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332. It stood :nlat.31°N.; lung. 47° K. (Arrian, iii. 1, p. 156; Q. Curt. iv. 8. § 2.) On his voyage from Memphis to Canobus he was struck by the natural advantages of the little town of Rhacotis, on the north-eastern angle of the Lake Mareotis. The harbour of Rhacotis, with the adjacent island of Pharos, had been from very remote ages (Hum. Od. iv. 355) the resort of Greek and Phoenician sea-rovers, and in the former place the Pharaohs kept a permanent garrison, to prevent foreigners entering their dominions by any other approach than the city of Kaucratis and the Canobic branch of the Nile. At Rhacotis Alexander determined to construct the future capital of his western conquests. His architect Democrat cs was instructed to survey the harbour, and to draw out a plan of a military and commercial metropolis of the first rank. (Vitruv. ii. proaem.\ Solin.c.32; Amin. Marc.xxii.40; Val.Max.i. 4.§ I.) The ground-plan was traced by Alexander himself; the building was commenced immediately, but tlm city was not completed until the reign of the second monarch of the Lagid line, Ptolemy Philadelphia. It continued to receive embellishment and extension from nearly every monarch of that dynasty. The plan of Deinocrates was earned out by another architect named Cleomenes, of Naucratis. (Justin. xiii.4.§ 1.) Ancient writers (Strab. p. 791, seq.; Plut. Alex, 26; Plin. v. 10. s. 11) compare the general form of Alexandreia to the cloak (chlamys) worn by the Macedonian cavalry. It was of an oblong figure, rounded at the SE. and SW. extremities. Its length from E. to W. was nearly 4 miles; its breadth from S. to N. nearly a mile, and its circumference, according to Pliny {I. c.) was about 15 miles. The interior was laid out in parallelograms: the streets crossed one another at right angles, and were all wide enough to admit of both wheel carriages and foot-passengers. Two grand thoroughfares nearly bisected the city. They ran in straight lines to its four principal gates, and each was a pie thrum, or about 200 feet wide. The longest, 40 stadia in length, ran from the Canobic gate to that of the Necropolis (E.—W.): the shorter, 7—8 stadia in length, extended from the Gate of the Sun to the Gate of the Moon (S.—N-). On its northern sido Alexandreia was bounded by the sea, sometimes denominated the Egyptian Sea: on the south by the Lake of Marea or Mareotis; to the west were the Necropolis and its numerous gardens; to the east the Eleusinian road and the Great Hippodrome. The tongue of land upon which Alexandreia stood was singularly adapted to a commercial city. The island of Pharos broke the force of the north wind, aud uf the occasional high floods of the Mediterranean. The headland of Lochias sheltered its harbours to the east; the Lake Mareotis was both a wet-dock and the general haven of the inland navigation of the Nile-valley, whether direct from Syene, or by the royal canal from Arsinoe on the Red Sea, while various other canals connected the lake with t he Deltaic branches of the river. The springs of Rhacotis were few and bnw kish; but an aqueduct conveyed the Nile water into the southern eection of the city, and tanks, many of which are still in use, distributed fresh water to both public and private edifices. (!!;■■: ius, B. Alex. c. 5.) The suit, partly sandy and partly calcareous, rendered drainage nearly superfluous. The fogs which periodically linger on the shores of Cyrene and Egypt were dispersed by the north winds which, in the summer season, ventilate the Delta; while the salubrious

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1. Acrolochias.

2. Ltx'hias.

3. Closed or Royal Port.

4. Antirhodos.

5. Royal Dockyards.

6. Poseideion.

7. City Dockyards and Quays,

8. Gate of the Moon.

9. Kibotns, Basiu of Eunostus.

10. Great Mole (Heptastadium).

11. Eunostus, Haven of Happy Return.

12. The Island Pharos.

13. The Tower Pharos (Diamond-Rock).

14. The Pirates' Bay.

15. Regio Jutlaeorum.

16. Theatre of the Museum.

We shall first describe the harbour-line, and next the interior of the city.

The harbour-line commenced from the east with the peninsular strip Lochias, which terminated seaward in a fort called Acro-Lochias, the modern Pharillon. The ruins of a pier on the eastern side of it mark an ancient landing-place, probably belonging to the Palace which, with its groves and gardens, occupied this Peninsula. Like all the principal buildings of Alcxandreia, it commanded a view of the bay anil the Pharos. The Lochias formed, with the islet of Antirhodus, the Closed or Royal Port, which was kept exclusively for the king's gallies, aud around the head of which were the Rog^J Dockyards. West of the Closed Port was the Poseideion or Temple of Neptune, where embarking and returning mariners registered their vows. The northern point of this temple was called the Timonium, ivluiUer the defeated triumvir M. Antonius retired after his flight from Aetium in B.C. 31. (Plut.

mercial advantages. Its harbours were sufficiently capacious to admit of large fleets, and sufficiently contracted at their entrance to be defended by booms and chains. A number of small islands around the Pharos and the harbours were occupied with forts, and the approach from the north was further secured by the difficulty of navigating among the limestone reefs and mud-banks which front the debouchure of the Nile.

