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iv. 22.) Solinus (c. 54) appears to have misunderstood the words of Pliny, and to have inferred that there was a city there called Cadrusia; for which, however, there is no authority. LY"]

CADURCI (KatuvpKot), a Celtic people who occupied the basin of the Oltis {Lot), a hranch of the Garonne, and lay between the Nitiobriges and Ruteni; on the north they bordered on the Arverni. The Cadurci were among the first who joined Vercingetorix (b. c. 52) in his rising against Caesar, and they took an active part in the war (B. G. vii. 4, 64). They are enumerated by Caesar with the Gabali and Velauni or Vellavi (B G. vii. 75), as accustomed to admit the supremacy of the Arverni over them. In Caesar's text (vii. 75) they are called Kleuthcri Cadurci; but the reading Eleutheri is doubtful (Oudendorp. ed. Caesar), and the name has never been satisfactorily explained. The chief town of the Cadurci was Divona, afterwards Civitas Cadurcorum, now Cohort. Uxellodunum, which was besieged and taken by Caesar (B. G. viii. 32, &c), was also a town of the Cadurci. The territory of the Cadurci became Cadurcinum in the Latin middle age writers, which was corrupted into Cahorsin or Caonin, whence the name Querci, in the ante-revolutionary geography of France. The territory of the Cadurci is supposed to have been co-extensive with the bishopric of Cahors.

The Cadurci wove linen cloth. (Strab. p. 191, Plin. xix. I; and Forcellini, s. v. Cadurcum.) [G. L.]

CADU'SII (Ka5own<M, Strab. xi. pp. 506, 507, 510, 525; Pol. v. 44; Ptol. vi. 2. § 5; Steph. Li.; Arrian. An iii. 19; Mela, i. 2. §48; Plin. Yi. 13. s. 15), R people inhabiting a mountainous district of Media Alropatene, on S\V. shores of the Caspian Sea, between the parallels of 39° and 37° N. lat. This district was probably bounded on the N. by the Cyrus (AT&r), and on the S. by the Mardus or Amanlus (Srjul Hu<f). and corresjyuids with the modern district of Gilan. They are described by Strabo (xi. p. 525) as a warlike tribe of mountaineers, lighting chiefly on foot, and well skilled in the use of the short spear or javelin. They appear to have been constantly at war with their neighbours. Thus Diodorus (i. 33) speaks of a war between them and the Medians, which was not completely set at rest till Cyrus transferred the empire to the Persians; and they are constantly mentioned in the subsequent Eastern wars as the allies of one or other part v. (Xen. Hell. ii. 1. § 13; Diod. XT. 18; Justin, x. 3; Pol. v. 79; Liv. xxxv. 48.) It is not improbable that the name of Gelae, a tribe who are constantly associated with them, has been preserved in the modern Gihin. [V.]

CAl)YA\T)A. [calynda.]

CAD YTIS. [jerusalem. ]

CAECI'LIA CASTRA. [castra Cakciua.]

CAECILIO'NICUM. [ckciuoxicum.]

CAECINA or CECINA a river of Etruria, mentioned b"th by Pliny and Mela, and still called Cccina. It Mowed through the territory of Vulaterrae, and after passing within 5 miles to the S. of that city, entered the Tyrrhenian sea, near the port known as the Vada Volateirana. There probably was a port or emporium at its mouth, and Mela appears to speak of a town of the same name. The family name of Caecina, which also belonged to Volaterrae, was probably connected with that of the river, and hence the correct form of the name in I*ntin would be Caecina. though the MSS. both of Pliny and Mela have Cecum or Cecinna. (Plin. iii.

I 5. s. 8; Mela, li. 4; Miiller, Eirusher, vol. i. p, 405.) [E. H. B.]

CAECI'XUS (Kcuicuw, Thuc.: where the older editions have Kouxoro'r), a river of Bruttium, in the territory of Locri, between that city and Rhegium. It is mentioned by Thucydides (iii. 103), in relating the operations of Laches with an Athenian fleet on the southern coast of Italy in B. C. 426, when that commander defeated on its banks a body of Locrian troops. It is also referred to by Pausanias, who tells us that it was the boundary between the territories of Locri and Rhegium, and mentions a natural phenomenon connected with it, which is referred by other writers to the neighbouring river Halkx:— that the cicadae (t*'tt*7€s) on the Locrian side were musical, and chirped or song as they did elsewhere; but those in the Rhegian territory were mute. (Pans, vi. 6. § 4.) Both Pausanias and Aelian relate that the celebrated Locrian athlete Euthymus disappeared in the stream of the Caecinus, in a manner supposed to be supernatural. (Paus. /. c; Ael. V. IT. viii. 18.) Local antiquarians suppose the small stream called on Zannoni's map the F Piscopio, which flows by Amendolea, and enters the sea about 10 miles W. <»f Cape SpartiventOy to be the ancient Caecinus: but there is no authority for this, except its proximity to the Ilalex, with which it appears to have been confounded. (Romanelli, vol. i. p. 137.)

