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led from thence to join the Via Clodia at Carciae. (Gell, Top. of Rome, p. 12.)

The antiquities of Caere, and the various works of art discovered there, are fully described by Dennis (Etruria, vol. ii. p. 17—63). See also Canina (Descriaone di Cere antica, Roma, 1338), and Grifi (Monumenti di Cera antica, Roma, 1841). The annexed plan is copied from that given by Dennis. [E. H. B-]

CAERESI or CAERAESI (Cerosi, Oros. vi. 7, Haverkamp's note), a people mentioned by Caesar (5. G, ii. 4) with the Condrusi, Eburones, and Paeroani, and he calls them Germans. The position of the Caeresi can only be conjectured. There is a river Chiers, which rises in Luxembourg, and flows into the Moot between Mouzon and Sedan j and it is conjectured by D'Anville that this river may indicate the position of the Caeresi. The Condrusi were in Condroz, in the territory of Liege. Walekenaer places the Caeresi in the Carolgau, the Pays de Caros of the middle ages, between Bullange, Ktrpetij and Pruyen. Kerpen is on the Erfft, which joins the Rhine on the left bank, below Cologne, near Ncu&s. He adds, " they are thus situated near the Condrusi and the Eburones, as the text of Caesar requires;" an argument that is not worth much, for Caesar is not very particular about his order of enumeration in such a case as this. The exact bite of these people must remain doubtful. [G. L.]

CAESARAUGUSTA (Kattrapauyovora, Strab. iii. pp. 151, 161, 162 ; Mela, ii. 6 ; Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; ten. Ant.), or CAESAREA AUGUSTA (Kaicdpcia Avyouara, Ptol, ii. 6. § 63; Auson. Epist xxiv. 84; Inscr. op. Golz, Thesaur. p. 238: coins generally have c. A., Caes. Augusta, or CAE8AR. Auousta, whence it may perhaps be inferred that the common shorter form has arisen from running together the two parts of the last-mentioned abbreviation: now Zaragoza, merely a corruption of the ancient name; in English works often Saragotta), one of the chief inland cities of Hispania Tarraconensis, stood on the right bank of the river Iberus (Ebro), in the country of the Edetani (Plin., Ptol.), on the borders of Celtiberia (Strab.). lU original name was Salduba, which was changed in honour of Augustus, who colonized it after the Cantabrian War, B. c. 25. (Plin. /. c; Isid. Grig. xv. 1). It was a coiunia immunis, and the seat of a conventus juridicus, including 152 communities (populo* clii., Plin.) It was the centre of nearly all the great roads leading to the Pyrenees and all parts of Spain. (Itin. Ant. pp. 392, 433, 438, 439, 443, 444, 446, 448, 451, 452). Its coins, which are more numerous than those of almost any other Spanish city, range from Augustus to Caligula. (Florez, Esp.S. vol. iv. p. 254; Med. de Esp. vol. i. p. 186, vol. ii. p. 636, vol. iii. p. 18; Eckhel, vol. i. pp. 36"—39 ; Sestini, Med. hp. p. 114; Kasche, 9. p.). There are no ruins of the ancient fity, its materials having been entirely used up by the Moors and Spaniards. (Ford, Handbook of Spain, p. 580.)

The first Christian poet, Aurelius Prudentius, is said to have been born at Cacsaraugusta (a. D. 348); but some assign the honour to Calagurris (Calnhorra'). The place is one of Ptolemy's points of recorded astronomical observations, having 15^2 hours in its longest dav, and being distant 3 fa hours W. of Alexandra (Ptol. viii. 4. § 5). [P. S.]

