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present day one of thfl chief sources of prosperity to Giryenti; but its mines of suit (still worked at a place called Aborangi, about 8 miles north of the city), are alluded to both by Pliny and Solinus. (PHn. //. y. xxxi. 7. s. 41 j Solin. 5. §§ 18, 19.) Several writers also notice a fountain in the immediate neighbourhood of the city, which produced Petroleum or mineral oil, considered to be of great efficacy as a medicament for cattle and sheep. The source still exists in a garden not far from Girgenti, and is frequently resorted to by the peasants fur the aame purpose. (Dioscorid. i. 100; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 15. s. 51 ; Solin. 5. § 22; FaxelL <U Reb. Stad. vi. p. 261 ; Ferrara. Cnmpi Fiegrei delta Sicilia, p. 43.) A mure remarkable object id the mud volcano (now called by the Arabic name of Mttccalubba) about 4 miles N. of Giryenti, the phenomena of which are described by Solinus, but unnoticed by any previous writer. (Solin. 5. § 24; FazelL p. 262; Ferrara, /. c. p. 44; Smyth's Sicily, p. 213.)

Among the numerous distinguished citizens to whom Agrigentum gave birth, the most conspicuous is the philosopher Empedocles : among his contemporaries we may mention the rhetorician Polus, and the physician Acron. Of earlier date than these was the comic poet Deinolochus, the pupil, but at the same time the rival, of Epicharmus. Philinus, the historian of the First Punic War, is the latest writer of eminence, who was a native of Agrigentum.

The extant architectural remains of Agrigentum have been already noticed in speaking of its ancient edifices. Besides these, numerous fragments of buildings, some of Greek and others of Roman date, are scattered over the site of the ancient city: and great numbers of sepulchres have been excavated, some in the plain below the city, others within its w;ills. The jointed vases found in these tombs greatly exceed in number and variety those discovered in any other Sicilian city, and rival those of Campania and Apulia.

Hut with this exception comparatively few works of art have been discovered. A sarcophagus of marble, now preserved in the cathedral of Girgenti, on which is represented the story of Phaedra and Hippolytus, has been greatly extolled by many travellers, but its merits are certainly over-rated.

There exist under the hill occupied by the modem city extensive catacombs or excavations in the rock, which have been referred by many writers to the ancient Sieanians, or ascribed to Daedalus. It is probable that, like the very similar excavations at Syracuse, they were, in fact, constructed merely in the process of quarrying stone for building purposes.

The coins of Agrigentum, which are very numerous and of beautiful workmanship, present as their common type an eagle on the one side and a crab on the other. The one here figured, on which the eagle is represented as tearing a hare, belongs un

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doubtodly to the most nourishing period of Agrtgentine history, that immediately preceding the siege and capture of the city by the Carthaginians, B. c. 406. Other coins of the same period have a quadriga on the reverse, in commemoration of their victories at the Olympic games. [E. H. B.]

AGRI'NIUM ('A-ypiViof), a town of Aetolia, situated towards the XE. of Aetolia, near the Aehelous. Its position is quite uncertain. From its name wo might conjecture that it was a town of the Agraei; but the narrative in Poly bins (v. 7) would imply that it was not so far north. In B.C. 314 we find Agrinium in alliance with the Aearaanians, when Cassander marched to the assistance of the latter against the Aetolians. As soon as Cassander returned to Macedonia, Agrinium was besieged by the Aetolians,and capitulated; but the Aetolians treacherously put to death the greater part of the inhabitants (Diod. xix. 67, 68; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 156.)

AGKIO'PHAGI (PeripL Mar. Er. p. 2), were the same people as the Crcopbagi or flesh-eaters of Acthiopia Troglodytica. In summer they drove their herds down to the pastures of the Astaboras; in the rainy season they returned to the Aethiopian mountains east of that river. As their name and diet imply they were hunters and herdsmen. [ae

THIOPIA.] [W. B. 1).]

AGYLLA. [caere.]