The Caecinus of Pliny (iii. 10. s. 15), which he places N. of Scyllacium, is a false reading of the early editors for Carcines or Carcinus, the form found in the MSS. both of Pliny himself and Mela (ii. 4). It is evident that the river designated is wholly distinct from the Caecinus of Thucydides. [E. H. B ]

CAE'CUBUS AGER (KafKoi/gor, Strab.), a district of Latium bordering on the Gulf of Amrclui*, and included apparently in the territory of Fundi. The name seems to have been given to the marshy tract between Tarracina and Speluncae (Sperlonga\ which extends about 8 miles along the coast, and 6 miles inland. Contrary to all analogy, these low and marshy grounds produced a wine of the m^t excellent quality, the praises of which are repeated 1) sung by Ho ace, who ap ears to regard it as holding the first place among all the wines of his day; and this is confirmed by Pliny, who however tells us that in Ms time it had lost its ancient celebrity, partly from the neglect of the cultivators, partly from son re works which had drained the marshes. But Martial speaks of it as still enjoying some reputation. (Hor. Carm. i. 20. 9, ii. 14. 25; Plin. xiv. 6. s.8; Strab. v. p. 234; Mart. xii. 17. 6, xiii. 115; Colum. R. K. iii. 8. § 5; Dioscor. v. 10, 11; Athen. i. p. 27.) Strabo speaks of To KaUovSov as if it were a place, but it seems certain that there never was a town of the name. [E. H. B.]

CAE'LIA, CAE'LIUM, or CK'LIA (Ka.A.'a or KfAfa). I. A town in the south of Apulia, mentioned both by Strabo and Ptolemy; of whom the former places it between Egnatia and Canusiuin, on the direct road from Brundiisium to Rome; the latter enumerates it among the inland cities of the Peucetian Apulians. (Strab. vi. p. 282; Ptol. iii. 1. § 73 ) The Tab. Peut. confirms the account of Strabo, and places Celia 9 miles from Butuntum, on the road to Egnatia; a distance which coincides with the position of a village still called Ctglie, 5 miles S. of Bari. Here numerous ancient remains, tombs, vases &c. have been discovered. (Romanelli, Tol ii. jx 177; Moininsen, Unier Hal. DiaUtfe, p. 62.)

2. Another town of the same name existed in Calabria, about 27 miles W. of Brundusinm, and 20 miles NE. of Tarentnm; this also still retains the name of Ceglie, and is now a considerable town of abont 6,000 inhabitants, situated on a hill about 12 miles from the Adriatic. Extensive portions of its ancient walls still remain, and excavations there have brought to light numerous vases, coins, and inscriptions in the Messapian dialect, (Mommsen, I. c; Tomasi, in Bull ML Intt. 1834, pp. 54, 55.) It is evidently this Caelia that is enumerated by l'liny, together with Lupiae and Brundusinm, among the cities of Calabria (iii. 11. s. 16), as well as the "Caelinus ager" mentioned by Frontinus among the u civitates provinciae Calabriae" {Lib. Colon, p. 262), though, from the confusion made by both writers in regard to the frontiers of Apulia and Calabria, these passages might have been readily referred to the Caelia in Peucetia. The evidence is, however, conclusive that there were two places of the same name, as above described. Numismatic writers are not agreed to which of the two belong the coins with the inscription KA1AINHN, of which there are several varieties. These have been generally ascribed to the Calabrian city; but Mommsen (/. c.) is of opinion that they belong rather to the Caelia near Bari, being frequently found in that neighbourhood. (See also Millingen, Num. de Vita*lif. p. 149.) The attempt to establish a distinction between the two places, founded on the orthography of the names, and to call the one Caelia or Caelium, the other Celia, is certainly untenable. [E. H. B.]

[graphic]

COIN OF CAELIA.