CAESARE A, in the Maritime Itinerary, is one of the islands off the north-west coast of France, the

name of which is corrupted into Jersey. (D'Anville, Notice, <fc.) [G. L.1

CAESAREIA (Kaio&ptux: Eth. Kauraptos). 1. (KaisariyeJi), a city of the district Cilicia in Cappadocia, at the base of the mountain Argaeus. It was originally called Mazaca, afterwards Eusebeia. (Steph. 8. v. Katffdptia, quoting Strab. p. 537.) The site in the volcanic country at the foot of Argaeus exposed the people to many inconveniences. It was, however, the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. Tigranes, the ally of Mithridates the Great, took the town (Strab. p. 539; Appian, Mithrid. c. 67), and carried off the people with other Cappadocians to his new town Tigranocerta; but some of them returned after the Romans took Tigranocerta. Strabohas a story that the people of Mazaca used the code of Charondas and kept a law-man (xojxyBo'r) to explain the law; his functions corresponded to those of a Roman jurisconsultus (vo}juk6s). The Roman emperor Tiberius, after the death of Archelaus, made Cappadocia a Roman province, and changed the name of Mazaca to Caesareia (Eutrop. vii. 11; Suidas, 8. v. T&ipioi). The change of name was made after Strabo wrote his description of Cappadocia. The first writer who mentions Mazaca under the name of Caesareia is Pliny (vi. 3): the name Caesareia also occurs in Ptolemy. It was an important place under the later empire. In the reign of Valerian it was taken by Sapor, who put to death many thousands of the citizens; at this time it was said to have a population of 400,000 (Zonar. xii. p. 630). Justinian afterwards repaired the walls of Caesareia (Procop. Aed. v. 4). Caesareia was the metropolis of Cappadocia from the time of Tiberius; and in the later division of Cappadocia into Prima and Secunda, it was the metropolis of Cappadocia Prima. It was the birth-place of Basitius the Great, who became bishop of Caesareia, A. D. 370.

There are many ruins, and much rubbish of ancient constructions about Kaisaryeh. No coins with the epigraph Mazaca are known, but theie are numerous medals with the epigraph Eu<rc£cm and Katcraptia, and Kaitr. trpos hpya.it>>.

Strabo, who is very particular in his description of the position of Mazaca, places it about 800 stadia from the Pontus, which must mean the province Pontus; somewhat less than twice this distance from the Euphrates, and six days' journey from the Pylae Ciliciae. He mentions a river Melas, about 40 stadia from the city, which flows into the Euphrates, which is manifestly a mistake [melas].

[graphic][merged small]

road from Smyrna to Constant irvij>le. The place was probably a Caesarea, but it is not within tbc limits of Bithynia. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 271, and map.)

3. Ad Anazarbum. [anazarbcs.] [G.L.]

4. A maritime city of Palestine, founded by Herod the Great, and named Caesareia in honour of Caesar Augustus. Its site was formerly occupied by a town named Turris Stratonis, which, when enlarged and adorned with white marble palaces and other buildings, was not unworthy of the august name that was conferred upon it. Chief among its wonders was the harbour, constructed where before there had been only an open roadstead on a dangerous coast. It was in size eoual to the renowned Peiraeeus, and was secured against the prevalent south-west winds by a mole or breakwater of massive construction, formed of blocks of stone of more than 50 feet in length, by 18 in width, and 9 in thickness, sunk in water 20 fathoms deep. It was 200 feet in length, one half of which was exposed to the violence of the waves. The remainder was adorned with towers at certain intervals, and laid ont in vaults which formed hostelries for the sailors, in front of which was a terrace walk commanding a view of the whole harbour, and forming an agreeable promenade. The entrance to the harbour was on the north. The city coast ructed of polished stone encircled the harbour. It was furnished with an agora, a praetorium, and other public buildings; and conspicuous on a mound in the midst, rose a temple of Caesar, with statues of the emperor and of the imperial city. A rock-hewn theatre, and a spacious circus on the south of the harbour, commanding a fine sea view, completed the adornment of this pagan monument of Herod's temporising character, on which he had spent twelve yeans of zealous and uninterrupted exertion, and enormous sums of money. (Joseph. Ant. xv. 10. § 6, B.J. i. 21. §§5—7.)

