صور الصفحة
PDF

between the kings of Mauretania and Numidia to make a party of his own, composed of adventurers like himself, and who now espoused the cause of Caesar. (Appian. B. C. iv. 54; Dion Cass. nr. 3.) Just before the close of B. c. 47, Caesar landed in Africa; and, after a brief but critical campaign, cverthrew the united forces of the other party in the battle of Thapsus, in April, 46. The kingdom of Numidia was now taken possession of by Caesar, who erected it into a province, and committed its government to Sallustius, the historian, as proconsul, " in name," says Dion Cassius, "to govern, but in deed to plunder." (Hirt. B. Afr. 97; Dion Cass, xliii. 9; Appian. B. C. ii. 100.) Henceforth Numidia became known by the name of New Africa, and the former Roman province as Old Africa. (Appian. B. C. iv. 53; Plin. v. 4. s. 3.) But further, within the province of New Africa itself, Caesar is said to have made a partition, to reward the services of Sittius and of the kings of Mauretauia; giving to the latter the W. part of Numidia, as far £. (probably) as Saldae (possibly to the Ampsaga), and to the former the territory about Cirta. (Appian. B. C. iv. 54.) Very probably this partition amounted to nothing more than leaving his allies, for the present, in possession of what they had already seized, especially as, in his anxiety to return to Rome, Caesar settled tho affairs of Africa in great haste. (Dion, xliii. 14, rd Saao iv rjj 'A(ppiicji Sik Spax^os, ajs irrjv pAXiora, KaTeurr^ray.) Among the exiles from Africa of the defeated party, who had taken refuge with the sons of I'oinpey in Spain, was a certain Arabion, whom Appian (iv. 54) calls a son of a certain Masinissa, the ally of Juba. This man, after Caesar's murder, returned to Numidia, expelled Bocchus, and slew Sittius by stratagem. This story of Appian's is confused and doubtful, even with the help of a few obscure words in a letter of Cicero which have some appearance of confinning it. {Ad Att. xr. 17, Arabioni de Sitio nihil iratcor; comp. Dion Cass, xlviii. 22.)

In the arrangements of the second triumvirate, B. c. 43, the whole of Africa was assigned to Octavian. (Dion Cass. xlvi. 55; Appian. B. C. iv. 53.) T. Sextius, a former legate of Julius Caesar, was governor of tho New Province; while Q. Cornificius and D. Laclius held Old Africa for the so-called republican party, and to them many betook themselves who had escaped from the cruelties of the triumvirs at Rome. A war ensued, the events of which are related differently by the historians; but it ended in the defeat and death of Cornificius and Laelius, B. c. 42. (Appian. B. C. iii. 85, iv. 36,52—56; Dion Cass, xlviii. 21.) After another and successful struggle with C. Fango, which thero is not space to relate (see Dion Cass, xlviii. 22 —24; Appian. B. C. v. 12, 26, 75), Sextius found himself obliged to give up both the African provinces to Lepidus, to whom they had been assigned in the new arrangements made by the triumvirs after the battle of Philippi, and confirmed after tho war of Pcrusia, B. c. 41. By the surrender and retirement of Lepidus, both the African provinces came into the power of Octavian, B. C. 36. In the general settlement of the empire after the overthrow of Antony, B. c. 30, Augustus restored to the young Juba, son of Juba I., his paternal kingdom of N'umidia (Dion Cass. U. 15); but shortly afterwards, B. c. 25, ho resumed the possession of Numidia, giving Juba in exchange the two Mauretanias, the E. boundary of his kingdom being fixed at Saldae.

(Strab. pp. 828, 831.) [maurktasia.] Thus the two provinces of Africa were finally united to the Roman empire, consisting of Old Africa, or the ancient Carthaginian territory, namely, Zeugitana and Byzacium, and New Africa, or, as it was also called, Numidia Provincia; the boundaries being, on the W., at Saldae, where Africa joined Maurclania Caesariensis, and on the £., the monument of the Philaeni, at the bottom of the Great Syrtls, where Africa touched Cyrenalca. The boundaries between Old and New Africa remained as before, namely, on the N. coast, the New Province was divided from the Old by the river Tusca, and on the E. coast by the dyke of Scipio, which terminated at Thenae, at the N. entrance of the Syrtis Minor. (Plin. v. 4. s. 3.) This province of Africa was assigned to the senate, and made a proconsular province, B. c. 27 (Strab. p. 840; Dion Cass. liii. 12).