CAENA, a town of Sicily mentioned only in the Itinerary of Antoninus, which writes the name Ccna, and places it on the SW. coast of the island, 18 miles W. of Agrigentum. (Itin. Ant. p. 88.) Though the name is not found in any earlier author, numismatists are generally agreed to assign to it the coins with the inscription KAINON, one of which is represented below. These coins, which are found in considerable numbers in Sicily, were previously ascribed to the island of Cakhb, mentioned by Pliny (iii. 8. s. 14) among the smaller islands between Sicily and Africa, and generally identified with the little islet now called Cant, off the Gulf of Hippo on the coast of Africa. But we have no reason to suppose that this barren rock ever was even inhabited, much less that it contained a city capable of striking coins: and the Greek legend of those in question, as well as their workmanship,

[graphic]

which is of a good Greek style, render it almost certain that they were struck in Sicily; though the existence of a city of the name of Caena in that island rests on very slight authority. (Eckhel. vol. i. p. 269; Sestini, Ltttere Numiematiche, vol. i. p. 4.) [E.H.B.]

CAENAE (Kaival, Xen. Anab. ii. 4. § 28), a town of some importance on the western bank of the Tigris; according to Xenoplmn, 34 parasangs N. of Opis, and south of the river Zabatus, or Lesser Zab. Its exact position cannot be determined, as he does not mention its distance from the Zab; but it has been conjectured that it is represented by a place now called Senn. (Mannert, vol. ii, p. 244.) [V.]

CAENE'POLIS or CAENE (Kaivh wo"A<s, PtoL iv. 5. § 72; Geog. Kav. p. 104), the modern Cheni was the southernmost town of the Panopolite nome in the Thebaid of Egypt. It stood upon the eastern bank of the Nile, 2 geographical miles N\V. of Copt on. Herodotus (ii. 91) mentions a town Neapolis (N#7f TtiA.j), near Chemmis in Upper Egypt, which is probably the same with Caenepolis. (Comp. Mannert, vol. x. 1, p. 371.) Panopolis, which was north of Chemmis, at one period went by the name of Caene or Caene-polis. [\V. B. D.J

CAENE'POLIS. [taenarum.]

CAE'NICA (Ka.p.ff^), the name of one of the districts into which Thrace was divided by the Romans. It was situated on the Euxine (Ptol. iii. 11. § 9)f and probably derived its name from the Thracian tribe of the Caeni or Caknici, who dwelt between the Panysus and the Euxine. (Liv. xxxviii. 40; Steph. B. s. v. Kaivol.) [L. S.]

CAENICENSES, a people in Gallia Narbonensis, an u oppidum Latinnm," as Pliny (iii. 4) calls them; probably on the river Caenus of Ptolemy, which he places between the eastern mouth of the Rhone and Massilia(.l/ar«ct//e). There are no moans of fixing the position of the Caenus, which may be the river of Aix that flows into the Etang de Berre, or some of the other streams that flow into the same etang. Some would have it to be the canal and etang of Ligagnan. It has been suggested that the name in Pliny should be Cacnienses. [G. L.J

CAENI'NA {Katvlv-n : Eth. Koivitijs, Caeninensis), a very ancient city of Latium, mentioned in the early history of Rome. Dionysius tells us (ii. 35) that it was one of the towns originally inhabited by the Siculi, and wrested from them by the Aborigines; and in another passage (i. 79) incidentally alludes to it as existing before the foundation of Rome. It was, indeed, one of the first of the neighbouring petty cities which came into collision with the rising power of Rome, having taken up arms, together with Antcmnae and Crustumerium, to avenge the rape of the women at the Consualia. The Caeninenses were the first to meet the arms of Romulus, who defeated them, slew their king Acron with his own hand, and took the city by assault. (Liv. i. 10; Dionys. ii. 32, 33; Plut. Rom. 16.) After this we are told that he sent a colony to the conquered city, but the greater part of the inhabitants migrated to Rome. (Dionys. ii. 35.) It is certain that from this time the name disappears from history, and no trace is found of the subsequent existence of Caenina, though its memory was perpetuated not only by the tradition of the victory of Romulus, on which occasion he is said to have consecrated the first Spolia Opima to Jupiter Feretrius (Propert. iv. 10; Ovid. Fast, ii. 135), but by the existence of certain religious rites and a pccnliar priesthood, which subsisted J own to it late period, so that we find the "Saeerdotium Caeninenae" mentioned in inscriptions of Imperial date. (Orel!. Inscr. 2180. 2181. and others there cited.) Pliny enume•Htes Caenina among the celebrated towns (clara oppida) of Latium which had in his time completely disappeared: thus confirming the testimony of Dionysius to its Latin origin. Diodorus also reckons it one of the colonies of Alba, supposed to be founded by Latinus Silvins. (Diod. vii. ap. Etuteb. Arm. p. 185.) Plutarch, on the contrary, and Stephanus of Byzantium, call it a Sabine town. (Plut. La Steph. B. s.v.) It is probable that it was in fact one of the towns of Latium bordering on the Sabines; and this is all that we know of its situation. Nibby supposes it to have occupied a hill 10 miles from Rome, on the banks of a stream called the Hfagnglia no, and 2 miles SE. of Monte Gentile, which is a plausible conjecture, but nothing more. (Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. pp. 332—335; Abeken. Mittel-/talien, p. 79.) CE. H. B.]