These great works, but especially its commodious harbour, soon raised Caesareia to the dignity of a metropolis (*' caput Palaestinae,"* Tacit. Jlist. ii. 79), and it is so recognised, not only in the early annals of the Christian Church, but in the civil history of that period. It was the principal seat of government to the Roman praefects and to the titular kings of Judaea, and the chief part of its inhabitants were Syrians, although there was now a Jewish community found there, which had not been the case at an earlier period of its history as Strato's Tower. {Ant. 7. §§ 7, 9.)

Its name underwent another change, and Pliny (v, 14) happily identifies the three names with the one site. "Stratonis turris, eadem Caesarea, ab Herode rege condita: nunc colonia prima Flawia, a Vespasiano Imperatore deducta." But it still retained its ancient name and title in the Ecclesiastical records, as the metropolitan see of the First Palestine; and was conspicuous for the constancy of its martyrs and confessors in the various persecutions of the Church, but especially in the last. (Euseb. H. E. viii. sub fin.) It is noted also as the see of the Father of Ecclesiastical History, and the principal scat of his valuable literary labours.

It was a place of considerable importance during the occupation of the Holy Land by the Crusaders, as one stronghold along the line of coast, and it shared the various fortunes of the combatants without materially affecting them.

This once famous site, principally interesting as

the place where "the door of faith was first opened to the Gentiles," is still marked by extensive ruins, situated where Joseph us would teach us to look for them, halfway between Dora (Tantttra) and Joppa (Jaffa),—retaining, in an Arabic form, the Greek name given it by Herod. The line of wall and the dry ditch of the Crusaders' town may be clearly traced along their whole extent; bat the ancient city was more extensive, and faint traces of its walls may be still recovered in parts. The ruins have served as a quarry for many generations, and the hoases and fortifications of Jnffa, Acre, Sidon, and even of Beirout, have been built or repaired with stones from this ancient site. Enough, however, still remains to attest the fidelity of the Jewish historian, and to witness its former magnificence,especially in the massive fragments of its towers and the substructions of its mole, over which may now be seen the prostrate columns of the pillars, which once formed the portico of its terraced walk. (See Traill's Josephus, vol. i. p. 49, tccJ) Conspicuous in the midst of the ruins, on a levelled platform, are the substructions of the Cathedral of the Crusaders, which doubtless occupied the site of the Pagan temple described by Josephus. [G. W.] CAESAREIA MAURETANIAE. [iol.] CAESAREIA PHILIPPI. [paneas.] CAESAREIA, DIO [sepphoris.] CAESAKODU'NUM (Katerap66ouv.,r, Ptol. . Tours), the chief town of the Turones or Turoni, a Celtic people in the basin of the Loire. Caesar mentions the Turones, but names no town. It is first mentioned by Ptolemy; and the same name, Caesarodunum, occurs in the Table; but it is called in the Notitia of the provinces of Gallia M civitas Turonorum," whence the modern name of Tows. The identity of Caesarodunum and Tows is proved by the four roads to this place from Bourges, Poitiers, Orleans, and A ngers. The modern town is on the south bank of the Loire, and the ancient town seems to hare been on the same site, though this opinion is not universally received. There are no Roman remains at Tours, except, it is said, some fragments of the ancient walls. [G. L.]

CAESARO'MAGUS (Kai<rap6uM.yos, Ptol.: Beauvais), the capital of the Belgic people, the Bellovaci. Its position at Beauvais agrees with the determinations of the Antonine Itin. and the Table. In the Notitia of the Gallic provinces the "ci vitas Bellovacorum" belongs to Belgica Secunda. In the middle ages the name was Belvacus or Belvacnm, whence, by an ordinary corruption in the French language, comes Beauvais. As to its identity with Bratuspantium, see that article. [G. L.]

