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were divided into 12 hordes, each governed by its own chief, but all, in Strabo's time, subject to one king. Among their tribes were the Legae (Afryeu), whose name is still preserved in Legkistan, and Gelae (tt?Aai) in the mountains on the N. and NW. (Strab. p. 503), and the Gerrhi (r4$oi) on the river Gerrhus (Ptol.).

The Albanians worshipped a deity whom Strabo identifies with Zeus, and the Sun, but above all the Moon, whose temple was near the frontier of Iberia. Her priest ranked next to the king: and had under his command a rich and extensive sacred domain, and a body of temple-slaves (UpStiovkoi), many of whom prophesied in fits of frenzy. The subject of such a paroxysm was seized as he wandered alone through the forests, and kept a year in* the hands of the priests, and then offered as a sacrifice to Selene; and auguries were drawn from the manner of his death: the rite is fully described by Strabo.

The origin of the Albanians is a much disputed point. It was by Pompcy's expedition into the Caucasian regions in pursuit of Mithridates (b. C. 65) that they first became known to the Romans and Greeks, who were prepared to find in that whole region traces of the Argonautic voyage. Accordingly the people were said to have descended from Jason and his comrades (Strab. pp. 45, 503, 526; Plin. vi 13. s. 15; Solin. 15); and Tacitus relates (-4nn.vi. 34) that the Iberi and Albani claimed descent from the Thessalians who accompanied Jason, of whom and of the oracle of Phrixus they preserved many legends, and that they abstained from offering rams in sacrifice. Another legend derived them from the companions of Hercules, who followed him out of Italy when he drove away the oxen of Geryon; and hence the Albanians greeted the soldiers of Pompey as their brethren. (Justin, xlii. 3.) Several of the later writers regard them as a Scythian people, akin to the Massfigetae, and identical with the Alani; and it is still disputed whether they were, or not, original inhabitants of the Caucasus. [alani.]

Of the history of Albania there is almost nothing to be said. The people nominally submitted to Pompey, but remained really independent.

Ptolemy mentions several cities of Albania, but none of any consequence except AJbana (Dcrbend), which commanded the great pass on the shore of the Caspian called the Albaniae or Caspiae Pylae {Pass of Derbend). It is formed by a NE. spur of Caucasus, to which some geographers give the name of Ceraunius M., which Strabo applied to the E. part of Caucasus itself. It is sometimes confounded with the inland pass, called Caucasiae Pylae. The Gangara or Gaetara of Ptolemy is supposed to be Bakou, famous for its naphtha springs. Pliny mentions Cabalaca, in the interior, as the capital. Respecting the districts of Caspiene and Cambysene, which some of the ancient geographers mention as belonging to Albania, see the separate articles. (Ukert, vol. iii. pt. 2, pp. 561, &c; Georgii, vol. i. pp. 151, &c.) [P. S.]

ALBA'NIAE PORTAE. [albania, Caspiae


ALBA'NUM ('Kk$av6v), a town of Latium, situated on the western border of the Lacus Albanus, and on the Via Appia, at the distance of 14 miles from Rome. It is still called Albano. There is no trace of the existence of a town upon this spot in early times, but its site formed part of the territory of Alba Longa, which continued long after the fidl of that city to retain the name of " Albamui