CAENO (KaiviS, Diod. v. 76), a city of Crete, which, according to the legend of the purification of Apollo by Carmanor at Tarrha, is supposed to have existed in the neighbourhood of that place and Elyrus. (Comp. Paus.) The Cretan goddess Britomartis was the daughter of Zeus and Carma, granddaughter of Carmanor, and was said to have been born at Caeno. (Diod. I c.) Mr. Pashley (Trav. vol. ii. p. 270) fixes the site either on the so-called refuge of the Hellenes, or near Bughios Nikdlaos. and supposes that Mt. Carma, mentioned by Pliny (xxi. 14), was in the neighbourhood of this town. (Comp. lioeck, Kreta, vol. i. p. 392.) [E. B. J.]

CAENUS. [CAENICEN8ES.]

CAENYS (rj Keuws), a promontory on the coast of Bruttium, which is described by Strabo as near the Scyllaean rock, and the extreme point of Italy opposite to the Pelorian promontory in Sicily, the Strait of Measana lying between the two. (Strab. vi. p. 257.) There can be little doubt that the point thus designated is that now called the Punta del Pezzo, which is the marked angle from whence the coast trends abruptly to the southward, and is the only point that can be properly called a headland. (Cluver. Ital. p. 1294; D'Anville, Anal. Giogr. de I Italic, p. 259.) Some writers, however, contend that the Torre del CavaUo must be the point meant by Strabo, because it is that most immediately opposite to the headland of Pelorias, and where the strait is really the narrowest. (Holsten. Nut. in Cluv. p. 301; Romanelli, vol. i. p. 81.) This last fact is, however, doubtful, and at all events might be easily mistaken. Strabo reckons the breadth of the strait in its narrowest part at a little more than six stadia: while Pliny calls the interval between the two promontories, Caenys in Italy, and Pelorus in Sicily, 12 stadia; a statement which accords with that of Polybius. (Strab. I. c; Plin. iii. 5. s. 10; Pol. i. 42.) All these statements are much below the truth; the real distance, as measured trigonometrically by Capt, Smyth, is not less than 3,971 yards from the Punta del Pezzo to the village of Ganziri immediately opposite to it on the Sicilian coast. (Smyth's Sicily, p. 108.) Hence the statement of Thucydides (vi. 1), who estimates the breadth of the strait at its narrowest point at 20 stadia (4,047 yards), is surprisingly accurate, f E. H. B.]

CAEPICKNIS TURRIS or MONUMENTUM (kcutwox mipyos: Cipionay, a great lighthouse,

built on a rock <mrrounded by the sea, on the S. Sr. of the river Baetis (Guadalquivir) in Hispania Baetica (Strab. iii. p. 140; Mela, iii. 1, where some read Geryoms, and identify the tower with the Gt* rontu or Geryonis arx of Avienus, Ova Marit. 263, see Wernsdorf, ad loc.) Most commentators derive the name from Servilius Caepio, the conqueror of Lusitania; but others, ascribing to the lighthouse a Phoenician origin, regard the name as a corruption of Cap Eon, i. e. Rock of the Sun. (Ford, Handbook of Spain, p. 20.) [P. S.]

CAERATUS (Kaiparos: Kartert), a river of Crete, which flows past Cnossus, which city was once known by the same name &s the river. (Strab. x. p. 476; Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg. v. 498; Hesvch.; Virg. Ciris, 113, flumina Caeratea; comp. Pashley. Trav. vol. i. p. 263.) [E. B. J.]

