to Canusium, 12 M.P. from Barium and 11 from Rubi. (Itin. Ant, p. 117; I tin. Hier. p. 609.) No mention of it is found in history but its coins attest that it must have been in early

times a place of some importance. They bear the Gi-uck legend BTTONTINHN, and the types indicate a connexion with Tarentum. (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 144; Millingen, A'«m. de F/talie, p. 150.) [E. H. B-]

BUXENTUM, called by the Greeks PYXUS (Hu^ovs; Ptolemy however writes the name Boi^ecTov: Eth. Hv!;ovvtiosj Baxentinus: Pulicastro), a city on the W. coast of Lucania, on the Gulf now known as the Golfo di Policastro, which appears to have been in ancient times called the Gulf of Laus. The Roman and Greek forms of the name are evidently related in the same manner as Acragaa and Agrigentum, Selinus and Selinuntiuni, &c. All authors agree in representing it as a Greek colony. According to the received account it was founded as late as B. c. 470 by a colony from Rhegium, sent out by Micythus, the successor of Anaxilaus. (I)iod. xi 59; Strab. vi. p.253; Steph. B. s.v. riu^oCi.) But from coins still extant, of a very ancient style of fabric, with the name of Pyxus (I1TEOE2) on the one side, and that of Siris on the other, it is evident that there must have been a Greek city there at an earlier period, which was either a colony of Siris, or cf kindred origin with it. (Eckhcl, vol. i. p, 151; Millingen, Numismatique de I Italic, p. 41.) The colony of Micythus according to Strabo did not last long: and we hear no more of Pyxus until after the conquest of Lucania by the Romans, who in B.C. 197 selected it as the site of one of the colonies which they determined to establish in Southern Italy. The settlement was not however actually made till three years afterwards, and in B. c. 186 it was already rejxtrted to be deserted, and a fresh body of colonists was sent there. (Liv. xxxii. 29, xxxiv. 42, 45, xxxix. 22; Veil. Pat. i. 15.) No subsequent mention of it is found in history, and it seems to have never been a place of much importance, though its continued existence as a municipal town of Lucania is attested by the geographers as well as by the Liber Colonianim, where the " ager Buxentinus" is erroneously included in the province of the Bruttii. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 10; Strab. vi. p. 253; Mela ii. 4; PtoL iii. 1. § 8; Lib. Colon, p. 209.) It appears to have still been the see of a bishop as late as A.d. 501. (Komanelli, vol. i. p. 375.)

Strabo tells us (/. c.) that besides the city there was a promontory and a river of the same name. The latter still retains its ancient name, the river which flows near the modern city of Policastro being Ktill called the Buscnto. The promontory is probably the one now called Capo degli Infrescki, which bounds the Gulf of Policastro on the \V. Cluverius speaks of the vestiges of an ancient city as still visible at Policastro - but no ruins appear to be now extant there: and the only ancient remains are two inscriptions of the reign of Tiberius. There is, however, little doubt that Policastro, the name of which dates from about the 11th century, occupies nearly, if not precisely, the site of Buxentum. (Cluver. Ital. p. 1261; Komanelli, vol. i. p. 373.)

The coin of Pyxus above alluded to, is figured under Sims. [E. H. B.]

BU'ZARA. [mauritania.]

BYBLOS (busaos, Steph. B.; Bt'flAor, Zosim. i. 58: Eth, BiiSAioy, BttAios, LXX.\ PtoL v. 15; Plin. v. 20; Pomp. Mel.i. 12. § 3; Hierocl.; Geogr. Kav.: Jubell). a city of Phoenicia, seated on a rising ground near the sea. at the foot of Lebanon, between Sidon and the Promontory Theoprosopon (QeoO ir^6Qt*xov). (Mifib. xvi. p. 755.) It was celebrated