CAESARO'MAGUS, in Britain, is, in the fifth Itinerary, the first station from Loudon (from which it is distant 28 miles) on the road to Luguballium (Carlisle), rid Colonia (Colchester or Maldon). Writtle, near Chelmsford, about 25 mills from London, best coincides with this measurement. In the ninth Itinerary, the same Caesaromagus, 12 miles from Canonium, is 16 from Durolitum, which is itself 15 from London,—in all 31. This indicates a second road. Further remarks upon this subject are made under Colonia. [R- G. L.J

CAESE'XA (KoiVTjm, Strab.; Kattroiva, PtoL: Eth. Caesenas, atis: Cescna), a considerable town of Gallia Cispadana, situated on the Via Aetmlia, 20 miles from Ariminum, and on the right bank of the small river Sapis (Sdt'to). (Strab. v. p.216; Plin. iii. 1.5. s. 20; Ptol. hi. 1. §46; Itin. Ant. pp. loo, 126.) An incidental mention of its name in Cicero {ad Pam, xvi. 27) is the only notice of it that occurs in history until a very late period; but after the fall of the Western Empire it is frequently mentioned as a strong fortress, and plays no unimportant part in the wars of the Goths with the generals of Justinian. (Procop. B. G. i. I, ii. 11, 19, 29, iii. 6.) It appears, however, to have been a flourishing municipal town under the Roman empire, and was noted for the excellence of its wines, which were among the most highly esteemed that were produced in Northern Italy; a reputation which they still retain at the present day. (Plin. xiv. 6.) It is distinguished in the Itin. Ant. (p. 286) by the epithet ** Curva," but the origin of this is unknown. The modern city of Cesena is a considerable place, with a population of 15,000 inhabitants. [E. H. B.]

CAE'SIA SILVA, one of the great forests of Germany, between Vetera and the country of the Marsi, that is, the heights extending between the rivers Lippe and Yssel as far as Coes/eld. (Tacit Annal i. 50.) I S.J

CAETOBRIX (KoiToVf, Ptol. ii. 5. § 3). CATOBRI'GA {Itin. Ant. p. 417), CETOBKIGA {Geog. Rav. iv. 23), a city of Lusitania, belonging to the Turdetani, on the road from OJisipo to Einerita, 12 M. P. E. of Equabona. It appears to correspond to the ruins on the promontory called Troye, opposite to Setubal, E. of the mouth of the Tagus (Nonius, c. 38 ; Mentelle, Geoff. Comp. Portug. p. 87 i Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 390). [P. S.]

CAI'CTJS (k&kos), a river of Mysia (Herod. vi. 28; vii. 42), first mentioned by Hesiod {Theog. 343), who, as well as the other poets, fixes the quantity of the penultimate syllable:

Saxosuinque sonans Hypanis, Mysnsqne Caicus.

Virg. Georg. iv. 370.

Strabo (p. 616) says that the sources of the Caicus are in a plain, which plain is separated by the range of Temnus from the plain of Apia, and that the plain of Apia lies above the plain of Thebe in the interior. He adds, there also flows from Temuus a river Mysius, which joins the Caicus below its source. The Caicus enters the sea 30 stadia from Pitane, and south of the Caicus is Elaea, 12 stadia from the river: Elaea was the port of Pergamum, which was on the Caicus, 120 stadia from Elaea. (Strab. p. 615.) At the source of the Caicus, according to Strabo, was a place called Gergitha. The course of this river is not well known; nor is it easy to assign the proper names to the branches laid down in the ordinary maps. The modern name of the Caicus is said to be Ak-su or Bakir. Leake (Asia Minor, p. 269) infers from the direction uf L. Scipio's march (Liv. xxxvii. 37) from Troy to the Hyrcanian plain, " that the north-eastern branch of the river of Bergma (Pergamum) which flows by Menduria (Gergitha?) and Balilesri (Caesareia) is that which was anciently called Caicus;" and he makes the Mysius join it on the right bank. He adds 11 of the name of the southern branch (which is represented in our maps) I have not found any trace in extant history." The Caicus as it seems is formed by two streams which meet between 30 and 40 miles above its mouth, and it drains an extensive and fertile country. Cramer {Asia Minor, vol. i. p. 135) misinterprets Strabo when he says that the plains watered by the Caicus were at a very early period called Teuthrauia. It is singular that the valley of the Caicus has not been more completely examined. Co. L.]