CAERE (Ko?p«,PtoI.; Kcupta, Strabo; Kafpirra, Dionys.: Eth. Kaiptrcwbs, Caeretanus, but the people are usually called Caerites), called by the Greeks Aoyixa ("A*yuAAa: Eth. 'AyvKAaiai). an ancient and powerful city of Southern Etruria, situated a few miles from the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, on a small stream now called the Vaccina, anciently known as the "Caeretanus amnis.* (Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Caeritis amnts, Virg. Aen. viii. 59.) Its territory bordered on that of Veii on the E. and of Tarqninii on the N.; the city itself was about 27 miles distant from Rome. Its site is still marked by the village of CervetrL All ancient writers agree in ascribing the foundation of this city to the Pelasgians, by whom it was named Agylla, the appellation by which it continued to be known to the Greeks down to it late period. Both Strabo and Dionysius derive these Pelasgians from Thessaly, according to a view of the migration of the Pelasgic races, very generally adopted among the Greeks. The same authorities assert distinctly that it was not till its conquest by the Tyrrhenians (whom Strabo calls Lydians), that it obtained the name of Caere: which was derived, according to the legend related by Strabo from the Greek word x°*iP*i with which the inhabitants saluted the invaders. (Strab. v. p. 220; Dionys. i. 20., iii. 58; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 597; Plin. iii. 5. s. 8.) We have here the clearest evidence of the two elements of which the population of Etruria was composed; and there seems no reason to doubt the historical foundation of the fact, that Caere was originally a Pelasgic or Tyrrhenian city, and was afterwards conquered by the Etruscans or Tuscans (called as usual by the Greeks Tyrrhenians) from the north. The existence of its double name is in itself a strong confirmation of this fact; and the circumstance that Agylla, like Spina on the Adriatic, had a treasury of its own at Delphi, is an additional proof of its Pelasgic origin (Strab. L c).

The period at which Caere fell into the hands of the Etruscans cannot be determined with any approach to certainty. Niebuhr has inferred from the narrative of Herodotus that the Agyllaeans were still an independent Pelasgic people, and had not yet been conquered by the Etruscans, at the time when they waged war with the PhocaeaDS of Alalia, about B. c. 535. But it seems difficult to reconcile this with other notices of Etruscan history, or refer the conquest to so late a period. It is probable that Agylla retained much of its Pelasgic habits and connexions long after that event; and the use of the Pelasgic name Agylla proves nothing, as it continued to be exclusively employed by Greek authors lown to a very late period. Roman authorities throw no light on the early history of Caere, though it appears in the legendary history of Aeneas as a wealthy and powerful city, subject to the rule of a king named Mezentius, a cruel tyrant, who had extended his power over many neighbouring cities, and rendered himself formidable to all his neighbours. (Liv. i. 2; Virg. A en. via. 480.)

The first historical mention of Agylla is found in Herodotus, who relates that the Agyllaeans were among the Tyrrhenians who joined the Carthaginians in an expedition against the Phocaean colonists at Alalia in Corsica; and having taken many captives upon that occasion, they put them all to death. This crime was visited on them by divine punishments, until they sent to consult the oracle at Delphi on the subject, and by its advice paid funeral honours to their victims, with public games and other ceremonies. (Herod, i. 166, 167.) It is clear, therefore, that at this time Agylla was a maritime power of some consideration; and Strabo speak* of it as having enjoyed a great reputation among the Greeks; especially from the circumstance that the Agyllaeans refrained from the piratical habits common to most of the other Tyrrhenian cities. (Strab. I. c.) This did not, however, preserve them at a later period from the attacks of Diouysios of Syracuse, who, having undertaken an expedition to the coasts of Tyrrhenia under pretence of putting down piracy, landed at Pyrgi, the seaport of Agylla, and plundered the celebrated temple of Lucina there, from which he carried off an immense booty, besides laying waste the adjoining territory. (Strab. v. p. 226; Diod. xv. 14.)