| for the birth and worship of Adonis or Syrian Thummuz. (Eustath. adIHonys. v. 912; Nounus, Dionys, iii. v. 109; Strab. I.e.) "The land of the Giblites," with all Lebanon, was assigned to the Israelites (Josh. xiii. 5), but they never got possession of it. The Giblites are mentioned as "stonesquarers" (1 Kings, v. 18), and supplied caulkers for the Tynan fleet (Ezek. xxvii. 9). Enylus, king of BybIlls, when he learnt that his town was in the possession of Alexander, came up with his vessels, and joined the Macedonian fleet. (Arrian, Anab. ii. 15. § 8, 20. § 1.) Byblus seems afterwards to have (alien into the hands of a petty despot, as Pompey is described as giving it freedom, by beheading tie tyrant. (Strab. /. c.) This town, under the name of Giblah (Abulf. Tab. Syr. p. 94; Schulten's Index Fit Salad, s. r. Sjiblia'), after having been the see of a bishop, fell under Moslem rule. The name of the modem town is Jubeil, which is enclosed by a wall of about a mile and a half in circumference, apparently of the time of the Crusades. (Chesney, Exped. Euphrat. vol. i. p. 453.) It contains the remains of an ancient Roman theatre: the " cavea * is nearly perfect, with its concentric ranks of seats, divided by their "praecinctiones," "cunei," &c, quite distinguishable. (Thomson. Bibl. Sacra, vol. v. p. 259.) Many fragments of fine granite columns are lying about. (Burkhardt, Syria, p. 180.) Byblus was the birthplace of Philon, who translated Sanchuniat.on into Greek. The coins of Byblu* have frequently the type of Astarte; also of Isis, who came here in search of the body of Osiris. (Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 359.)

(Winer, Real Wortbuch,s.v.; Rosenmuller, Bibl. Alt. vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 17; Mem. de I Acad, des I riser. vol. xxxiv. p. 252.) [E.B.J.]

BYBLOS (busaoj, Steph. B. s. v.; Ctesias, ap. Phot. Bibl. ed. Bekker, p. 33. Eth. Byblites), a town of the Egyptian Delta, supposed by some to be the modern Babel. Byblos was seated in the marshes, and, as its name imports, was in the centre of a tract where the Byblus or Papyrus plant—Cyperus j«pyrus of Linnaeus, the Cyperus Antiquorum of recent botanists—grew in abundance. The root of the byblus furnished a coarse article of food, which the Greeks ridiculed the Egyptians for eating. (Aeschyl. Suppl. 768.) Its leaves and rind were manufactured into sandals and girdles for the inferior order of Egyptian priests, and into sailcloth for the Nile-barges (Theophr. Hist. Plant iv. 8); while its fibres aud pellicles were wrought into the celebrated papyrus, which, until it was superseded by cotton paper or parchment about the eleventh century A. D., formed a principal article of Egyp ian export, and the writing material of the civilised world. Pliny (xiii. 11. s. 12) has left an elaborate description of the manufacture, and Cassiodorus (Epist. xi. 38) a pompous panegyric of the Papyrus or Byblus plant. Its history is also well described by Prosper Alpinus, in his work "de Medicina Aegvptiorum." [W*. B. D.]

BYCE, BYCES. [buck.]

BYLAZO'RA (BuKdfrpa: Velesd, or Vtletso), the greatest city of Paeonia in Macedonia, was jstuated on the Upper Axius, and near the passes leading from the country of the Dardani into Macedonia. (Pol. v. 97; Liv. xliv.26; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 470.) It was a different place from the residence of the Paeouiau kings on the river Astycus.

[AflXYCUS-]

BYLLIS. [bi-lus.]

BYRSA. [cabthaqo.]

BY'SXAKI (Buavtuoi, Steph. t. r.), a tribe of Bcbryces. [bkbryces.] CG. L.]

BYZACE'NA. [byzacium.]

BYZACII. [bvzacicm.]

BYZACIUM, BYZACE'NA (»c. regio provincial Bufdxior, Procop. B. V. ii. M, de Aed. vi. 6; f, Bv{ai<!a, Steph. B., v Bvaaaris, Polyb. iii. 23, v Bi'fmas x^'P", Polyb. ap. Stcph. B.; T\ Bu^okitu X<£pa, Ptol. iv. 3. § 26: JSlh. Bvfavrts, Bvfdxioi, Strab. ii. p. 131, Bv£a<<Tivoi, Byzacii, Byzaceni), a district of N. Africa, lying to the S. of Zkugitana, and forming part of the Carthaginian territory, afterwards the S. part of the Roman province of Africa, , and at last a distinct province.