CAIE'TA (Kcu-fjTT), Caietanua: Gaeta), a town of Latium on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Tarracina and Fonniae, celebrated for the excellence of its port. It was situated on a projecting headland or promontory which advances to some distance into the sea, opposite to the city of Formiae, and forms the northern extremity of the extensive bay anciently called the Sinus Caietanus, and still known as the Go\fo di Gaeta. The remarkable headland on which it stood, with the subjacent port, could not fail to be noticed from very early times; and it was generally reported that Aeneas had touched there on his voyage to I^atium, and that it derived its name from its being the burial-place of his nurse Caieta. (Virg. Aen. vii. 1; Ovid. Met. xiv. 443; Stat, Silv. i. 3. 87; Mart. v. I. 5, x 30.8; Solin. 2. § 13.) Another and perhaps an earlier legend connected it with the voyage of the Argonauts, and asserted the name tci have been originally AHyrns, from Aeetes, the father of Medea. (Eycophr. Alex. 1274; Diod. iv. 56.) Strabo derives the name from a Laconian word, Kaiiras or Katdras, signifying a hollow, on account of the caverns which abounded in the neighbouring rocks (v. p. 233). Whatever be the origin of the name, the port seems to have been frequented from very early times, and continued to be a place of great trade in the days of Cicero, who calls it "portal celeberrimus et plenissimus navium;" from which very circumstance it was one of those that had been recently attacked and plundered by the CUician pirates. (Pro leg. Manii. 12.) Florus also (i. 16) speaks of the noble ports of Caieta and Misenuni; but the town of the name seems to have been an inconsiderable place, and it may be doubted whether it possessed separate municipal privileges, at least previous to the time of Antoninus Pius, who added new works on a great scale to its port, and appears to have much improved the town itself. (Capit. Ant. Pius, 8; the inscription cited by Pratilli, Via Appia, ii. 4, p. 144, in confirmation of this, is of doubtful authenticity.) It was nut till after the destruction of Formiae by the Saracens in the 9th century that Gaeta rose to its present distinction and became under the Normans one of the most considerable cities in the Neapolitan dominions.

The beautiful bay between Caieta and Formiae early became the favourite place of resort with the Romans, and was studded with numerous villas. The greater part of these were on its northern shore, near Formiae; but the whole distance from thence to Caieta (about 4 miles) was gradually occupied in this manner, and many splendid villas arose on the headland itself and the adjoining isthmus. Among others, we are told that Scipio Afrieanus and Laelius were in the habit of retiring there, and amusing their leisure with picking up shells on the beach. (Cic. de Or. ii. 6; Val. Max. viii. 8. 1.) Cicero repeatedly alludes to it as the port nearest to Formiae; it was here that he had a ship waiting ready for flight during the civil war of Caesar and Pompey B. c. 49, and it was here also that he landed immediately before his death, in order to take shelter in his Formian villa. Some late writers, indeed, say that he was put to death at Caieta; but this appears to arise merely from a confusion between that place and the neighbouring Formiae. (Cic ad Att. i. 3, 4, viii. 3; Pint, Cic. 47; Appian, B. C. iv. 19, and Schweigh. ad he.; Val. Max. i. 4. § 5; Senec. Suasor. 6.) At a later period the emperor Antoninus Pius had a villa here, where also the younger Faustina spent much of her time. (Capit. Am.

Pirn, 8, M. Ant 19.) The rains uf their palace are said to be still known by the name of // Faustignano. Besides these, there are extant at Gaeta the remains of a temple supposed to have been dedicated to Serapis, and those uf an aqueduct. But the most interesting monument of antiquity remaining there is the sepulchre of L. Munatius Plancus, a circular structure much resembling the tomb of Caecilia Met el la near Rome, which crowns the summit of one of the two rocky hills that constitute the headland of Gat-ta, and is vulgarly known as the Torre dOrlando. It is in excellent pre>ervation, and retains its inscription uninjured. (Roinanelli, vol. iii. p. 425; Hoare's Classical Tour, vol. i. pp. 125—127.) The inscription is given by Orelli (590). From extant vestiges it appears that a branch of the Appian Way quitted the main hue of that road near Formiae, and led from thence to Caieta, [E. 11. B.]