Caere plays a much less important part in the history of Rome than we should have expected from its proximity to that city, and the concurrent testimonies to its great wealth and power. From the circumstance of its being selected by the Romans, when their city was taken by the Gauls, as the place of refuge to which they sent their most precious sacred relics, Niebuhr has inferred (voL i. p. 385) that there must have been an ancient bond of close connexion between the two cities; and in the first edition of his history he even went so far as to suggest that Rome was itself a colony of Caere; an idea which he afterwards justly abandoned as untenable. Indeed, the few notices we find of it prior to this time, are far from indicating any peculiarly friendly feeling between the two. According to Dionysins, the Caerites were engaged in war against the Romans under the elder Tarquin, who defeated them in a battle and laid waste their territory; and again, after his death, they united their arras with those of the Veicntines and Tarquinians against Servius Tullius. (Dionys. iii. 58, iv. 27-) Caere was also the first place which afforded a shelter to the exiled Tarquin when expelled from Rome. (Liv. i. 60.) And Livy himself, after recounting the service rendered by them to the Romans at the capture of the city, records that they were received, ttt consequence of it, into relations of public hospitality (ut hospitium publice fieret, v. 50), thus seeining to indicate that no such relations previously existed. From this time, however, they continued on a friendly footing, till B. c. 353, when sympathyfor theTarquinians induced the Caerites once more to take up arms against Rome. They were, however, easily reduced to submission, and obtained a peace for a hundred years. Livy

represents this as freely granted, in consideration of their past services; but Dion Cassius informs us that it was purchased at the price of half their territory. (Liv. vii. 20; Dion Cass. fr. 33. Bekk.) It is probable that it was on this occasion also that they received the Roman franchise, but without the right of suffrage. This peculiar relation was known in later times as the Cierile franchise, so that " in tabulas Caeritum referre," became a proverbial expression for disfranchising a Roman citizen (Hor. Bp. i. 6, 62; and Schol. ad loc.), and we are expressly told that the Caerites were the first who were admitted on these terms. (Gell. xvi. 13. § 7.) But it is strangely represented as in their case a privilege granted them for their services at the time of the Gaulish war (Strab. v. p. 220; Gell. I. c), though it is evident that the relation could never have been an advantageous one, and was certainlyin many other cases rather inflicted as a punishment, than bestowed as a reward. Hence it is far more probable, that instead of being conferred on the Caerites as a privilege immediately after the Gallic War, it was one of the conditions of the disadvantageous peace imposed on them in B.C.353, as a punishment for their support to the Tarquinians. (See on this subject, Niebuhr, vol. ii. p. 67, vol. iii. p. 185; Madvig. de Colon, p. 240; Mommsen, Die Romische Tribus, pp. 160, 161; Das Romische Mumwesen, p. 246.) It is uncertain whether the Caerites afterwards obtained the full franchise; we are expressly told that they were reduced to the condition of a I'ruefecture (Fest s.v. praefecturae'); but during the Second Punic War they were one of the Etruscan cities which were forward to furnish supplies to the armament of Scipio (Liv. xxviii. 45), and it may hence be inferred that a( that period they still retained their nominal existence as a separate community. Their relations to Rome had probably been adjusted at the same period with those of the rest of Etruria, concerning which we are almost wholly without information. During the latter period of the Republic it appears to have fallen into decay, and Strabo speaks of it as having, in his time, sunk into complete insignificance, preserving only the vestiges of its former greatness; so that the adjoining watering place of the Aquae Caeretanae actually surpassed the ancient city in population. (Strab. v. p. 220.) It appears, however, to have in some measure revived under the Roman empire. Inscriptions and other monuments attest its continued existence during that period as a flourishing municipal town, from the reign of Augustus to that of Trajan. (Gruter, Inter, p. 214. 1, 226. 4, 236. 4, 239. 9; RuU. dlnst. Arch. 1840, pp. 5—8; Nibby, Dmtorni di Roma, vol. i. p 342—345.) Its territory was fertile, especially in wine, which Martial praises as not inferior to that of Setia. (Mart. xiii. 124; Colum. R. R. iii. 3. § 3.) In the fourth century it became the see of a bishop, and still retained its existence under its ancient name through the early part of the middle ages; but at the beginning of tie thirteenth century, great part of the inhabitants removed to another site about 3 miles off, to which they transferred the name of Caere or Cert, while the old town came to be called Caere Velus, or Cervetri, by which appellation it is still known. (Nibby, l.c. p. 347.)