17. Stadium.

18. Library and Museum.

19. Soma.

20. Dicasterium.

21. Panium.

22. Serapeion.

23. Rhacotis.

24. Lake Mareotis.

25. Canal to Lake Mareotis.

26. Aqueduct from the Nile.

27. Necro]>olis.

28. Hippodrome.

29. Gate of the Sun.

30. Amphitheatre.

31. Emporium or Royal Exchange.

32. Arsinoeum.

Anton. 69.) Between Lochias and the Great Mole (Heptastadium) was the Greater Harbour, and on the western side of the Mole was the Haven of Happy Iteturn (fffvooros), connected by the basin (tfiSwroy, chest) with the canal that led, by one arm, to the Lake Mareotis. and by the other to the Canobic arm of the Nile. The haven of " Happy Return" fronted the quarter of the city called Rhacotis. It was less difficult of access than the Greater Harbour, as the reefs and shoals lie principally NE. of the Pharos. Its modern name is the Old Port. From the Poseideion to the Mole the shore was lined with dockyards and warehouses, upon whose bn>ad granite quays ships discharged their lading without the intervention of baits. On the western horn of the Eunostus were public granaries.

Fronting the city, and sheltering both its harbours, lay the long narrow island of Pharos. It Wm a dazzling white calcareous rock, about a mile from Alexindreia, and, according to Stralw, 150 stadia from the Canobic mouth of the Nile. At its eastern point stood the far-famed lighthouse, the work of So■t rates of Cnidus, and, nearer the Heptastadium, was a temple of Phtah or Hephaestus. The Pharos was begun by Ptolemy Soter, but completed by his successor, and dedicated by him to 11 the gods Soteres," or Soter and Berenice, his parents. (Strab. p. 792.) It consisted of several stories, and is said to hare been four hundred feet in height. The old light-house of Alexandreia still occupies the site of its ancient predecessor. A deep bay on the northern side of the island was called the " Pirates' Haven," from its having been an early place of refuge for Carian and Samian mariners. The islets which stud the northern coast of Pharos became, in the 4th and 5th centuries A. D., the resort of Christian anchorites. The island is said by Strabo to have been nearly desolated by Julius Caesar when he was besieged by the Alexandrians in B. c. 46. (Hirt. B. Alex. 17.)



The Pharos was connected with the mainland by art artificial mound or causeway, called, from its length (7 stadia, 4270 English feet, or } of a mile), the Heptastadium. There were two breaks in the Mole to let the water flow through, and prevent the accumulation of silth; over these passages bridges were laid, which could be raised up at need. The temple of Hephaestus on Pharos stood at one extremity of the Mole, and the Gate of the Moon on the mainland at the other. The form of the Heptastadium can no longer be distinguished, since modern Alexandreia is principally erected upon it, and upon the earth which has accumulated about its piers. It probably lay in a direct line between fort CaffareBi and the island.

Interior of the City. Alexandreia was divided into three regions. (1) The Regio Judaeorum. (2) The Brucheium or Pyrucheium, the Royal or Greek Quarter. (3) The Rhacotis or Egyptian Quarter. This division corresponded to the three original constituents of the Alexandrian population (Tpt'a ytrn, Polyb. xxxiv. 14; Strab. p. 797, seq.) After B. c. 31 the Romans added a fourth element, but this was principally military and financial (the garrison, the government, and its official staff, and the negotiatores), and confined to the Region Brucheimn.

1. Regio Judaeorum, or Jews' Quarter, occupied the \ I. angle of the city, and was encompassed by the sea, the city walls, and the Brucheium. Like the Jewry of modern European cities, it had walls and gates of its own, which were at times highly Decessary for its security, since between the Alexandrian Greeks and Jews frequent hostilities raged, inflamed both by political jealousy and religious hatred. The Jews were governed by their own Klhnarch, or Arabarches (Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 7. § 2, 10. § 1, xviii. 6. § 3, xix. 5. § 2, B. J. ii. 18. § 7), by a sanhedrim or senate, and their own national laws. Augustus Caesar, in B. c. 31, granted to the Alexandrian Jews equal privileges with their Greek fellow citizens, and recorded his grant by a public hvcription. (Id. Antiq. li'u 3, c. Apion. 2J) Philo Judaeus (Legal, in Caium) gives a full account of the immunities of the Regio Judaeorum. They were frequently confirmed or annulled by successive Roman emperors. (Sharp, But, of Egypt, p. 347, sec. 2nd edit.)