A further change was made by Caligula, in two particulars. F'irst, as to the western boundary: when, having put to death Ptolemy, tho son of Juba II., he made his kingdom of Mauretania a Roman province, he also extended its boundary eastwards from Saldae to the river Ampsaga, which became thenceforth the W. boundary of Numidia, or New Africa. (Tac. Mitt, i. 11.) But he also changed the government of the province. Under Augustus and Tiberius, the one legion (111*), which was deemed sufficient to protect the province against the barbarians on the S. frontier, had been under the orders of the proconsul; but Caligula, moved by fear of the power and popularity of the proconsul M. Silanus, deprived him of the military command, and placed the legion under a legatut of his own. (Tac Hilt, iv. 48.) F'rom the account of Dion Cassius, which is, however, obviously inexact in some points, it would seem that Numidia was altogether separated from Africa, and made an imperial province under the legatus Caetarit. (Dion Cass. lix. 20: *al 8/X<* TO ttivos fd^aj, irtptp T6 Tf arpariuriKbv Kch robs vopuiSas Tovs ntpl avrb irpoff^ro|€.) Tacitus does not mention this separation, but rather points out the evil results of the divided authority of the proconsul and legatus in a way which seems to imply that they had coordinate powers in the same province. A recent writer suggests that Numidia was always regarded, from the time of the settlement by Augustus, as a province distinct from Old Africa; that it may have been governed by a legatus under the proconsul; and that the only change made by Caligula was the making the legatus immediately dependent on the emperor (Marquardt, Beckers Rom. All. vol. iii. p. 229); and certainly, in the list given by Dion Cassius (liii. 12) of the provinces as constituted by Augustus, Numidia is mentioned as well as Africa. On the whole, however, it seems that the exact relation of the New Province of Africa to the Old, from the time of Caligula to that of Diocletian, must be considered as somewhat doubtful.

The above historical review may aid in removing the difficulty often found in understanding the statements of the ancient writers respecting the limits of Africa. Mela (i. 7; comp. c 6), writing in the reign of Claudius, gives Africa its widest extent, from the river Ampsaga and the promontory Metagonites on the W. (the same, doubtless, as the Tretum of Strabo, Rat Stba Rout, i. c. 7 Capet) to the Arae Philaenorum on the K.; while Pliny (v. 4. a. 3), making Numidia extend from the Ampsaga to the Tusca, and Africa from the Tusca to the frontier of CyrenaTca, yet speaks of the 2 provinces in the closest connection ( Sumidiat et Africae ab Ampsaga lungitwlo ouvxx. M. P.), and seems even to include them b-ith under the name of Africa (Africa a fhsrio A mpK.ga populos xxvi. habet). Ptolemy (iv. 3) gives Africa the same extent as Mela, from the Ampsaga to the bottom of the Great Syrtis; while he applies the name New Numidia (Kov^uSia yea) to a part of the country, evidently corresponding with the later Numidia of other writers (§ 29), the epithet New being used in contradistinction to the ancient Numidia, the W. and greater part of which had been added to Mauretania. In Ptolemy's list of the provinces (viiL 29), Africa and Kumidia are mentioned together.

In the 3rd century, probably under Diocletian, the whole country, from the Ampsaga to CyreDAica, was divided into the four provinces of Numtdut, Afriea Propria or Zeugitana, Bytacwm or Bgzacena, and Tripolis or Tripoli!ana. (Sext. But Brev. 8.) Numidia no longer extended S. of Zeugitana and Byzacium, but that part of it was added to Byzacium; while its E. part, on and between the Syrtes, formed the province of Trijiolitana. We are enabled to draw the boundary-lines with tolerable exactness by means of the records of the numerous ecclesiastical councils of Africa, in which the several bishoprics have the names of their provinces appended to them. (For the fullest information, see Morcelli, Africa Christiana, Brixiae, 1817, 3 vols. 4to.) Zeugitana, to which, in the revolution of time, the name of Africa had thus come to be again appropriated, remained a senatorial province under the Proconsul Africae, and was often called simply Prouincia Proconsularis; the rt«t were imperial provinces, Byzacium and Numidia being governed by Consttlares, and Tripoli* by a Praeses. The Proconsul Africae (who was the only one in the W. empire, and hence was often called simply Proconsul) had under him two legati and a quaestor, besides legati for special branches of administration. His residence was at the restored city of Carthage. The other three provinces, as well as the two Mauretanias, were subject to the praetorian praefect of Italy, who governed them by his representative, the Vicarius Africae. (Bucking, ftotitia Dignitatem, vol. ii. c 17, 19, &c.) Referring for the remaining details to the articles on the separate provinces, we proceed to a brief account of the later ancient history of Africa.