AGY'KIQM ('Ayuptav; Eth. 'Ayvpivaios Agyrinensis), a city of the interior of Sicily now called S. FUippo dArgirb. It was situated on the summit of a steep and lofty hill, between Enna and Centuripa, and was distant 18 lioman miles from the former, and 12 from the latter. ( Tali. Pent. The Itin. Ant. p. 93, erroneously gives only 3 for the former distance.) It was regarded as one of the most ancient cities of Sicily, and according to the mythical traditions of the inhabitants was visited by Heracles on his wanderings, who was received by the inhabitants with divine honours, and instituted various sacred rites, which continued to be observed in the days of Diodorus. (Diod. iv. 24.) Historically speaking, it appears to have been a Sicelian city, and did not receive a Greek colony. It is first mentioned in n. c. 404, when it was under the government of a prince of the name of Agyris, who was on terms of friendship and alliance with Dionysius of Syracuse, and assisted him on various occasions. Agyris extended his dominion over many of the neighbouring towns and fortresses of the interior, so as to become the most powerful prince in Sicily after Dionysius himself, and the city of Agyrium is said to have been at this time so wealthy and populous as to contain not less than 20,000 citizens. (Diod. xiv. 9, 78, 95.) During the invasion of the Carthaginians under Mago in n. c. 392, Agyris continued steadfast to the alliance of Dionysius, and contributed essential service against the Carthaginian general. (Id. xiv. 95, 96.) From this time we hear no more of Agyris or his city during the reign of Dionysius, but in B. C 339 we find Agyrium under the yoke of a despot named A]*iIloniades, who was compiled by Timoleon to abdicate his power. The inhabitants were now declared Syracusan citizens: 10.000 new colonists received allotments in its extensive and fertile territory, and the city itself was adorned with a magnificent theatre and other public buildings. (Diod. xvi. 82, 83.)

At a later period it became subject to Phintins, king of Agrigentum: but was one of the first cities

i yoke, and a few years afterwards we find the Agyrinaeans on friendly terms with Hicron king of > "i' ■ ise, for wh:oh they wen? rewarded by the gift of half the territory that hud belonged to Ameselum. (Diod. xxii. Exc. Hoesch. pp. 495,499.) Under the Roman government they continued to be a flourishing and wealthy community, and Cicero speaks of Agyrium as one of the most considerable cities of Sicily. Its wealth was chiefly derived from the fertility of its territory in com: which previous to the arrival of Verrcs found employment for 250 \ (aratores), a number dimiiiished by the ex[ of his praetorship to no more than 80. (Cic. Yerr. iii. 18, 27—31, 51, 52.) From this period we have little further notice of it, in ancient times. It is classed by Pliny among the "populi stipendiarii" of Scaly, and the name is found both in Ptolemy and the Itineraries. In the middle ages it became celebrated for a church of St. Philip with a miraculous altar, from whence the modern name of the town is derived. It became in consequence a great resort of pilgrims from all parts of the island, and is still a considerable place, with the title of a city and above 6000 inhabitanU. (Plin. iii. 8.14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 13; FazeiL dt Reb. SicuL vol. i. p. 435; Ortolani, Diz. Gvyr. dtUa Sicitia, p. 111.)

The historian Diodorus Siculus was a native of Agyrinro, and has preserved to us several particulars concerning his native town. Numerous memorials were preserved there of the pretended visit of Heracles: the impression of the feet of his oxen was still fchown in the rock, and a lake or pool four stadia in circumference was believed to have been excavated by him. A Tcmenos or sacred grove iu the neighbourhood of the city was consecrated to Geryones, and another to lolaus, which was an object of peculiar veneration: and annual games and sacrifices were celebrated in honour both of tliat hero and of Heracles himself. (Diod. i. 4, iv. 24.) At a later period TimoleoQ was the chief benefactor of the city, where he constructed several temples, a Bouleuterion and Agora, as well as a theatre which Diodorus tells us was the finest in all Sicily, after that of Syracuse, (Id. xvi. 83.) Scarcely any remains of these buildings are now visible, the only vestiges of antiquity being a few undefined fragments of masonry. The ruined castle on the summit of the hill, attributed by wane writers to the Greeks, is a work of the Saracens i the tenth century. (Amico, ad Fazell. p. 440; Topogr. Sic. vul. i. p. 22.) [E. H. B.]