In the exact position of the later Byzacium, Herodotus (iv. 194, 195) places a Libyan people called the Gyzantes (ri/£aj/T€j, others read Zvyavrts), who possessed the art of making artificial honey, in addition to the plentiful supply furnished by the bees of the country, and who painted themselves red, and ate apes, which were abundant in their mountains. (Comp. Eudoxus ap. Apol. Dysc. de. Mirab. p. 38.) They dwelt opposite to the island of Cyraunis, which, from the description of Herodotus, can be none other than Cercina (Karketmh). Thus their position corresponds exactly with that of Byzacium, a district still famous for its natural honey, and where, as in other parts of Tunis, a sort of artificial honey is made from the date-palm: monkeys, too, are numerous in its mountainous parts. As to the name, the later writers place the Byzantes or Byzacii in the same position, and Stephanus (*. v. Bufovr«$) expressly charges Herodotus with an error in writing rvfamts for Bvfavrts. There is, therefore, little doubt that in the name of this Libyan people we have the origin of that of Byzacium. The limits of Byzacium under the Carthaginians, and its relation to the rest of their territory, have been explained under Africa (p. 68, b.); and the same article traces the political changes, by which the name obtained a wider meaning, down to the constitution of the separate province of Byzacium, or the Provincia Byzac* na, as an imperial province, governed by a consularis, with Hadrumetum for its capital. This constitution is assigned to Diocletian, on the authority of inscriptions which mention the Prov. Val. Byzacena as early as A. D. 321 (Gruter, pp.362, No. 1, 363, Nos. 1, 3; Orclli, Nos 1079, 3058, 3672). This province contained the ancient district of Byzacium, on the E. coast, a part of the Emporia on the Lesser Syrtis, and W. of these the inland region which originally belonged to Numidia. It was bounded on the E. by the Mediterranean and Lesser Syrtis; on the N. it was divided from Zeugitana by a line nearly coinciding with the parallel of 36° N. 1st.; on the W. from Numidia by a S. branch of the Bagradas; on the SE. from Tripolitana, by the river Triton; while on the S. and S\V. the deserts about the basin of the Pal us Tritonis formed a natural boundary. The limits are somewhat indefinite in a general description, but they can be determined with tolerable exactness by the lists of places in the early ecclesiastical records, which mention no less than 115 bishops' sees in the province in the fifth century. (Notit. Prov. Afr., Booking, N. D. vol. ii. pp. 615, FYI.) Among its chief cities were, on the S. coast, beginning from the Lesser Syrtis, Thenar, Achilla, Thapsus, Leptis Minor, Ruspina, and Hadrumetum, the capital: and, in the in

terior, AsSURAE, Tt CCA TKREnlNTHINA, SUFE

Tula, Thvsdkus, Capsa, besides Thelkpte, and Theveste, which, according to the older division, belonged to Numidia. [P. S.]

BYZANTES. [byzacium.] BYZA'NTIUM. [constantinopolis.] BYZE'RES (BiQqpis), a nation in Pontus. Stephanos (r. v.), who mentions the Byzeres, adds that there is a Bv&ipiKbs Mfiiiv, whence we might infer that the Byzeres were on the coast, or at least possessed a place on the coast. Strabo (p. 549) mentions several savage tribes which occupied the interior above Trapezus and Phamacia—the Tibareni, the Cheldaei, the Sanni who were once called Macrones, and others. He adds, that some of these, barbarians were called Byzeres; but he does not say, as some interpret his words, that these Byzeres were the same as the Heptacometae. Dionysiua {Pcrieg. 765) mentions the Byzeres in the same verse with the Bccheires or Bechiri. The name of the people must have been well known as it occurs in Mela (i. 19), and in Pliny (vi. 3); but there are no means of fixing their position more precisely than Strabo has done. [G. L.]