At the time referred to, the name of Africa, besides its narrowest sense, as properly belonging to the proconsular province, and its widest meaning, as applied to the whole continent, was constantly used to include all the provinces of N. Africa, W. of the Great Syrtis, and the following events refer, for the most part, to that extent of country. At the settlement of the empire undei Constantine, the African provinces were among the most prosperous in the Roman world. The valleys of Mauretania and Numidia, and the plains of Zeugitana and Byzacium, had always been proverbial for their fertility; and the great cities along the coast had a flourishing commerce. The internal tranquillity of Africa was seldom disturbed, the only formidable insurrection being that under the two Gordians, which was (■|«*-dily repressed, A. D. 238. The emperors Septnnius Severus and Macrinus were natives of N. Africa. Amidst the prosperous population of these peaceful provinces, Christianity had early taken firm root; the records of ecclesiastic al history attest the

| great number of the African churches and bishoprics, and the frequency of their synods; and the fervid spirit of the Africans displayed itself alike in the steadfastness of their martyrs, the energy of their benevolence, the vehemence of their controversies, and the genius of their leading writers, as, for example, Tertullian, Cyprian, and Augustine.

But here, as on the other frontiers of the empire the diminished vitality of the extremities bore witness to the declining energy of the heart. That perfect subjection of the native tribes, which forms such a singular contrast with the modem history of Algeria, had already been disturbed; and we read of increased military forces, insurrections of native princes, and incursions of the Numidians, or, as they now came to bo generally called, the Moors, even before the end of the 3rd century. There is not space to recount the wars and troubles in Africa during the struggles of Constantino and his competitors for the empire; nor those under his successors, including the revolt of Firmus, and the exploits of the count Theodosius, under the 1st and 2nd Valentinian (a. D. 373—376), the usurpation of Maximus, after the death of Valentinian II.; and the revolt of the count Giidon, after the death of Theodosius the Great, suppressed by Stilicho, A. i>. 398. At the final partition of the empire, on the death of Theodosius (a. D. 395), the African provinces were assigned to the W. empire, under Honorius, whose dominions met those of his brother, Arcadius, at the Great Syrtis.

Under Valentinian III., the successor of Honorius, the African provinces were lost to the W. empire. Boniface, count of Africa, who had successfully defended the frontiers against the Moors, was recalled from his government by the intrigues of Act ins, and on his resistance an army was sent against him (a.i>. 427). In his despair, Boniface sought aid from the Vandals, who were already established in Spain; and, in May, 429, Geiserich (or Genserich) the Vandal king, led an army of about 50,000 Vandals, Goths, and Alans, across the Straits of Gades into Mauretania. He was joined by many of the Moors, and apparently favoured by the Donatists, a sect of heretics, or rather schismatics, who hud lately suffered severe persecution. But, upon urgent solicitations from the court of Ravenna, accompanied by the discovery of the intrigues of Aetius, Bomface repented of his invitation, and tried, too late, to repair his error. He was defeated and shut up in Hippo Regius; the only other cities left to the Romans being Carthage and Cirta. The Vandals overran the whole country from the Straits to the Syrtes; and those fertile provinces were utterly laid waste amidst scenes of fearful cruelty to the inhabitants. The siege of Hippo lasted fourteen months. At length, encouraged by reinforcements from the eastern empire, Boniface hazarded another battle, in which he w as totally defeated, A. D. 431. But the final loss of Africa was delayed by negotiation for some years, during which various partitions of the country were made between the Romans and the Vandals; but the exact terms of these truces are as obscure as their duration was uncertain. The end of one of them was signalized by the surprise and sack of Carthage, Oct. 9, 4M9; and before the death of Valentinian 111. the Vandals were in undisputed possession of the African provinces. Leo, the emperor of the East, sent an unsuccessful expedition against them, under Heraiiius, A. D. 468;