AHARNA, a town of Etruria, mentioned only by Livy (x. 25) during the campaign of Fabius in that country, B.g 295. He affords no clue to its politico, which is utterly unknown. Cluverius and other writers have supposed it to be the same with Akxa, but this seems scarcely reconcilable with the cucum&tances of the campaign. (Cluver. Hoi p. 626.) [E. H. B.]

ALAS or AEAS (Atas Spot, Ptol. iv. 5. § 14;

", was a headland of the limestone

range which separates Upi-er Egypt from the Bed Sea. It was in the parallel of Thebes, and S. of the modern Koseir (Philoteras), in lat. 29}. The district occupied by the Icthyophagi commenced a little to the north of the headland of Aias. [W. B. D.]

ALABANDA H 'AAdgocJa, To. 'AAa^Sa: Etk. 'A\a€avteOs} Alabandeus, Alabandensis, Alabandenus: Adj. Alabandicus), a city of Caria, was situated 160 stadia S. of Tralles, and was separated from the plain of Mylasa by a mountain tract. Strabo describes it as lying at the foot of two hills (as some read the passage), which are so close together as to present the appearance of an ass with its panniers on. The modern site is doubtful; but ArabHiMd) on a large branch of the Maeander, now called the Tt/iina, which joint that river on the S. bank, is supposed by Leake to represent Alabanda; and the nature of the ground corresponds well enough with Strabo's description. The Tshina may probably be the Marsyas of Herodotus (v. 118). There are the remains of a theatre and many other buildings on this site; but very few inscriptions. Alabanda was noted for the luxurious habits of the citizens. Under the Roman empire it was the seat of a Conventus Juridicus or court house, and one of the most flourit-hmg towns of the province of Asia. A stone called *' lapis Alabandicus," found in the neighbourhood, was fusible (Plin. xxxvi. 8. s. 13), and used fur making glass, and for glazing vessels.

Stephanus mentions two cities of the name o{ Alabanda in Caria, but it does not appear that any other writer mentions two. Herodotus, however (vii. 195), speaks of Alabanda in Caria (rwf iv rfj Kap/p), which is the Aliibanda of Strabo. Tho words of description added by Herodotus seem to imply that there was another city of the name; and in fact he speaks, in another passage (viii. 136), of Alabanda, a large city of Phrygia. This Alabanda of Phrygia cannot be. the town on the Tshttw, for Phrygia never extended so far as there. [G. L.]

ALABAS'ITtA or ALABASTliON ('AAaffatrTptf, 'AxdSwTTpvv mSAis, Ptol. iv. 5. § 59; Plin. v. 9 s. 11, xxxvii. 8. s. 32), a city of Egypt, whose site is differently stated by Pliny and Ptolemy. Pliny places it in Upper Egypt; Ptolemy in the lleptanomis. It would accordingly be either south or north of the Mons Alabastrites. It was doubtless connected with the alabaster quarries of that mountain. If Alabastra stood in the Heptanomis, it was an inland town, connected with the Nile by one of the many roads which pervade the region between that river and the Arabian hills. [\V. B. D]