CAINAS (Kcunls: Cane), a navigable river of India intra Gangem, falling into the Ganges from the south, according to Arrian (/nd. 4) and. Pliny (vl17. s.21), though it really falls into the Jumna, [P. S.]

CALA'BRIA (KaXaSpla) was the name given by the Romans to the peninsula which forms the SE. promontory, or, as it has been frequently called, the heel of Italy, the same which was termed by the Greeks Messapia or Iapyoia. The use of these appellations seems indeed to have been sufficiently vague and fluctuating. But, on the whole, it may be remarked that the name of Iapygia, — which appears to have been the one first known among the Greeks, and probahly in early times the only one,— was applied by them not only to the peninsula itself, but to the whole SE. portion of Italy, from the frontiers of Lucania to the promontory of Garganus, thus including the greater part of Apulia, as well as Calabria. (Scyl. § 14, p. 170; Pol. iii. 88.) Herodotus appears to have certainly consider-d Apulia as part of Iapygia (iv. 99), but has no distinguishing name for the peninsula itself. Neither he nor Thucydides ever use Messapia for the name of the country, but they both mention the Messapians, as a tribe or nation of the native inhabitants, to wh >in they apply the general name of Iapygians (I^ir^yts Me<r<jaWmk, Her. vii. 170; Thuc. vii. 33). Polybius and Strabo, on the contrary, use Messapia for the peninsula only, as distinguished from the adjoining countries; but the former reckons it a part of Iapygia, while the latter, who employs the Roman name of Apulia for the land of the Peueetians and Daunians, considers Iapygia and Messapia as synonymous. (Pol. iii. 88; Strab. vi. pp. 277, 282.) Autioehus of Syracuse also, as cited by Strabo (p. 279), as well as the pretended oracle introduced by him in his narrative, speaks of Iapygians us dwelling in the neighbourhood of Tarentum. At a later period we find the inhabitants of this district divided into two tribes; the Sallentini, who occupied the country near the Iapygian Promontory, and from thence along the southern coast of the peninsula towards Tarentum; and the Calauki, who appear to have been certainly identical with the Messapians of the Greeks, and arc mentioned by that name on the first occasion in which they appear in Roman history. (Fast. Capit. ap. Gruter. p. 297.) They inhabited the northern half and interior of the peninsula, extending to the confines of the Peueetians, and were evidently the most powerful of the two tribes, on which account the name of Calabria came to be gradually adopted by the Roman* as the appellation

of the whole district, in the same manner as that uf Messapia was by the Greeks. This usage was firmly established before the days of Augustas. (Liv. xxiii. 34, xlii. 48: Mela, ii. 4; Strab. vi p. 282; Hot. Carm, LSI.6.)