0

CA'BALEIS. [cabalis.]

CA'BALIS (KoeWj, KaSaAAi'r, KoffaA/o: Elh. KaSaKevSf Ka€d\tot), a people of Asia Minor. Herodotus (iii. 90) mentions theCabalii in the same nome (the second) with the Mysi, Lydi, Losonii, and Hypenneis. He places the Milyeis in the first home with the Lycians, Carians, and others. In another passage (vii, 77) he speaks of "Cabelees the Maeonians" (Ka€ri\4ci o\ Mjjfowj), and says that they are called Lasonii. Nothing can be got from these two passages. Strabo (p. 629) speaks of the Cibyratis and Caballis: in another place (p. 631) he says that the Cibyratae are said to be descendants of those Lydians who occupied the Caballis; and again, "they say that the Cubaleis were Solymi." Strabo admits the difficulty of giving an exact account of this and some other parts of Asia, partly owing to the Romans not making their political divisions according to peoples, but adopting a different principle in determining their Conventus Juridici. Pliny (v. 27) places Cabalia in the interior of Lycia, and names its three cities Oenoanda, Balbura, and Bubon; and Ptolemy (v. 3) assigns the same three cities to Carbalia, which manifestly ought to be Cabalia. We thus obtain in a general way the position of Cabalia or Cabalis, if we can ascertain the sites of these cities, and they have been determined of late years [balbura; Bubon; Oenoanda]. The map which accompanies Spratt's Lycia places Balbura not far below the source of the Indus of Lycia, Bubon not far from the source of the Xanthus, and Oenoanda lower down on the same river. But Ptolemy has also Carbalia, that is Cabalia, in Pamphylia (v. 5), to which he assigns many towns — Cretopolis, Termessus, and even a town Milyas; and Pliny again (v. 32) makes a part of Galatia border on the Cabalia of Pamphylia. Stephanus mentions only a city Cabalis; though he quotes Strabo who, indeed, speaks of " Cibyra the great, Sindo, and Caballis," and perhaps he means to say that there is a city Caballis. From all this confusion we can now extract the fact that there were three cities at least, which have been enumerated above, in the courts or Cabal la; and we can

s Strabo agree with Pliny and I'tulemy, by supposing that these three cities (Balbura, Bubon, and Oenoanda) which Strabo mentions, belonged to his territory Caballis, though he does not say that they i did. The connection of Cibyra with the towns of 1 the Cabalis is explained under Cibyka. (G. L.] CA BASA (KaOuro, Ptol. iv. 5. § 48; Plin. v. 9, 8.9: Hierocles,p.724; Ka£affrra,CnnaE plies.p.531, and KaiWffa), in the Delta of Egypt, the modern Khabas^m the principal town of the r.oine Cabasites. It was seated a little to the north of Sais and Naucratis. Remains of the ancient Cabasa are believed > to exist at Koum-Fara'un, and in this district the names of several villages, e. g. Khabas-tl-Mch, Khabas-omar, Koum-Khtibus — recall the Coptic! appellation of the capital of the Cahasite norne. I D'Anville (Egypte, p. 75) and Champollion (ii. p. 234) ascribe to the castle of Khabas the site of the original Cabasa. CW. B. D ]

CABASSUS (Ka€aa<r6st or Ka€n<Ta6s: Kth. Ka€j}ffffios, Kagnoobrnt). According to Apion, quoted by Stephanus, a village of Cappadocia between Tarsus and Mazaca; not the Cabessus of Homer (fl. xiii. 363), certainly. Ptolemy places it . in Cataonia. [G. L.]