[ and, in 470. Zeuu made a treaty with Geiscric which lasted till the time of Justinian, under whom the country was recovered for the Eastern Empire, and the Vandals almost exterminated, by Belisarius, A. D. 533—534. (For an account of the Vandal kings of Africa, see Vawdali: for the history of this period, the chief authority is Procopius, Bell. Vand.)

Of the state and constitution of Africa under Justinian, we have most interesting memorials in two rescripts, addressed by the emperor, the one to Arehelaus, the praetorian praefect of Africa, and the other to Belisarius himself. (Booking, NotiL Digs vol, ii. pp. 154, foil.) From the former we learn that the seven African provinces, of which the island of Sardinia now made one, were erected into a separate pracfecture, under a Praefectus Praetorio Magnificat; and the two rescripts settle their civil and military constitution respectively. It should be observed that Mauretania Tingitana (from the river Mulucha to the Ocean), which had formerly belonged to Spain, was now included in the African province of Mauretania Caesariensis. [Comp. MauRetania.] The seven African provinces were (from E. tow.), (1) Tripolis or Tripolitana, (2) Byzacium or Byzacena, (3) Africa or Zeugis or Carthago, (4) Nuraidia, (5) Mauretania Sitifensis or Zaba, (6) Mauretania Caesariensis, and (7) Sardinia: the first three were governed by ConsiiLxres, the last four by Praesides.

The history of Africa under the E. empire consists of a series of intestine troubles arising from court intrigues, and of Moorish insurrections which became more and more difficult to repel. The splendid edifices and fortifications, of which Justinian was peculiarly lavish in this part of his dominions, were a poor substitute for the vital energy which was almost extinct. {Procojt.de Aedif. Justin.) At length the deluge of Arabian invasion swept over the choicest parts of the Eastern Empire, and the conquest of Egypt was no sooner completed, than the Caliph Othman sent an army under Abdallah against Africa, A. D. 647. The praefect Gregory was defeated and slain in the great battle of Sufetula in the centre of Byzacena ; but t he Arab force was inadequate to complete the conquest. In 665 the enterprize was renewed by Akbar, who overran the whole country to the shores of the Atlantic; and founded the great Arab city of Al-Kairwan (i. e. the caravan), in the heart of Byzacium, about 20 miles S. W. of the ancient Hadrumetum. Its inland position protected it from the fleets of the Greeks, who were still masters of the coast. But the Moorish tribes made common cause with the Africans, and the forces of Akbah were cut to pieces. His successor, Zuheir, gained several battles, but was defeated by an army sent from Constantinople. The contest was prolonged by the internal dissensions of the successors of the prophet; but, in A. D. 692, a new force entered Africa under Hassan, the governor of Egypt, and Carthage was taken and destroyed in 098. Again were the Arabs driven out by a general insurrection of the Moors, or, as we now find them called, by the name ever since applied to the natives of N. Africa, the Berbers (from fidp€apoi); but the Greeks and Romans of Africa found their domination more intolerable than that of the Arabs, and welcomed the return of their conquerors under Musa, who subdued the country finally, and enlisted most of the Moors under the faith and standard of the prophet, A. D. 705—709. With the Arab conquest ends the ancient history of Africa. [P. S.]

AGANIPPE FONS. [helicon.]

A'GARI (^Ayapoi), a Scythian people of Sarmatia Europaea, on the N. shore of the Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azov), about a promontory Agarum and a river Agarus, probably not far E. of the Isthmus. They were skilful in medicine, and are said to have cured wounds with serpents' venom 1 Some of them always attended on Mithridates the Great, as physicians. (Appian.J/tVAr 88; Ptol. iii. 5. § 13.) A fungus called Agaricum (prob. German tinder), much used in ancient medicine, was said to grow in their country (Plin. xxv. 9. s. 57; Dioscor. iii. I; Galen, de fac. swap, med, p. 150). Diodorus (xx. 24), mentions Agarus, a king of the Scythians, near the Cimmerian Bosporus, B. c 240. (Bockh, Corpus Inscr. vol. ii. p. 82; Ukert, vol iii. Sept. 2, pp. 250, 433.)' [P. S.]