ALABASTRITES MONS ('AXaStxnptvby opos, Ptol. iv. 5. § 27), formed a portion of the Hinestono rocks which run westward from the Arabian hills into Upper and Middle Egypt. This upland ridgo or spur was to the east of the city of Hermopolis Magna, in lat. 27J, and gave its name to the town of Alabastra. It contained large quarries of the beautifully veined and white alabaster which the Egyptians so largely employed for their sarcophagi and other works of art. The grottoes in tliis ridge are by some writers supposed to occupy the site of the city Alabastra (see preceding article), but this was probably further from the mountain. They were first visited by Sir Gardner Wilkinson in 1824. The grottoes of Koum-el-Akmar are believed to be tho same with the ancient excavations. They contain the names of some of the earliest Egyptian kings, but are inferior in size and splendour to the similar grottoes at Benihassan. Tho sculptures in these catacombs are chiefly devoted to military subjects — processions, in which the king, mounted on a chariot, is followed by his soldiers on foot, or in war-cliariots, with distinctive weapons and standards. The monarch is also represented as borne in a kind of open litter or shrine, and advancing with his offerings to the temple of Phtaa. His attendants seem, from their dress, to belong to the military caste alone. (Wilkinson, Topography of Thebes, p. 386.; Mod. Egypt, vol ii.p.43.) [W. B. D.]thero-Lacones, containing temples of Dionysus and Artemis. This town was distant 30 stadia from Gerenia, but its site is unknown. (Faus. iii. 21. §7, iii. 26. § 11.)

ALABIS, ALABUS or ALABON ('AAafe^, Steph. Bra Diod.; "AKaSos, Ptol; Alabis, SJL ItaL xiv, 227), a small river on the E. coast of Sicily, flowing into the Sinus Megarensis. Diodorus describes it as a considerable stream issuing from a large basin, of artificial construction, which was regarded as the work of Daedalus, and emptying itself after a short course into the sea. (Dial. iv. 78; Vib. Bequest p. 4.) This description exactly accords with that given by Cluverina of a stream called Lo Cantaro, which issues from a very copious source only half a mile from the coast, and flows into the sea just opposite the modern city of Augusta. Some traces of buildings were in his time still visible around the basin of its source. (Cluver. Sicil. p. 133; Fazell. vol. i. p. 158.) It is probable that the Abolus (*a€o\os) of Plutarch, on the banks of which Timoleon defeated Mamercus, the tyrant of Catana, in a pitched battle, is no other than the Alabus. (Plat. Timol. 34.) A town of the same name with the river is mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium (v. *AAoSw>'), but is not noticed by any other writer. [E. H. B.]

ALAESA or HALES A ("AXoiffo, Diod.; Strab.; PtoL; Halesa, SiL Ital. xiv. 218; Halesini, Cic. Plin.), a city of Sicily, situated near the north coast of the island, between Cephaloedium and Calacta. It was of Siculian origin, and its foundation is related by Diodorus, who informs us that in B. C. 403 the inhabitants of Herbita (a Sicilian city), having concluded peace with Dionysius of Syracuse, their ruler or chief magistrate Archonides determined to quit the city and found a new colony, which he settled partly with citizens of Serbia, and partly with mercenaries and other strangers who collected around him through enmity towards Dionysius. He gave to this new colony the name of Alaesa, to which the epithet Archonidea was frequently added for the purpose of distinction. Others attributed the foundation of the city, but erroneously, to the Carthaginians. (Diod. xiv. 16.) It quickly rose to prosperity by maritime commerce: and at the commencement of the First Punic War was one of the first of tho Sicilian cities to make its submission to the Romans, to whose alliance it continued steadily faithful. It was doubtless to its conduct in this respect, and to the services that it was able to render to the Romans during their wars in Sicily, that it was indebted for the peculiar privilege of retaining its own laws and independence, exempt from all taxation: — an advantage enjoyed by only five cities of Sicily. (Diod. xiv. 16, xxiii. Exc. H. p. 501; Cic. Verr. ii. 49, 69, iii. 6.) In consequence of this advantageous position it rose rapidly in wealth and prosperity, and became one of the most flourishing cities of Sicily. On one occasion its citizens, having been involved in disputes among themselves concerning the choice of the senate, C. Claudius Pulcher was sent, at their own request in B.C. 95, to regulate the matter by a law, which he did to

the satisfaction of all parties. But their privU leges did not protect them from the exactions of Verrcs, who imposed on them an enormous contribution both in corn and money." (Id. to. 73—75; Ep. ad Faro. xiii. 32.) The city appears to have subsequently declined, and had sunk in the time of Augustus to the condition of an ordinary municipal town (Castell. Inter, p. 27): but was still one of the few places on the north coast of Sicily which Strabo deemed worthy of mention. (Strab. vi. p. 272.) Pliny also enumerates it among the "stipendiariae civitates " of Sicily. (//. N. iii. 8.)