Ager." (Cic. tie Leg. Agr. ii. 25.) During the latter period of the republic, it became a favourite resort of the wealthy Roman nobles, who constructed villas here on a magnificent scale. We read of such as belonging to Pompey, to Clodius — who was killed by Milo close to his own villa—to Brutus and to Curio. (Cic. Or. in Pison. 31, pro Mil 10, 19, 20, Ep. ad Att vii. 5, ix. 15, de Oral. ii. 55; Plut. Pomp. 53.) Of these the villa of Pompey, called according to the Latin idiom "Albanum Pompeii," appears to have been the most conspicuous, and is repeatedly alluded to by Cicero. It fell after the death of Pompey into the hands of Dolabella (Cic Philipp. xiii. 5), but appears to have ultimately passed into those of Augustus, and became a favourite place of resort both with him and his successors. (Suet. Ner. 25; Dion Cass. liii. 32, lviii. 24.) It was, however, to Domitian that it owed its chief aggrandisement; that emperor made it not merely a place of retirement, but his habitual residence, where he transacted public business, exhibited gladiatorial shows, and even summoned assemblies of the senate. (Suet. Domit. 4, 19; Dion Cass. Ixvi. 9, lxvii. I; Juv. Sat. iv.; Ore 11. Inscr. No. 3318.) Existing remains sufficiently attest the extent and magnificence of the gardens and edifices of all descriptions with which he adorned it; and it is probably from his time that we may date the permanent establishment there of a detachment of Praetorian guards, who had a regular fortified camp, as at Rome. The proximity of this camp to the city naturally gave it much importance, and we find it repeatedly mentioned by succeeding writers down to the time of Constantino. (Ael. Spart, CaracaU. 2; Jul. Capit. Afaximin. 23; Hcrodian. viii. 5.) It is doubtless on account of this fortified camp that we find the title of " Arx Albans" applied to the imperial residence of Domitian. (Tac. Agric. 45; Juv. Sat. iv. 145.)

We have no distinct evidence as to the period when the town of Albanum first arose, but there can be little doubt that it must have begun to grow up as soon as the place became an imperial residence and permanent military station. We first find it mentioned in ecclesiastical records during the reign of Constantine, and in the fifth century it became the see of a bishop, which it has continued ever since, (Nibby, vol. i. p. 79.) Procopius, in the sixth century, mentions it as a city (irrfA«r^o), and one of the places occupied by Belisarius for the defence of Rome. (B. G. ii. 4.) It is now but a small town, though retaining the rank of a city, with about 5000 inhabitants, but is a favourite place of resort in summer with the modern Roman nobles, as it was with their predecessors, on account of the salubrity and freshness of the air, arising from its elevated situation, and the abundance of shade furnished by the neighbouring woods.

There still remain extensive ruins of Roman times; the greater part of which unquestionably belong to the villa of Domitian, and its appurtenances, including magnificent Thermae, an Amphitheatre, and various other remains. Some fragments of reticulated masonry are supposed, by Nibby, to have belonged to the villa of Pompey, and the extensive terraces now included in the gardens of the Villa Barberini, between Albano and Casid Gandolfo, though in their present state belonging undoubtedly to the imperial villa, may probably be based upon the " insanae substructiones " of Clodius alluded to by Cicero. {Pro Mil 20.) Besides the Mons Albanus in the singular, as designating the highest peak. The whole mass is clearly of volcanic origin, and may be conceived as having once formed a vast crater, of which the lofty ridge now called Monte ArUmo constituted the southern side, while the heights of Mt. Algidus, and those occupied by Rocca Priore and Tusculum continued the circle on the E. and NE. Towards the sea the original mountain wall of this crater has given way, and has been replaced by the lakes of Albano and iVenw, themselves probably at one time separate vents of volcanic eruption. Within this outer circle rises an inner height, of a somewhat conical form, the proper Mons Albanus, which presents a repetition of the same formation, having its own smaller crater surrounded on three sides by steep mountain ridges, while the fourth (that turned towards Rome) has no such barrier, and presents to view a green mountain plain, commonly known as the Campo di Annibalc, from the belief—wholly unsupported by any ancient authority—that it was at one time occupied by the Carthaginian general. The highest of the surrounding summits, which rises to more than 3000 feet above the level of the sea, is the culminating Print of the whole group, and was occupied in ancient times by the temple of Jupiter Latiaris. (Cic. pro Mil 31; Lucao. i. 198.) It is from hence that Virgil represents Juno as contemplating the contest between the Trojans and Latins (Aen. xii. 134), and the magnificent prospect which it commands over the whole of the surrounding country renders it peculiarly fit for such a station, as well as the natural site for the central sanctuary of the Latin nation. For the same reason we find it occupied as a military post on the alarm of the sudden advance of Hannibal upon Itome. (Liv. xxvi. 9.)