CABE'LLIO (KoffaAAfwK, Strab. p. 179: Eth. KaStWuaviiaios, KafifWimvtrtjs: Caraillon), a town in Gaul, on the Druentia {Durance), and on a line of road between Vapincum (Gap) and Arelate (Aries). Stephanus (s. v. KaStWtuv), on the authority of the geographer Artemidorus, makes it a Massaliot foundation. Walckenaer (Gtog. if-c. sol. i. p. 187) says that M. Calvet has proved, in a learned dissertation, that there was a company of Utricularii (boatmen, ferrymen) at Cabell to, for the crossing of ] the river. Such a company or corpus existed at Arelate and elsewhere. Cabellio was a city of the Cavares, who were on the east bank of the Rhone. Pliny calls it an Oppidum Latinum (iii. 4), and Ptolemy a Colonia. It was a town of some note, and many architectural fragments have been found in the soil. The only thing that remains standing is a fragment of a triumphal arch, the lower part of which lay buried in the earth. In the Notitia of the Gallic Provinces "civitas Cabellicorum" is included in

[G.L.]

[graphic]

COI5 OF CABELLIO.

CABILLO'NUM or CABALLI'NUM, with other varieties. Coins of this place, with the epigraph Caballo, are mentioned. Strabo (p. 192) lias Ka6VAKtvov (Eth. Cabellinensis: C/tulon-sur-Saone), a town of the Aedui, on the west bank of the Arar (Sadne), which in Caesar's time (B G. vii. 42) was a place which Roman negotiators visited or resided at. At the close of the campaign against Vercingetofix (b. C. 52), Q. Cicero, the brother of the orator, wintered here. The Antonine Itin. places it 33 M. P. or 22 Gallic leagues from Autun. Ammiauus (xv. 11) mentions this place, under the name Cabillonus, as one of the chief places of Lugdunensis Prima; and from the Notitia Imp. it appears that the Romans kept a fleet of some description here. T. L.]

CABIRA (rd Kdidpa), a place in Pontus, at

the base of the range of Paryadres, about 150 stadia south of Eupatoria or Magnopolis, which was at the junction of the Iris and the Lycus Eupatoria was in the midst of the plain, but Cabira, as Strabo says (p. 556), at the base of the mountain range of Parya ■ dres. Mithridates the Great built a palace at Cabira: and there was a water-mill there (65paA*T7j*), and places for keeping wild animals, hunting grounds, and mines. Less than 200 stadia from Cabira was the remarkable rock or fortress cal led Caon< >n (KcurdV), where Mithridates kept his most valuable things. Cn. Pompeius took the place and its treasures, which, when Strabo wrote, were in the Roman Capitol. In Strabo's time a woman, Pythodoris, the widow of King Polemo, had Cabira with the Zelitis and Magnopolitis. Pompeius made Cabira a city, and gave it the name Diopolis. Pythodoris enlarged it, and gave it the name Sebaste, which is equivalent to Augusta; and she used it as her royal residence. Near Cabira probably (for the text of Strabo is a little uncertain, and not quite clear; Groskurd, transl. vol. ii. p. 491, note) at a village named Ameria, there was a temple with a great number of slaves belonging to it, and the high priest enjoyed this benefice. The god Men Phamares was worshipped at Cabira. Mithridates was at Cabira during the winter that L. Lucullus was boiegin*; Amisus and Eupatoria. (Appian, Mithrid. c. 78.) Lucullus afterwards took Cabira, (Plutarch, Lucullus, c. 18.) There are some autonomous coins of Cabira with the epigraph Ka&npatv.

Strabo, a native of Amasia, could not be unacquainted with the site of Cabins. The only place that corresponds to his description is Niksar, on the right bank of the Lycus, nearly 27 miles from the junction of the Iris and the Lycus. But Niksar is the representative of Neocaesarea, a name which first occurs in Pliny (vi. 3), who says that it is on the Lycus. There is no trace of any ancient city between Nilcsar and the junction of the two rivers, and the conclusion that NUcsar is a later name of Cabira, and a name more recent than Sebaste. seems certain. (Hamilton's Researches, $c. vol. i. p. 346.) Pliny, indeed, mentions both Sebastian and Sebastopolis in Colopena, a district of Cappadocia, but nothing certain can be inferred from this. Neocaearea seems to hare arisen under the early Roman emperors. Cramer (Asia Minor, vol. i. p. 315) states that the earliest coins of Neocaesarea bear the effigy of Tiberius; but Sestini, quoted by Korbiger (Geag. vol. ii. p. 428), assigns the origin of Neocaesarea to the time of Nero, about A. D. 64, when Pontus Polemoniactis was made a Roman province. The simplest solution of this question is that Neocaesarea was a new town, which might be near the site of Cabira. It was the capital of Pontus Polemnniacus, the birth-place of Gregoriiis Thaumaturgus, and the place of assembly of a council in A. D. 314, Ammiauus Marcellinns (xxvii. 12) calls it the most noted city of Pontus Polemoniacus: it was, in fact, the metropolis. According to Paulus Diaconus the place was destroyed by an earthquake,