AGASSA or AGASSAE, a town in Pieria ir Macedonia, near the river Mitys. Livy, in relating the campaign of B. C. 169 against Perseus, says that the Roman consul made three days' march beyond Dium, the first of which terminated at the river Mitys, the second at Agassa, and the third at the river Ascordus. The last appears to be the same as the Acerdos, which occurs in the Tabular Itinerary, though not marked as a river. Leake supposes that the Mitys was the river of KaUrinaj and that Acerdos was a tributary of the Haliacmon. (Liv. xliv. 7, xlv. 27; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 423, seq.)

AGATHUSA. [telos.]

AGATH VRXA or AGATHYBNUM CAydBvpva, Polyb. ap. Staph. Bjx.'AyaBtsvo*, PtoL: Agathyrna, Sil. ItaL xiv.259; Liv.; Agathyrnum, Plin.), a city on the N. coast of Sicily between Tyndaris and Calacte. It was supposed to have derived its name from Agathymus, a son of Aeolus, who is said to have settled in this part of Sicily (Diod. v. 8). But though it may be inferred from hence that it was an ancient city, and probably of Sicelian origin, we find no mention of it in history until after Sicily became a Roman province. During the Second Punic War it became the head-quarters of a band of robbers and freebooters, who extended their ravages over the neighbouring country, but were reduced by the consul Laevimis in B. c. 210, who transported 4000 of them to Rhegium. (Liv. xxvi. 40, xxvii. 12.) It very probably was deprived on this occasion of the municipal rights conceded to most of the Sicilian towns, which may account for our finding no notice of it in Cicero, though it is mentioned by Strabo among the few cities still subsisting on the N. coast of Sicily, as well as afterwards by Pliny, Ptolemy and the Itineraries. (Strab. vi. p. 266; Plin. iii. 8, Ptol. iii. 4. § 2; Itin. Ant. p. 92; Tab. Peut.) Its situation has been much disputed, on account of the great discrepancy between the authorities just cited. Strabo places it 30 Roman miles from Tyndaris, and the same distance from Alaesa, The Itinerary gives 28 M. P. from Tyndaris and 20 from Calacte: while the Tabula (of which the numbers seem to be mora trustworthy for this part of Sicily than those of the Itinerary) gives 29 from Tyndaris, and only 12 from Calacte. If this last measurement be supposed correct it would exactly coincide with the distance from Caronia (Calacte) to the place near the seacoast called Acque Dolci below S. FUadelfo (called on recent maps S. Fratello) and about 2 miles W. of Sta Agata, where Fazello describes nuns of considerable magnitude as extant in his day: but which he, in common with Cluverius, regarded as the ren^ains of Aluntium. The latter city may, however, be placed with much more probability at S. Marco [Aunmcsi]: and the ruins near S. Fratello would thus be those of Agathyma, there being no other city « f any magnitude that we know of in this part of Sicily. Two objections, however, remain: 1. that the distance from this site to Tyndaris is greater than that given by any of the authorities, being certainly not less than 36 miles: 2. that both Pliny and Ptoi**iny, from the order of their enumeration, appear to place Agathyma between Alnntiura and Tyndaris, and therefore if the former city be correctly fixed at s, Marco, Agathyma most be looked for to the E. of that town. Fazello accordingly placed it near Capo Orlando, but admits that there were scarcely any vestiges visible there. The question is one hardly susceptible of a satisfactory conclusion, as it is my possible on any view to reconcile the data of all our authorities, bat the arguments in favour of the Acque D>ilci seem on the whole to predominate. Uufortu ■ uately the ruins there have not been examined by any recent traveller, and have very probably disappeared. Captain Smyth, however, speaks of the remains of a fine Roman bridge as visible in the Fiumara di Rosa Marina between this place and S. Marco. (Fazell. ix. 4, p. 384. 5. p. 391 j Cluver. &ciL p. 295; Smyth's Sicily, p. 97.) [E. H. B.] AGATHYRSI ('Ayddvpoot, 'Ayadvpaioi), a people of Sarmati.i Kurnpaea. very frequently mentioned by tho aa< icut writer.-, but in different positions. Their name was known to the Greeks very early, if the Peisandcr, from whom Suidas p.) uxid Stephanos Byzantinus Cr. r.) quote an absurd mythical etymology of the name (iirb ruv Svpaay Tov &t6woov) be the poet Pei.-aiiiler of Rhodes, a. c. 645; but he is much more probably the younger Peisander of Larauda, A.d. 222. Another myth is repeated by Herodotus, who heard it from the Greeks on the Euxine; that Hercules, on his return from his adventure against Geryon, passed through the region of Hylaea, and there met the Echidna, who bore him three sons, Agathyrsus, Gelonos, and Scythes; of whom the last alone was able to bend a bow and to wear a belt, which Hercules had left behind, in the same manner as Her< ales himself had used them; and, accordingly, in obedience to their father's command, the Echidna drove the two elder out of the land, and gave it to Scythes (Herod, iv, 7—10: comp. Tzetz. Chil. viii. 222, 759). Herodotus himself, also, regards the Agathyrsi as not a Scythian people, but as closely related to the Scythians. He places them about the upper course of the river Maris (Marosch), that is, in the SE. part of Dacia, or the modern Tran~ syinmia (iv. 4: the Maris, however, does not fall directly, as he states, into the Ister, Danube, but into that great tributary of the Danube, the Thea). They were the first of the peoples bordering on Scythia, to one going inland from the Ister; and next to them the Neuri (iv. 100). Being thus separated by the E. Carpathian mountains from Scythia, they were able to refuse the Scythians, firing before Dareius, an entrance into their country (Herod, iv. 125). How far N. they extended cannot be determined from Herodotus, for he assigns an erroneous course to the Ister, X. of which he consJers the land to be quite desert. [scythia.] The kter writers, for the most part, place the Agathyrsi further to the S., as is the case with nearly all the ifcythian tribes; some place them on the Pal us Mae^tisamJ some inland; and they are generally sj>okeu