There can !*■ no doubt that the temple of Jupiter Latiaris* had become the religious centre and place of meeting of the Latins long before the dominion of Rome: and its connection with Alba renders it almost certain that it owed its selection for this purpose to the predominance of that city. Tarquiuius Supcrbus, who is represented by the Roman annalists as first instituting this observance (Dion. Hal. iv. -ill), probably did no more than assert for Rome that presiding authority which had previously been enjoyed by Alba. The annual sacrifices on the Alban Mount at the Feriae Latinae continued to be celebrated long after the dissolution of the Latin league, and the cessation of their national assemblies; even in the days of Cicero and Augustus the decayed Munieipia of Latium still sent deputies to receive their share of the victim immolated on their common behalf, and presented with primitive simplicity their offerings of lambs, milk, and cheese. (Liv. v. 17, xxi. 63, xxxii. 1; Cic. pro Plane. 9, de Divlu. i. 11; Dion. Hal. iv. 49; Suet. Claud. 4.)

Another custom which was doubtless derived from a more ancient period, but retained by the Romans, was that of celebrating triumphs on the Alban Mount, a practice which was, however, resorted to by Roman generals only when they failed in obtaining the honours of a regular triumph at Rome. The first person who introduced this mode of evading the authority of the senate, was C. Papi

* Concerning the forms, Latiaris and Latialis, see Orell. Onomast. vol. ii. p. 336; Ernest, ad Suet. Calig. 22.

rius Maso, who was consul in B. C. 231: a more illustrious example was that of Marcellus, after the capture of Syracuse, B. C. 211. Only five instances in all are recorded of triumphs thus celebrated. (Val. Max. iii. 6. § 5; Liv. xxvi. 21, xxxiii. 23, xlii. 21; Fast. Capit.)

The remains of the temple on the summit of the mountain were still extant till near the close of the last century, but were destroyed in 1783, when the church and convent which now occupy the site were rebuilt. Some of the massive blocks of peperino which formed the substruction may be still seen (though removed from their original site) in the walls of the convent and buildings annexed to it. The magnificence of the marbles and other architectural decorations noticed by earlier antiquarians, as discovered here, show that the temple must have been rebuilt or restored at a comparatively late period. (Piranesi, Antichtta di Albano; Nibby, JHntomi di Roma, vol. i. pp. 112, 113.) But though the temple itself has disapjx-ared, the Roman road which led up to it is still preserved, and, from the absence of all traffic, remains in the state of singular perfection. The polygonal blocks of hard basaltic lava, of which the pavement is composed, are fitted together with the nicest accuracy, while the 11 crepidines" or curb-stones are still preserved on each side, and altogether it presents by far the most perfect specimen of an ancient Roman road in its original state. It is only 8 feet in breadth, and is carried with much skill up the steep acclivity of the mountain. This road may lie traced down to the chesnut woods below Rocca di Papa: it appears to have passed by Palazzoh, where we find a remarkable monument cut in the face of the rock, which has been conjectured to be that of Cn. Cornelius Scipio, who died in B. c. 176. (Nibby, I. c. pp. 75, 114, 115; Gall, Top. of Rome, p. 32.)

Numerous prodigies are recorded by Roman writers as occurring on the Alban Mount: among these the falling of showers of stones is frequently mentioned, a circumstance which has been supposed by some writers to indicate that the volcanic energy of these mountains continued in historical times; but this suggestion is sufficiently disproved by historical, as well as geological, considerations. (Daubeny on Volcanoes, p. 169, seq. LE. H. B.]