Great difference of opinion has existed with regard to the site of Alaesa, arising principally from the discrepancy in the distances assigned by Strabo, the Itinerary, and the Tabula. Some of these are undoubtedly corrupt or erroneous, but on the whole there can be no doubt that its situation is correctly fixed by Cluverius and Torremuzza at the spot marked by an old church called Sta. Maria le Palate, near the modern town of Tulsa, and above the river Pettineo. This site coincides perfectly with the expression of Diodorus (xiv. 16), that the town was built "on a hill about 8 stadia from the sea:" as well as with the distance of eighteen M. P. from Cephaloedium assigned by the Tabula. (The Itinerary gives 28 by an easy error.) The ruins described by Fazello as visible there in his time were such as to indicate the site of a large city, and several inscriptions have been found on the spot, some of them referring distinctly to Alaesa. One of these, which is of considerable length and importance, gives numerous local details concerning the divisions of land, &c, and mentions repeatedly a river Alaesus, evidently the same with the HaLksus of Columella (x. 268), and which is probably the modern Pettineo; as well as a fountain named Ipyrrha. This is perhaps the same spoken of by Solinus (5. § 20) and Priscian {Pcrteges. 500), but without mentioning its name, as existing in the territory of Halesa, the waters of which were swolu and agitated by the sound of music. Fazello describes the ruins as extending from the sea-shore, on which were the remains of a large building (probably baths), for the space of more than a mile to the summit of a hill, on which were the remains of the citadel. About 3 miles further inland was a largo fountain (probably the Ipyrrha of the inscription), with extensive remains of the aqueduct that conveyed its waters to the city. All trace of these ruins has now disappeared, except some portions of the aqueduct: but fragments of statues, as well as coins and inscriptions, have been frequently discovered on the spot. (Fazell. de Reb. Sic. ix. 4; Cluver. Sicil. pp. 288—290; Boeckh, C. I. torn. iii. pp. 612—621; Castclli, Hist. Alaesae, Pan arm. 1753; Id. Inscr. Sic. p. 109; Biscari, Viaggio in Sieilia, p. 243.) J. H. B.]

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ALALCO'MENAE. 1. (*AAaA*o/«i/a/, Strab., Pans.; 'AXaXxofitviov, Steph. B.; Eth. *A\a\Ko, .-, vs, 'AAo.U.iufral»^ '.\\a\Kou*vios: SuUruirf),

in ancient town in Boeotia, situated at the foot of Mt. Tilphossium, a little to the E. of Coroneia, and i ear the lake Copais. It was celebrated for the worship of Athena, who was said to have been born ihere, and who is hence called Alalcomeneis ('AAaA* .-u-viiU) in Homer. The temple of the goddess stood, at a little distance from the town, on the Triton, a small stream flowing into the Like Copais. Beyond the modern village of Sulindri, the site uf Alalcomenae, are some polygonal foundations, apparently those of a single building, which are probably remains of the peribolus of the temple. Both the town and the temple were plundered by Sulla, who carried off the statne of the goddess. (Horn. IL iv. 8; Pans. U. 3. § 4, ix. 33. §5, seq.; Strab. pp. 410, 411, 413; Steph. B. 5. v.; Leake, XorUirm Grv.ee, vol. ii. p. 135; Forchhammer, HeUenica, p. 185.)

2. Or Aucomkxae ('AAjco/ieva/), said to be a town in Ithaca (Plut. Q'jaesL Graec. 43; Steph. B. i. F.), or in the small island Asteris in the neighbourhood of Ithaca. ^ Strab. p. 456.)

ALAXIA. [auebia.]