Cramer supposes that Neocaesarea is identical with Ameria, and he adds that Neocaesarea was "the principal seat of pagan idolatry and superstitions, which affords another presumption that it had risen on the foundation of Ameria and the worship of Men Phamaces.M But America seems to have been at or near Cabira; and all difficulties are reconciled by supposing that Cabira, Americana, Neo

ere in the valley of the Lycns, and if not on the same spot, at least very near to one another. Stephanus (*. v. NtoKcuadpua: Eth. tifoKcuoapitfa) adds to our difficulties by saying or seeming to say that the inhabitants were also called Adriannpolitae. Where he got this from, nobody can tell.

Hamilton was informed at Nilcsar that on the road from NiJcsar to Sitcas, and about fourteen hours from Niksar, there is a high perpendicular rock, almost inaccessible on all sides, with a stream of water flowing from the top, and a river at its base. This is exactly Strabo's description of Caenon. [G. L.]

CABUBATHRA HONS (KaSouSoflpa opos), a mountain on the S\V. coast of Arabia, mentioned by Ptolemy (vi. 7. §§ 8, 12) as the western extremity of the country of the Homeritae, 1 J° K. of the Straits of the Red Sea (Bab-el-Mandeb). This situation would nearly coincide with the Jebel Kurrvz in Capt. Haines's Chart, which rises to the height of S772 feet. [G. W.]

CABURA BACTRIANAE. [ortosi-ana.]

CABY'LE or CALYBE (KoSiiAj), KoAi Sr)), a town in the interior of Thrace, west of Develtus, on the river Tonsus. It was colonised by Philip with rebellious Macedonians, and afterwards taken by M. Lucullus. (Dem. de Cherson. p. 60; Pol. xiii. 10; Strab. vii. p. 330; Ptol. iii. 11. § 12; Eutrop. vi. 8; Sext. Kuf. Bret. 9; Plin. iv. 18; Steph. B. ». t>.) Cabyle is probably the same as the town of Goloe mentioned by Anna Comnena (x. pp. 274,281), and is generally identified with the modern Golewitza or Chatil-Ovasi. . [L. S.]

CAC HALES (Kax<&lO> a river of Phocis, rising in Mt. Parnassus, and flowing by Tithorea into the Cephissus. (Paus. x. 32. § 11; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 78, 81.)

CACYPARIS (Komnropij), a river on the E. coast of Sicily, mentioned only by Thucydides (vii. 79) daring the retreat of the Athenians from Syracuse; from whom we learn that it was the first river they met with in proceeding along the coast road towards Helorus, and had a course of some length, so as to afford a passage up its valley into the interior. It is still called the Cassibili, a considerable stream, which rises near Palazzolo (the ancient Acrae), about 15 miles from the sea, and flows through a deep valley. It is distant, by the road from Syracuse to Noto, 9 miles from the bridge over the Anapus. [E. H. B.]

CACYRUM (Kditvoov: Eth. Cacyrinus), a town in Sicily, mentioned only by Pliny and Ptolemy, who afford no clue to its position. But it is supposed by Cluverius to be represented by the modem Cattaro, about 4 miles N. of Palazzolo, the ancient Acrae. (Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 14; Cluver. Sicil. p. 359.) [E. H. B.]

CADE'NA (to Kdtvva), a place in Cappadocia mentioned by Strabo (p. 537) as the royal residence of one Sisinas, who in the time of Strabo was aiming at the sovereignty of the Capjiadocians. The site is unknown, though D Anville fixed it at Xigde. Cramer {Asia Minor, vol. ii. p. 132) writes the name Cadyna, and adds that Strabo seems to state that it was on the borders of Lycaonia; but see Groskurd's note (TraasL Strab. vol. ii. p. 452) on the passage. [G. L.]