of in close connection with the Sarmnti.ms and tie Geloni, and are regarded as a Scythian tribe (Ephor. up. Scymn. Fr. v. 123, or 823, ed. Meineke; Mela ii. 1; Plin. iv. 26; Ptol. iii. 5; Dion. Perieg. 310; Avien. Descr. Orb. 447; Steph. B. s. v.; Suid. s. v. &c). In their country was found gold and also precious stones, among which was the diamond, aSdfias irafupaivaiv (Herod, iv. 104; Amm. Marc xxii. 8; Dion. Perieg. 317). According to Herodotus, they were a luxurious race (afyoTarot, Ritter explains this as referring to fine clothing), and were much gold: they had a community of wives, in order that all the people might regard each other as brethren; and in their other customs they resembled the Thracians (iv. 104). They lived under kingly government; and Herodotus mentions their king Spargapeithes as the murderer of the Scythian king, Ariapeithes (iv. 78). Frequent allusions are made by later writers to their custom of painting (or rather tattooing) their bodies, in a way to indicate their rank, and staining their hair a dark blue (Virg. Aen. iv. 146; Scrv. ad toe; Plin. iv. 96; Solin. 20; Avien. tc; Ammian. I.e.; Mela ii. 1: Agathyrsi ora artusqite pingunt: ut quique majoribtis praestant, ita magis, velminits: ceterum iisdem omnes notis, et sic ut ablui nequeant). Aristotle mentions their practice of solemnly reciting their laws lest they should forget them, as observed in his time (Prob. xix. 28). Finally, they are mentioned by Virgil (/. c.) among the worshippers of the Delian Apollo, where their name is, doubtless, used as a specific poetical synonym for the Hyperboreans in general: —

"mixtique altaria circum Cretesqne Dryopesque fremunt pictique Agathyrsi."

Niebuhr (Klein e Schriften, vol. i. p. 377) regards the Agathyrsi of Herodotus, or at least the people who occupied the position assigned to them by Herodotus, as the same people as the Getae or Dacians (Ukert, vol.iii.pt. 2, pp. 418-421; Georgii.vol. ii.pp. 302, 303; Ritter, Vorhafle, pp. 287, foil.) [P. S.]