ALANDER, a river of Phrygia (Liv. xxxviii. 15, 18), which is twice mentioned by Livy, in his account of the march of Cn. Manlius. It was probably a branch of the Sangarius, as Hamilton {Researches in Asia Minor, vol. i. pp. 458, 467) conjectures, and the stream winch flows in the valley of Beiad; but he gives no modern name to it. [G.L.]

ALA'NI ('AAcwoi, 'AAoDvoi), a people, found both in Asia and in Europe, whose precise geographical positions and ethnographical relations are difficult to determine. They probably became first known to tbe Romans through the Mithridatic war, and the expedition of Pompey into the countries about the Caucasus; when they were found in the B. part of Caucasus, in the region which was called

Albania by the 1: but Alania by Greek writers,

and where Alani are found down to a late period of the Greek empire. (Joseph. Ant. Jud. xviii. 4. s. 6; Lucan, x. 454; Procop. Pers. ii. 29, Goth. iv. 4; Const. Porph. de A<lm. Imp. 42.) Valerius Flaccus (Arg. vi. 42) mentions them among the people of the Caucasus, near the Heniochi. Ammianus Marcellinus, who tells us more about the Alani than any other ancient writer, makes Julian encourage his soldiers by the example of Pompey, "who, breaking his way through the Albani and the Massagetae, whom we now call Alani, saw the waters of the Caspian" (xxiii. 5). In the latter half of the first century we hear of the Alani in two very remote positions. On the one hand, Jceephus, who describes them as Scythians dwelling about the river TanaT.s (Don) and the Lake Maeotis (Sea of Azov), relates how, in the time of Vespasian, being permitted by the king of Hyrcania to traverse '* the pass which Alexander had closed with iron gates/' they ravaged Media and Armenia, and returned home again. On the other hand, they are mentions) by Seneca (Thgest. 629) as dwelling on the later (Danube); *nd Martial (Epigr. viL 30) expressly calls them Sarmalbns; and Pliny (iv, 12. a, 25) ineitioiw Alani and Iiuxalaui (i. e. Rws

Alans) among the generic names applieu at different times to the inhabitants of the European Scythia or Siirmatia. Thus there were Alani both in Asia, in the Caucasus, and in Europe, on the Maeotis and the Euxine; and also, according to Josephus, between these two positions, in the great plains N. of the Caucasus; so that they seem to have been spread over all the S. part of Russia in Europe. Under Hadrian and the Antonines we find the European Alani constantly troubling the frontier of the Danube (AeL Spart. Had. 4. s. 6; Jul. Capit. Ant. Pi. 6. s. 8, Marc. 22. where they are mentioned with the Roxalani, Bastarnae, and Peucini); while the Alani of the E. again overran Media and Armenia, and threatened Cappadocia. (Dion Cass. lxix. 15.) On this occasion the historian Arrian, who was governor of Cappadocia under Hadrian, composed a work on the Tactics to be observed against the Alani (&era£ij Kot' 'AAavcif), which is mentioned by Photius (Corf, lvili. p. 15, a., Bekker), and of which a considerable fragment is preserved (Arrian. ed. Diibner, in Didot's Script. Graec. Bibi pp. 250 —253). Their force consisted in cavalry, like that of the European Alani (the ToXvtinroij tpZKov 'AAai'ft'c of Dionysias Periegetes, v. 308) and they fought without armour for themselves or their horses. As another mark of resemblance, though Arrian speaks of them as Scythians, a name which wan vaguely used in his time for all the barbarians of NW. Asia (cont. Alanos, 30), he speaks of them elsewhere (Tact. 4) in close connection with the Sauromatae (Sarmatians), as practising the same mode of fighting for which the Polish lancers, descendants of the Sarmatians, have been renowned. Ptolemy, who wrote under the Antonines, mentions the European Alani, by the name of 'AAcuJj'oi XkvOat, as one of the seven chief peoples of Sarmatia Europaea, namely, the Vencdae, Peucini, Bastarnae, Iazyges, Roxolani, Hamaxobii, and Alauni Scythac; of whom he places the Iazyges and Roxolani along the whole shore of the Maeotis, and then the last two further inland (iii. 5. § 19). Pie also mentions (ii. 14. § 2) Alauni in the W. of Pannonia, no doubt a body who, in course of invasion, had established themselves on the Roman side of the Danube. Ptolemy speaks of a Mt. Alaunus (to 'kXuvvov fipos) in Sarmatia, and Eustathius (ad Dion. Perieg. 305) says that the Alani probably derived their name from the Alanos, a mountain of Sarmatia. It is hard to find any range of mountains answering to Ptolemy's ML Alaunus near the position he assigns to the Alauni: some geographers suppose the term to describe no mountains, properly so called, but the elevated tract of land which forms the watershed between the Dniester and the Dnieper. The European Alani are found in the geographers who followed Ptolemy. Dionysius Periegetes (v. 305) mentions them, first vaguely, among the peoples N. of the Palus Maeotis, with the Germans, Sarmatians, Getae, Bastarnae, and Dacians; and then, more specifically, he says (308) that their land extends N. of the Tauri, u where are the Melanchlacni, and Gcloni, and Hippemolgi, and Neuri, and Agathyrsi, where the Borysthenes mingles with the Euxine." Some suppose the two passages to refer to different bodies of the Alani. (Bernhardy, ad loc.) They are likewise called Sarmatians by Marcian of Heracleia (ray 'AAavwv 'S.apfjurrwv tOvos: Peripl. p. 100, ed- Miller; Hudson, Geog. Mm. vol. i. p. 56). The Asiatic Alani (*A\avol "ZnvOat) am plnfvd by Ptolemy (vi. 14. § 9) in the extreme N. of Sovthia within the Imaus, near the "Unknown Land;" and here, too, we find mountains of the same name (.a 'AAavd 6prj, §§ 3, 11), E. of the Hyperborei M»; he is generally supposed to mean the N. part of the Ural chain, to which he erroneously gives a direction W. and E.