A'LBICI, a barbaric people, as Caesar calls them (B. C. L 34), who inhabited the mountains above Massilia {Marseille). They were employed on board their vessels by the Massilienses to oppose Caesar's fleet, which was under the command of D. Brutus, and tliev fought bravely in the sea-fight off Massilia, B. c.*49 (Cacs. B. C. i. MO. the name of this people in Strabo is 'AASifij and 'AASlottcot (p. 203); for it does not seem probable that he means two peoples, and if he does mean two tribes, they are both mountain tribes, and in the same mountain tract. D'Anvillo infers that a place called Albiosc, which is about two leagues from Riez, in the department of Basses Alpcs, retains the traces of the name of this people. N. L.]

AL'BII, ALBA'NI MONTES (rd "AAfiia ip^, Struts, vii.p.314; To 'A\Gavbi> 6pos, Ptol. ii.l4.§ 1), was an eastern spur of Mount Carvancas, and the termination of the Carnic or Julian Alps on the confines of Ulyricum. The AJbii Montes dip down to the banks of the Save, and connect Mount Carvancas with Mount Cetius, inclosing Acmona, and forming the southern boundary of Pannonia. [W. B. D.~[


dora, about 10 m. further S. Nearly opposite to Albenga is a little island, called Gallinakia InSula, from its abounding in fowls in a half-wild state: it still retiiins the name of GaUinara. (Varr. l.c; Coluniell. nil. 2. § 2.) [E. H. B.]

A'LBIUM INTEME'LIUM or ALBINTEME'LIUM ("AKStov 'irrtfidkwff Strab.; 'AAfiix'Tfjuij\tov, Ptol.: Vintimiylia), a city on the coast of Liguria, situated at the foot of the Maritime Alps, at the mouth of the river Rutuba. It was the capital of the tribe of the Intetnelii, and was distant 16 Roman miles from the Portus Monocci (Monaco, Itin. Marit. p. 502). Strabo mentions it as a city of considerable size (p. 202), and we learn from Tacitus that it was of municipal rank. It was plundered by the troops of the emperor Otho, while resisting those of Yitellius, on which occasion the mother of Agricola lost her life. (Tac. Hist. ii. 13, Agr. 7.) According to Strabo (i. c), the name ol Albium applied to this city, as well as the capital of the Jngauni, was derived from their Alpine situ ation, and is connected with the Celtic word Alb of Alp. There is no doubt that in tins case also tlio full form is the older, hut the contracted name Aibmtemelium is already found in Tacitus, as well as in the Itineraries; in one of which, however, H is corrupted into Vintimilium, from whence comes the modem name of VtntimigUa. It is still a considerable town, with about 5000 inhabitants, and an episcopal see: but contains no antiquities, except a few Roman inscriptions.

It is situated at the mouth of the river Roja, tho Rutuba of Pliny and Lucan, a torrent of a formidable character, appropriately termed by the latter author "cavus," from the deep bed between precipitous banks which it has hollowed out for itself near its mouth. (Plin. /. c; Lucan. ii. 422.) [E.H.B.]

ALBUCELLA fAAtfswfAa: Villa Fasila), a city of the Vaccaei in llispania Tarraconensis (Itin. Ant.; Ptol.), probably the Arbocala ('Apgoi/KoATj) w hich is mentioned by l'olybins (iii. 14), Livy (xxi. 5), and Stephanns Byzantinus (j. r.), as the chief city of the Vaccaei, the taking of which, after an obstinate resistance, was one of Hannibal's first exploits in Spain, B. V. 218. [P. S.]

ALBULA. 1. The ancient name of the Tiber.


2. A small river of Picenum, mentioned only by Pliny (iii. 13. s. 18), who apjjcars to place it N. of the Truentus, but there is great difficulty in assigning its position with any certainty, and the text of Pliny is very corrupt: the old editions give AlBulates for the name of the river. [picencm.]