The modern village of Cervetri (a very poor place) occupies a small detached eminence just without the line of the ancient walls. The outline

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of the ancient city is clearly marked, not so much by the remains of the walls, of which only a few fragments are visible, as by the natural character of the ground. It occupied a table-land, rising in steep cliffs above the plain of the coast, except at the NE. corner, where it was united by a neck to the high land adjoining. On its south side flowed the Cacretanus ainnis (the Vaccina), and on the X. was a narrow ravine or glen, on the opposite side of which rises a hill culled the Banditaccia, the Necropolis of the ancient city. The latter appears to have been from four to five miles in circuit, and had not less than eight gates, the situation of which may be distinctly traced; but only small portions and foundations of the walls are visible; they were built of rectangular blocks of tufa, not of massive dimensions, but resembling those of Veii and Tarquinii in their size and arrangement.

The most interesting remains of Caere, however, are to be found in its sepulchres. The.-e are, in many cases, sunk in the level surface of (he ground, and surmounted with tumuli; in others, they are hollowed out in the sides of the low cliffs which bound the hill of the Bawlitaccia, and skirt the ravines on each side of it. None of them have any architectural facades, as at Bieda and Castel dAxso ; their decoration is chiefly internal; and their arrangements present a remarkable analogy to that of the houses of the Etruscans. u Many of them had a large central chambci, with others of smaller size opening upon it, lighted by windows in the wall of rock, which served as the partition. This central chamber represented the atrium of Etruscan houses, and the chambers around it the triclinia, for each had a bench of rock round three of its sides, on which the dead had lain, reclining in effigy, as at a banquet. The ceilings of all the chambers had the usual beams and rafters hewn in the rock." (Dennis's Etruria, vol. ii. p. 32.) One tomb, called from its discoverer the Regulmi-Galassi tomb, is entered by a door in the form of a rudely pointed arch, not unlike the gateway at Arpinum (see p. 222), and like that formed by successive courses of stones gradually approaching till they meet. Some of the tombs also have their interior walls adorned with paintings, resembling those at Tarquinii, but greatly inferior to them in variety and interest. Most of these are of comparatively late date, — certainly not prior to the Roman dominion, — but one tomb is said to contain paintings of a very archaic character, probably more ancient than any at Tarquinii. This is the more interesting, because Pliny speaks of very ancient paintings, believed to be of a date prior to the foundation of Rome, as existing in his time at Caere. (Plin. xxxv. 3. s. 6.) Another tomb, recently discovered at Cervetri, is curious from its having been the sepulchre of a family bearing the name of Tarquinius, the Etruscan form of which (tarchnas) is repeated many times in different inscriptions, while others present it in the Roman form and characters. There seems every reason to believe that this family, if not actually that of the regal Tarquins of Rome, was at least closely connected with them. (Dennis, I.e. p 42—44; Bull, dlntt. Arch. 1847, p. 56—61.)

The minor objects found in the sepulchres at Caere, especially those discovered in the ReguIini Galassi tomb already mentioned, are of much interest, and remarkable for the very ancient character and style of their workmanship. The painted

vases and other pottery have, for the most part, a similar archaic stamp, very few of the beautiful vases of the Greek style so abundant at Vnlci and Tarquinii having been found here. Two little vessels of black earthenware, in themselves utterly insignificant, have acquired a high interest fmm the circumstance of their bearing ii.&criptions which there is much reason to believe to be relics of the Pelasgian lanimage, as distinguished from what is more properly called Etruscan. (Dennis, I.e. pp 54, 55: Lcpsius, in the Annali dlntt. Arch. 1836 pp. 186—203; Id. Tyrrhenische Pelasger, p. 4(J —42. For a fuller discussion of this point, sec the article Etruria.)

There is no doubt that Caere, in the days of ita power, possessed a territory of considerable extent, bordering on those of Veii and Tarquinii, and probably extending at one time nearly to the mouth of the Tiber. Its seaport was Pvrgi, itself a considerable city, the foundation of which, as well as that of Agylla, is expressly ascribed to the Pelasgians. * [pyrgi.] Aushtm also, of which wo find no notice in the early history of Rome, must at this period have been a dependency of Caere; Another place noticed as one of the subject towns in the territory of Caere is Artkna, which others phiced in the Veientine territory, but according to Livy erroneously (Liv. iv. 61). The grove sacred to Sylvanns, noticed by Virgil, and placed by him on the banks of the Vaccina (the "Cacritis amnis"), is supposed to have been part of the wood which clothed the Monte Abbatonc, on the S. side of the river.

Caere was not situated on the line of the Vis Aurelia, which passed nearer to the coast; but was probably joined to it by a side branch. Another ancient road, of which some remains are still visible

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