Calabria as thus defined was limited on the west by a line drawn from sea to sea, beginning on the Gulf of Tarentum a Kttle to the W. of that city, and stretching across the peninsula to the coast of the Adriatic between Egnatia and Brand usiuin. (Strab. vi. p. 277.) It thus comprised nearly the same extent with the modern province called Terra dt Otranto. But the boundary, not being defined by any natural features, cannot be fixed with precision, and probably for administrative purposes varied at different times. Thus we find Frootinus including in the H Provincia Calabriae" several cities of the Peueetians which would, according to the above line of demarcation, belong to Apulia, and appear, in fact, to have been commonly so reckoned. (Lib. Colon, p. 261; and see Apulia, p. 164.) The same remark applies to Pliny's list of the " CaUbrornm mediterranei " (iii. 11. s. 16), and it is indeed probable that the Calabri or Messapians originally extended further to the W. than the arbitrary limit thus fixed by geographers. Strabo appears to have coHMdered the isthmus (as he calls it) between Brundusium and Tarentum as much more strongly marked by nature than it really is; he states its breadth at 310 stadia, which is less than the true distance between the two cities, but considerably more than the actual breadth, if measured in a direct line from sea to sea; which does not exceed 25 G. miles or 250 stadia. This is, however, but little inferior to the average breadth of the province, which would indeed be more properly tenned a great promontory than a peninsula strictly so called. The whole space comprised between this boundary line on the \V. and the Iapygian promontory is very uniform in its physical characters. It contains no mountains, and scarcely any hills of considerable elevation; the range of rugged and hilly country which traverses the southern part of Apulia only occupying a small tract in the extreme N\V. of Calabria, about the modern towns of Ostuni and Ceglie. From hence to the Iapygian Promontory (the Capo di Leuea) there is not a single eminence of any consequence, the whole space being occupied by broad and gently undulating hills of very small elevation, so that the town of Oria, which stands on a hill of moderate height near the centre of the peninsula, commands an uninterrupted view to the sea on both sides. (Swinburne, Travels, vol. i. pp. 210, 211; Craven, Travels, p. 164.) Hence Virgil has justly described the approach to Italy from this side as presenting "a low coast of dusky hills." (Obscuros colics humilemque Italiam, Aen. iii. 522.) The soil is almost entirely calcareous, consisting of a soft tertiary limestone, which readily absorbs all the moisture that falls, so that not a single river and scarcely even a rivulet is to be found in the whole province. Yet. notwits tan ding its aridity, and the burning heat of the climate in summer, the country is one of great fertility, and is described by Strabo as having been once very populous and flourishing; though much decayed in his day from its former prosperity. Its soil is especially adapted for the growth of olives, for which it was celebrated in ancient &3 well as modern times: but it produced also excellent wines, as well as fruit of various kinds iu great abundance, and honey and wool of tike finest

quality. But the excessive heats of summer rendered it necessary at that season to drive the flocks into the mountains and upland vallies of Lucania. (Strab. vi. p. 281; Varr. R. H. ii. 2. § 18,3. § 11; Colum.vii 2. § 3, xi. 3. § 15, xil 51. § 3; Hor. Carm. i. 31. 5, iii. 16,33, Epod. i. 27, Epiit. i. 7.14.) Virgil also notices that it was infected by serpents of a more formidable character than were found in other parts of Italy. (Gc&rg. iii. 425.)

Another source of wealth to the Calabrians was their excellent breed of horses, from whence the Tareutines supplied the cavalry for which they were long celebrated. Even as late as the third century B. c. Polybius tells us that the Apulians and Messapians together could bring into the field nut less than 16,000 cavalry, of which probably the greater part was furnished by the latter nation. (Pol. ii. 24.) At the present day the Terra di Otranto is still one of the most fertile and thickly-peopled provinces if the kingdom of Naples.

The population of the Calabrian peninsula consisted, as already mentioned, of two different tribes or nations; the Messapians or Calabrians proper, and the Salientincs. But there seems no reason to suppose that these races were originally or essentially distinct We have indeed two different accounts of the origin of the Messapians: the one representing them as a cognate people with the Daunians and Peucetians, and conducted to Italy together with them by the sons of Lycaon, I a pyx, Daunins, and Peucetius. (Antonin. Liberal. 31.) The other made Iapyx a son of Daedalus, and the leader of a Cretan colony (Antioch. ap. Strab. vi. p. 279): which is evidently only another version of the legend preserved by Herodotus, according to which the Cretans who had formed the army of Minos, on their return from Sicily, were cast upon the coast of Iapygia, and established themselves in the interior of the peninsula, where they founded the city of Hyria, and assumed the name of Messapians. (Her. vii. 170.) The Sallentines are also represented as Cretans, associated with Locrians and lllyrians; but their emigration is placed as late as the time of Idomeneus, after the Trojan War. (Strab. p. 281; Virg. A en. iii. 400; Varro ap. Prob. ad Virg. Eel. vi. 31; Festus ». c. Salentini, p. 329.) Without attaching any historical value to these testimonies, they may be considered as representing the fact that the population of this peninsula was closely connected with that of the opposite shores of the Ionian Sea, and belonged to the same family with those pre-Hellenic races, who are commonly comprised under the name of Pelasgic. The legend recorded by Antiochus (£ c.) which connected them with the Bottiaeans of Macedonia, appears to point to the same origin. This conclusion derives a great confirmation from the recent researches of Mommsen into the remnants of the language spoken by the native tribes in tins part of Italy, which have completely established the fact that the dialect of the Messapians or Iapygians bore but a very distant analogy to those of the Oscan or Ausonian races, and was much more nearly akin to Greek, to which, indeed, it appears to have borne much the same relation with the native dialects of Macedonia or Crete. The Alexandrian grammarian Seleucus (who flourished about 100 B. c.) appears to have preserved some words of this language, and Strabo (p. 282) refers to the Messapian tongue as one still spoken in his time: the numerous sepulchral inscriptions still existing may be referred for the ingot part to the latter ages of the Roman Re