AGBATANA. [ecbatana.]

AGENDICUM, or AGETINCUM m the Peutinger Table, one of the chief towns of the Senones in the time of Caesar (B. G. vi. 44, vii. 10, 57). The orthography of the word varies in the MSS. of Caesar, where there is Agendicum, Agedincuni, and Agedicum. If it is the town which was afterwards called Senones (Amm. Marc. xvi. 3, Senonas oppidum), we may conclude that it is represented by the modern town of Sens, on the river Yonne. Some critics have supposed that Provins represents Agendicum. Under the Roman empire, in the later division of Gallia, Agendicum was the chief town of Lugdunensis Quarta, and it was the centre of several Roman roads. In the walls of the city there are some stones with Roman inscriptions and sculptures The name Agredicum in the Antonine Itinerary may be a corruption of Agendicum. Co. L.]

AGINNUM or AGEXNUM (Agen), was the chief town of the Nitiobriges, a tribe situated between the Garumna and the Ligeris in Caesar's time (B. G. vii. 7, 75). Aginnum was on the road from Burdigala to Argentomagus (It Antonin.). It is the origin of the modern town of Agen, on the river Garonne, in the department of Lot and Garonne, and contains some Roman remains. Aginnum is mentioned by Ausonius (Ep. xxiv. 79); and it was the birthplace of Sulpicius Severus. T. L.] I AGISYMBA ('Aylov^a.), the general name unclei *hicli Ptolemy includes the whole interior of Africa S. of the Equator; which he regards as belonging to Aethiopia (i. 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, iv. 8, vii. 5). [P. S.]

[graphic]

A'GORA ('A70f><t), a town situated about the middle of the narrow neck of the Thracian Chersonesus, and not far from Cardia. Xerxes, when invading Greece, passed through it. (Herod, vii. 58 j Scvlax, p. 28; Steph. B. *. i>.) [L. S.]

AGRA CAypa Apoe.'ai, Ptoh vi. 7. § 5; Stcph. II. *. vv. 'ld6ptiriTaJ*Eypa'), a small district of Arabia Felix, situated at the foot of Mount Hippus, on the eastern coast of the Red Sea, in lat. 29 J N. (Akra). Iathrippa or Lathrippa seems to have been its principal town [W. B. D.]

AGRAE. [attica.]

AGRAEI (A-ypoToi, Thuc. iu. 106; Strab. p. 449: 'Aypatit, PoL xvii. 5; Steph. Byz. *. e.), a people in the NW. of Aetolia, bounded on the W. by Acamania, from which it was separated by Mount Thyamus (Spartovuni); on the NW. by the territory of Argos Amphilochicum; and on the N. by Dolopia. Their territory was called Agrais, or Agraea ('Aypals, -isoj, Thuc. UL 111; 'Aypala, Strab. p. 338), and the river Achelous flowed through the centre of it. The Agraei were a nonHellenic people, and at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war were governed by a native king, called Salyntliius, who is mentioned as an ally of the Ambraciots, when the latter were defeated by the Acarnanians and Demosthenes in B. C. 426. Two years afterwards (424) Demosthenes marched against Salynthius and the Agraei, and compelled them to join the Athenian alliance. Subsequently they became subject to the Aetolians, and are called an Aetolian people by Strabo. (Thuc. ii. 102, iii. 106, 114, iv. 77; Strab. p. 449; Pol. xvii. 5; Liv. xxxii. 34.) This people is mentioned by Cicero (in Pism. 37), under the name of Agrinae, which is perhaps a corrupt form. Strabo (p. 336) mentions a village called Ephyra in their country; and Agrinium would also appear from its name to have been one of their towns. [ephyra; Aqrinium.] The Aperanti were perhaps a tribe of the Agraei. [aperantia.] The Agraei were a different people from the Agrianes, who lived on the borders of Macedonia. [agrianes.]

AGRAEI ('A-ypaw., Ptol. v. 19. § 2; Eratosth. ap. Strab. p. 767), a tribe of Arabs situated near the main road which led from the head of the Red Sea to the Euphrates. They bordered on the Nabathacan Arabs, if they were not indeed a portion of that race. According to Hieronymus (Quaest. in Gen. 25), the Agraei inhabited the district which the Hebrews designated as Midian. Pliny (v. 11. s. 12) places the Agraei much further westward in the vicinity of the Lacnitae and the eastern shore of the Red Sea. [W.B.D.]