3. A small river or stream of sulphureous water near Tibur, flowing into the Anio. It rises in a , pool or small lake about a mile on the left of the modern road from Rome to Tivoli, but which was situated on the actual line of the ancient Via Tiburtina, at a di>tanee of 1G M. P. from Rome. (Tab. Peut.; Vitruv. viii. 3. § 2.) The name of Albula is applied to this stream by Vitruvius, Martial (i. 13. 2), and Statius (Sih. i. 3.75), but more commonly we find the source itself designated by the name of Albulae Aquae (to "A\§uv\a vSara, Strab. p. 208). The waters both of the lake and stream are strongly impregnated with sulphur, and w ere in great request among the Romans for their medicinal properties, so that they were frequently carried to Rome for tho use of baths: while exten>ive Thermae were erected near the lake itself, the ruins of which

[ are still visible. Their construction is commonly

•.scribed, but without authority, to Agrippa. The waters were not hot, like most sulphureous sources, but cold, or at least cool, their actual temperature being about 80° of Fahrenheit; but so strong is the sulphureous vapour that exhales from their surface as to give them the appearance alluded to by Martial, of " smoking." (Canaque sulphureis AIbula fumat aqws, L c.) The name was doubtless derived from the whiteness of the water: the lake is now commonly known as the Solfatara. (Plin. xxxi. 2. s. 6; Stab. I c.\ Paus. iv. 35. §10; Suet. Aug. 82, Ner. 31; Vitruv. /. c.) No allusion is found in ancient authors to the property possessed by these waters of incrusting all the vegetation on their banks with carbonate of lime, a process which goes on with such rapidity that great part of the lake itself is crusted over, and portions of the deposit thus formed, breaking off from time to time, give rise to little floating islands, analogous to those described by ancient writers in the Cutilian Lake. For the same reason the present channel of the stream lias required to be artificially excavated, through the mass of travertine which it had itself deposited. (Nibby, IHiUomi di Roma, vol. i. pp. 4—6; Gell, Top. of Rome, pp. 40, 41.)

It has been generally supposed that the Albunea of Horace and Virgil was identical with the AJbula, but there appear no sufficient grounds for this assumption: and it seems almost certain that the ** domus Albuueae resonant is " of the former( Carm. i. 7. 12) was the temple of the Sibyl at Tibur itself, in the immediate neighbourhood of the cascade [Ti nvit], while there are strong reasons for transferring the grove and oracle of Faunus, and the fountain of Albunea connected with them (Virg. Aen. vii. 82), to the neighbourhood of Ardea. [ardka.] [E. H. B.]

ALBUM PROMONTORIUM (Plin. v. 19. s. 17), was the western extremity of the mountain range Anti-Libanus, a few miles south of ancient Tyre (Palai-Tyrus). Between the Mediterranean Sea and the base of the headland Album ran a narrow road, in places not more than six feet in breadth, cut out of the solid rock, and ascribed, at least by tradition, to Alexander the Great. This was the communication between a small fort or castle called Alexandroschene (Scandalitnti) and the Mcdiierranean. (It. Hieros. p. 584.) The Album Promontorium is the modem Cape Blanc, and was one hour's journey to the north of Ecclippa (Dshib or Zib). [\V. B. D.]

ALBURNUS MONS, a mountain of Lucania, mentioned in a well-known passage of Virgil (Gtorg. I iii. 146), from which we learn that it was in the neighbourhood of the river Silarus. Tho name of | Monte Albitrno is said by Italian topographers to be still retained by the lofty mountain group which rises to the S. of that river, between its two tributaries, the Tanagro and Colore. It is more commonly called the Monte di Postiglione, from the small town of that name on its northern declivity, and according to Cluverius is still covered with forests of holm-oaks, and infested with gad-flies. (Cluver. Ital. p. 1254; Romanelli, vol. i. p. 418; Zannoni, Carta del Regno di Napoli.')