public. (Mommsen, Die Unter-Italischen Dialecte, pp. 43—98.) This near relationship with the Helleiuc races will explain the facility with which the Messapians appear to have adopted the manners and arts of the Greek settlers, while their national diversity was still such as to lead the Greek colonists to regard them as barbarians. (See Thuc. vii. 33; Paus. Pkoc. x. 10. § 6.) A question has, however, been raised whether the Calabhi were originally of the same stock with the other inhabitants of the peninsula, and Niebuhr inclines to regard them as intruders of an Oscan race (vol. i. p. 149; Vortraae uber Lander u. Volkert p. 499). But the researches above alluded to seem to negative this conjecture, and establish the fact that the Calabrians and Messapians were the same tribe. The name of the Calabri (KoAofyoi) is found for the first time in Polybius (x. 1); but it is remarkable that the Roman Fasti, in recording thejr subjection, employ the Greek name, and record the triumph of the consuls of the year 487 11 de Sallentinis Me$$apiaque."' (Fast. Triumph, ap. Gruter. p. 297.)

All the information we possess concerning the early history of these tribes is naturally connected with that of the Greek colonies established in this part of Italy, especially Tarentum. The accounts transmitted to us concur in representing the Messapians or Iapygians as having already attained to a certain degree of culture, and possessing the cities of Hyria and Brundusium at the period when the colony of Tarentum was founded, about 708 B. c. The new settlers were soon engaged in hostilities with the natives, which are said to have commenced even during the lifetime of Phalanthus. It is probable that the Tarentines were generally successful, and various offerings at Delphi and elsewhere attested their repeated victories over the Iapygians, Messapians, and Peucetians. It was during one of these wars that they captured and destroyed the city of Carbina with circumstances of the most revolting cruelty. But at a later period the Messapians had their revenge, for in B. C. 473 they defeated the Tarentines in a great battle, with such slaughter as no Greek army had suffered down to that day. (Paus.x. 10. § 6,13. § 10; Clearch. ap.Atken. xii. p. 522; Her. vii. 170; Diod. xi. 52; Strab. vi. p. 282.) Notwithstanding this defeat the Tarentines gradually regained the ascendancy, and the Peucetians and Daunians are mentioned as joining their alliance against the Messapians: but the latter found powerful auxiliaries in the Lucanians, and it was to oppose their combined arms that the Tarentines successively invoked the assistance of the Spartan Arch id am us and Alexander king of Epeirus, the former of whom fell in battle against the Messapians near the town of Mauduria, B. c. 338. (Strab. vi. p 281.) But while the inhabitants of the inland districts and the frontiers of Lucania thus retained their warlike habits, those on the coast appear to have adopted the refinements of their Greek neighbours, and had become almost as luxurious and effeminate in their habits as the Tarentines themselves. (Athen. xii. p. 523.) Hence we find them offering but little resistance to the Roman arms; and though the common danger from that power united the Messapians and Lucanians with their fonner enemies the Tarentines, under the command of Pyrrhus, after the defeat of that monarch and the submission of Tarentum, a single campaign sufficed to complete the subjection of the lapygian peninsula.

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