AGRAULE or AGRYLE. [attica.]

AGKI DECUMA'TES or DECUMA'NI (from decuma, tithe), tithe lands, a name given by the Romans to the country E. of the Rhino and N. of the Danube, which they took possession of on the withdrawal of the Germans to the E., and which they gave to the immigrating Gauls and subject Germans, and subsequently to their own veterans, on the payment of a tenth of the produce. Towards the end of the first or the beginning of the second century after Christ, the country became part of the adjoining Roman province of Khaetia, and was thus incorporated with the empire. (Tacit. Germ. 29.) Its boundary

towards the free part, of Germany was protected partly by a wall (from Ratisbon to Lorch),and partly by a mound (from Lorch to the Rhine, in the neighbourhood of Cologne) and Roman garrisons. The protection of those districts against the ever renewed attacks of the Germans required a considerable military force, and this gave rise to a number of towns and military roads, of which many traces still exist. But still the Romans were unable to maintain themselves, and the part which was lost first seems to have been the country about the river Maine and Mount Taunus. The southern portion was probably lost soon alter the death of the emperor Probus (a.d 283), when the Alemanni took possession of it. The latest of the Roman inscriptions found in that country belongs to the reign of Gallienus (a. D. 260 —268). (Comp. Leichtlen, Schwahen unier dtn Jiomern, Freiburg, 1825, 8vo.) The towns in the Decumates Agri were Ambiatinus vicus, Aljsum, Divitia, Gesonia, Victoria, Bibcma, Aquae Mattiaoae, Muuimentum Trajani, Artaunum, Triburium, Bragodurum or Bragodunum, Budoris, Carithni, and others. Comp. Riiaetia. [L. S.]

AGRIA'NES ('Aypidyris: Ergina), a small river in Thrace, and one of the tributaries of the Hebrus. (Herod, iv. 89.) It flows from Mount Hieron in a NW. direction, till it joins the Hebrus. Some have supposed it to be the same as the Erigon, which, however, is impossible, the latter being a tributary of the Axius. [L. S.]

AGRIA'NES ('Aypiaitfs), a Paeonian people, dwelling near the sources of the Strymon. They formed excellent light-armed troops, and are frequently mentioned in the campaigns of Alexander the Great. (Strab. p. 331; Herod, v. 16; Thuc.ii. 96; Arrian, Anab. i. 1. § 11, i. 5. § 1, et alib.)

AGR1GENTUM £AKpdyas*: Eth. and Adj. 'AKpayarrivos, Agrigentinns: Girgentt), one of the most powerful and celebrated of the Greek cities in Sicily, was situated on the SW. coast of the island, about midway between Selinus and Gels. It stood on a hill between two and three miles from the sea, the foot of which was washed on the E. and S. by a river named the Acraqas, from whence the city itself derived its appellation, on the W. and SW. by another stream named the Hypsas, which unites its waters with those of the Acragas just below the city, and about a mile from its mouth. The former is now called the Fiume di S. Biagio, the latter the Drago, while their muted stream is commonly known as the Fiume di Girgenti (Polyb. ix. 27; Siefcrt, Akragas u. sein Gebiet, p. 20—22).

We learn from Thucydides that Agrigentum was founded by a colony from Gela, 108 years after the establishment of the parent city, or B. c. 582. The leaders of the colony were Aristonous and Pystilus, and it received the Dorian institutions of the mother country, including the sacred rites and observances which had been derived by Gela itself from Rhodes. On this account it is sometimes called a Rhodian colony. (Thuc. vi. 4; Scymn. Ch. 292; Strab. vi. p. 272,where Kramer justly reads rtXipuyfot'lurasy; Polyb. ix. 27. Concerning the date of its foundation see Schol. ad Pind. 01. ii. 66; and Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 265.) We have very little information concerning its early history, but it appears to have very rapidly risen to great prosperity and power:

* The form Achaoas or Agraoas in Latin is found only in the Roman poets. (Virg. Aen. iii 703; Sil. Ital. xiv. 210.)

« السابقةمتابعة »