Our fullest information respecting the Alanl is derived from Ammianus Marcellinus, who flourished during the latter half of the fourth century (about 350—400). He first mentions them with the Roxolani, the Iazyges, the Maeotae, and the Iaxamatae, as dwelling on the shores of the Palus Maeotis (xxii. 8. § 30); and presently, where the Hiphaci M. subside towards the Maeotis, he places the Arimphaei, and near them the Massagetae, Alani, and Sargetae, with many other peoples little known (obscuri, quorum nec vocabula nobis sunt no (a, nec mores). Again (§ 48) on the NW. of the Euxine, about the river Tyres (Dniester'), he places "the European Alani and the Costobocae, and innumerable tribes of Scythians, which extend to lands beyond human knowledge j* a small portion of whom live by agriculture; the rest wander through vast solitudes and get their food like wild beasts; their habitations and scanty furniture are placed on waggons made of the bark uf trees; and they migrate at pleasure, waggons and all. His more detailed account of the people is given when he comes to relate that greater westward movement of the Huns which, in the reign of Valcns, precipitated the Goths upon the Roman empire, A. I>. 376. After describing the Huns (xxxi. 2), ho says that they advanced as far as "the Alani, the ancient Massagetae," of whom he undertakes to give a better account than had as yet been published. From the Ister to the TanaTs dwell the Sauromatae; and on the Asiatic side of the TanaTs the Alani inhabit the vast solitudes of Scythia; having their name from that of their mountains (ex montium appellations cognominatt, which some understand to mean that Alani comes from a/ra, a word signifying a mountain). By their conquests they extended their name, as well as their power, over the neighbouring nations; just as the Persian name was spread. He then describes these neighbouring nations; the Neuri, inland, near lofty mountains; the Budini and Geloni; the Agathyrsi; the Melanchlaeni and Anthropophagi; from whom a tract of uninhabited land extended E.wards to the Sinae. At another part the Alani bordered on the Amazons, towards the E. (the Ama'.ons being placed by him on the TanaTs and the Caspian), whence they were scattered over many peoples throughout Asia, as far as the Ganges. Through these immense regions, but often far apart from one another, the various tribes of the AJani lived a nomade life: and it was only in process of time that they came to be called by the same name. He then describes their manners. They neither have houses nor till the land; they feed on flesh and milk, and dwell on waggons. When they corne to a pasture they make a camp, by placing their waggons in a circle; and they move on again when the forage is exhausted. Their flocks and herds go with them, and their chief care is for their horses. They are never reduced to want, for the country through which they wander consists of grassy fields, with fruit-trees interspersed, and watered by many rivers. The weak, from age or sex, stay by the waggons and perform the lighter offices; while the young men are trained together from their first boyhood to the practice of horsemanship and a sound knowledge