We find mention, in a fragment of Lucilius, of a Portus Alburnus, which appears to have been situated at the mouth of the river Silarus, and probably derived its name from the mountain. (Lucil. Fr. p. 11, ed. Gerlach; Probns, ad Virg. G. iii. 146; Vib. Seq. p. 18, with Oberlin.) [E. H. B]

ALCO'MENAK('AAKoun'a(: Etk 'aako/wmus).

1. A town of tne Deuriopes on the Erigon, in P.iconia in Macedonia. (Stnib. p. 327.)

2. [alalcomenak, No. 2.]

ALCYO'NIA ('AAKwm'a), a lake in Argolis, near the Lernaean grove, through which Dionysus was said to have descended to the lower world,in order to bring back Semele from Hades. Pausanias says that its depth was unfathomable, and that Nero had let down several stadia of rope, loaded with lead, without finding a bottom. As Pausanias does not mention a lake Lerna, but only a district of this name, it is probable that tho lake called Alcyorua by Pausanias is the same as the Lema of other writers. (Paus. ii. 37. § 5, seq.; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 473.)

ALCYO'NIUM MARE. [corinthiacus SiNus.]

A'LEA ('AAe'a; Eth. *AA«'os, 'AAefiErijy), a town of Arcadia, between Orchomenus and Styuiphahis, contained, in the time of Pausanias, temples of the Ephesian Artemis, of Athena Alea, and of Diony.>us. It appears to have been situated in the territory either of Stymphalus or Orchomenus. Patwim'xs (viii. 27. § 3) calls Alea a town of the Maen:ilians; but we ought probably to read Asea in this parage, instead of Alea. The rains of Alea have been discovered by the French Commission in the middle of the dark valley of Skotini, about a mile to the NE. of the village of Buydti. Alea was never a town of importance; but some modem writers have, though inadvertently, placed at this town the celebrated temple of Athena Alea, which was situated at Tegea. [tkoea.] (Pans. viii. 23. § 1; Steph. B. s. v.; Boblaye, RechercJtest <fc., p. 147; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 383.)

ALEMANNI. [germania ]

ALE'RIA or ALAX1A (/AAoMij, Herod.; 'AAAaAfa, Steph. B.; 'AAepfa, PtoL: 'AAAaAialus, Steph. B.), one of the chief cities of Corsica, situated on the E. coast of the island, near the mouth of the river Rhotanus (Tavignano). It was originally a Greek colony, founded about B. C. 564, by the Phocaeans of Ionia. Twenty years later, when the jiarent city was captured by Harpagus, a large portion of its inhabitants repaired to their colony »t Alalia, where they dwelt for five years, but their piratical conduct involved them in hostilities with the Tyrrhenians and Carthaginians; and in a great sea-fight with the combined fleets of these two nations they suffered such heavy loss, as induced them to abandon the island, and repair to the S. of Italy, where they ultimately established themselves at Velia in Lucania. (Herod, i. 165—167; Steph. B.; Diod. v. 13, where KdXapis is evidently a corrupt reading for *A\apia.) No further mention is found of the Greek colony, but the city appears again, under the Roman form of the name, Aleria during the first Punic war, when it was captured by the Roman fleet under L. Scipio, in B. C. 259, an event which led to the submission of the whole island, and was deemed worthy to be expressly mentioned in his epitaph. (Zonar. viii. 11; Flor. ii. 2; Orell. Inscr. no. 552.) It subsequently received a Roman colony under the dictator Sulla, and appears to have retained its colonial rank, and continued to be one of the chief cities of Corsica under the Roman Empire. (Plin. iii. 6. s. 12; Mela, ii. 7; Diod. v. 13; Seneca, Cons, ad ffelv. 8; PtoL iii. 2. § 5; Itin. Ant. p. 85.)

Its ruins are still visible near the south bank of the river Tavignano: they are now above half a

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