CADI (Kosoi: Eth. KoJ'iji'o's), a city of Mysia according to Stephanus (*. c. KaJoi). Strabo (p. 576) mentions Cadi with Azani as a city of Phrygia

Epictetns, bnt he adds fhat some assign it to Mysia, Cadi is south of Azani, or Tchavdour-Husar, and a traveller going from Azani to Cadi crosses the water-shed between the basin of the Rhyndacus and the basin of the Hermus. A town now called Kedus or Ghiediz, stands on a small stream, the Ghiediz Chai, which flows into the Hermus; but it is not the chief branch of the Hennus, though the Turks give the name of Ghiediz Chai to the Hennus nearer the sea. Hamilton says (Researches, &c, vol. i. p. 108) that hardly any ancient remains exist at Ghiediz, a place which he visited, but he heard of remains at a place higher up the Hermus, named Ghieukler, near the foot of Morad fiagh, Mons Dindymene, which contains the source of the Hermus. The coins of Cadi have not the Ethnic name KaSrjvuH-, as Stephanus gives it, but KaSoTjvwr. The river Hermus is represented on them, but this will not prove, as Hamilton correctly observes, that the Ghiediz Chai is the Hermus, but only that Cadi was not far from the Hermus. Cadi may be the place which Propertius (iv. 6, 8) calls "Mygdonii Cadi.-1 It was afterwards an episcopal see. [G. L.]

CADISTUS, a mountain of Crete, belonging to the ridge of the White Mountains. Its position has been fixed by Hoeck (Kreta, vol. i. p. 380) at Cape Spadha, the most northerly point of the whole island. In Ptolemy (iii. 17. § 8) this promontory bears the name of Vdxov txpov; while Strabo (x. p. 484) calls it Autriryaiev iuipewrlipiow, and his remark that Melos lay at nearly the same distance from it as from the Scyllaeanpromontory,shows that he indicated this as the most northerly point of the island. The mass of mountain of which the cape was composed bore the double name of Cadistus and Dictynnaeus. ( Plin. iv. 12. s. 20; Solin. 16.) It would seem that Pliny and Solinus were in error when they described Cadistus and Dictynnaeus as two separate peaks. Yaffor tutpop and Cadistus were the original and proper names of the promontory and mountain, while Aiicrvvvaiov aKpwrrjpiov and Spot were epithets afterwards given, and derived from the worship and temple of Dictynna, [E. B. J.]

CADMEIA. [thebae.]

CADMUS (KaJjiOi), a mountain of Phrygia Magna (Strab. p. 578), which the Turks call Baba Dayh: (he sides are well wooded. A river Cadmus flowed from the mountain, probably the Gieui Bonar, which flows into the Lycus, a tributary of the Macandcr. (Hamilton, Researches, &c, vol. i. p. 513.) The range of Cadmus forms the southern boundary of the basin of the Maeander in these parts. Pliny's remark about it (v. 29) does not help us. Ptolemy (v. 2) puts it in the latitude of Mycale, which is tolerably correct. [G. L.]

CADRA, in Cappadocia, an eminence on Taurus, which Tacitus (Ann. vi, 41) mentions with Davara, another strong place, which the Clitae occupied when they resisted Roman taxation. M. Trebellius compelled them to surrender. [G. L.]

CAT)REMA (KaHpfpa: Eth. KaSpeueiis), a city of Lycia, a colony of Olbia: the word is interpreted to mean "the parching of corn" (Steph. s. v. Koopcua). It is conjectured (Spratt's Lycia, vol. i. p. 218) that the ruins at Gormak, at the extremity of the territory of Olbia [attaleiaj may be Cndrema. [G. L.]

CADRUSI (Plin. vi. 23. s. 25), a district on the Indian Caucasus or Paropamisus, in which was sit uated the Alexandreia founded by Alexander the Great on his march into Bactria. (Arrian, iii. 38,

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