the art of war. They despise going on foot. Ill person they are nearly all tall and handsome; their hair is slightly yellow; they are terrible for the tempered sternness of their eyes. The lightness of their armour aids their natural swiftness; a circumstance mentioned also, as we have seen, by Arrian, and by Joseph us (B.J. vii. 7. §4), from whom we find that they used the lasso in battle: Lucian, too, describes them as like the Scythians in their arms and their speech, but with shorter hair (Toxaris, 51, vol. ii. p 557). In general, proceeds Ammianus, they resemble the Huns, but are less savage in form and manners. Their plundering and hunting excursions had brought them to the Maeotis and the Cimmerian Bosporus, and even into Armenia and Media; and it is to their life in those parts that the description of Ammianus evidently refers. Danger and war was their delight; death in battle bliss; the loss of fife through decay or chance stanij»ed disgrace on a man's memory. Their greatest glory was to kill a foe in battle, and the scalps of their slain enemies were hung to their horses for trappings. They frequented neither temple nor shrine; but, fixing a naked sword in the ground, with barbaric rites, they worshipped, in this symbol, the god of war and of their country for the time being. They practised divination by bundles of rods, which they released with secret incantations, and (it would seem) from the way the sticks fell they presaged the future. Slavery was unknown to them: all were of noble birth. Even their judges were selected for their long-tried pre-eminence in war. Several of these particulars are confirmed by Jornandes (de Rebus Gtticis, 24). Claudian also mentions the Alani as dwelling on the Maeotis, and connects them closely with the Massagetae (In Rufin. i. 312):

"Massagctes, caesamque bibens Macotida Alanus.'* Being vanquished by the Huns, who attacked them in the plains E. of the TanaTs, the great body of the Alani joined their conquerors in their invasion of the Gothic kingdom of Ilermanric (a. D. 375), of which the chief part of the European Alani were already the subjects. In the war which soon broke out between the Goths and Romans in Maesia, so many of the Huns and Alani joined tho Goths, that they are distinctly mentioned among the invaders who were defeated by Theodosius, A. D. 379—382. Henceforth we find, in the W., the Alani constantly associated with the Goths and with the Vandals, so much so that Procopius calls them a tribe of the Goths (TorQiKhv tQvos: Vand. i. 3). But their movements are more closely connected with those of the Vandals, in conjunction with whom they are said to have settled iu Pannonia; and, retiring thence through fear of the Goths, the two peoples invaded Gaul in 406, and Spain in 409. (Procop. I. c.; Jornandes, de Reb. Get. 31; Clinton, F. Jt s. a.; comp. Gibbon, c. 30, 31.)

In 411 the Alani are found in Gaul, acting with the Burgundians, Alamanni, and Franks. (Clinton, s. a.) As the Goths advanced into Spain, 414, the Alani and Vandals, with the Siliugi, retreated before them into Lusitania and Baetica. (Clinton, s. a. 416.) In the ensuing campaigns, in which the Gothic king Wallia conquered Spain (418), the Alans lost their king At aces, and were so nxluced in numbers that they gave up their separate nationality, and transferred their allegiance to Gunderic, the king of the Vandals. (Clinton, s. a. 418.) After Gunderic's death, in 42S, the allied barbarian*"

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