2. Brucheium, or Pyrucheium (Bpux«°>\ tlupoXt'tor SsJmasiua, ad Spartian. Hadrian, c. 20), the Rorsl'or Greek Quarter, was bounded to the S. and f 'iy the city walls, N. by the Greater Harbour,

and W. by the region RhacStis and the main street which connected the Gate of the £ca with that of the Moon and the Heptastadium. It was also surrounded by its own walls, and was the quarter in which Caesar defended himself against the Alexandrians. (Hirtius, B. Alex. 1.) The Brucheium was bisected by the High Street, which ran from the Canobic Gate to the Necropolis, and was supplied with water from the Nile by a tunnel or aqueduct, which entered the city on the south, and passed it little to the west of the Gymnasium. This was the quarter of the Alexandrians proper, or Hellenic citizens, the Royal Residence, and the district in which were contained the most conspicuous of the public buildings. It was so much adorned and extended by the later Ptolemies that it eventually occupied one-fifth of the entire city. (Plin. v. 10. s. 11.) It contained the following remarkable edifices: On the Lochias, the Palace of the Ptolemies, with the smaller palaces appropriated to their children and the adjacent gardens and groves. The far-famed Library and Museum, with its Theatre for lectures and public assemblies, connected with one another and with the palaces by long colonnades of the most costly marble from the Egyptian quarries, and adorned with obelisks and sphinxes taken from the Pharaonic cities. The Library contained, according to one account, 700,000 volumes, according to another 400,000 (Joseph. Antiq. xii. 2; Athen. i. p. 3); part, however, of this unrivalled collection was lodged in the temple of Serapis, in the quarter RhacStis. Here were deposited the 200,000 volumes collected by the kings of Pergamus, and presented by M. Antonius to Cleopatra. The library of the Museum was destroyed during the blockade of Julius Caesar in the Brucheium; that of the Serapeion was frequently injured by the civil broils of Alexandreia, and especially when that temple was destroyed by the Christian fanatics in the 4th century A. D. It was finally destroyed by the orders of the khalif Omar, A. D. 640. The collection was begun by Ptolemy Soter, augmented by his successors, — for the worst of the Lagidae were patrons of literature, — and respected, if not increased, by the Caesars, who, like their predecessors, appointed and salaried the librarians and the professors of the Museum. The Macedonian kings replenished the shelves of the Library zealously but unscrupulously, since they laid an embargo on all books, whether public or private property, which were brought to Alexandreia, retained the originals, and gave copies of them to their proper owners. In this way Ptolemy Euergetes (b. C. 246 —221) is said to have got possession of authentic copies of the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and to have returned transcripts of them to the Athenians, with an accompanying compensation of fifteen talents. The Museum succeeded the once renowned college of Heliopolis as the University of Egypt. It contained a great hall or banqueting room (o7«oi pryas), where the professors dined in common; an exterior peristyle, or corridor (xfpi'iraToi), for exercise and ambulatory lectures; a theatrb where public disputations and scholastic festivals were held; chambers for the different professors; and possessed a botanical garden which Ptolemy Philadelphia enriched with tropical flora (Philostrat. Vil. Apollon. vi. 24), and a menagerie (Athen. xiv. p. 654). It was divided into four principal sections,— poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine,—and enrolled among its professors or pupils the illustrious | names of Euclid, Ctesibius, C'nllimai bus, Aratus, Aristophanes and Aristarchus, the critics and grammarians, the two Heros, Ammonius Saccas, Pol**mo, Clemens, Origen, Athanasius, Theon and his celebrated daughter Hypatia, with many others. Amid the turbulent factions and frequent calamities of Alexandreia, the Museum maintained its reputation, until the Saracen invasion in A. D. 640. The emperors, like their predecessors the Ptolemies, kept in their own hands the nomination of the President of the Museum, who was considered one of the four chief magistrates of the city. For the Alexandrian Library and Museum the following works may be consulted:— Strab. pp. 609, 791, seq.; Vitruv. vii. prooem.; Joseph. Antiq. xii. 2, c. Apion. ii. 7; Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 22; Cyrill. Hieros. Catechet. iv. 34; Epiphan. Mem. et Pond. c. 9; Augustin. Civ. D. xviii. 42; Lipsius, de Biblioth. § ii.; Bellamy, Mem. de I Acad, dee laser, ix. 10; Matter, lEcole d~A lexandrie, vol. i. p. 47; Fabric Bibl. Graee. vol. iii. p. 500.

In the Brucheium also stood the Caesarium, or Temple of the Caesars, where divine honours were paid to the emperors, deceased or living. Its site is still marked by the two granite obelisks called "Cleopatra's Needles," near which is a tower perhaps not inappropriately named the "Tower of the Romans." Proceeding westward, we come to the public granaries (Caesar, B. Civ. iii. 112) and the Mausoleum of the Ptolemies, which, from its containing the body of Alexander the Great, was denominated Soma (Sui^a. or 2i)M", Strab. p. 794). The remains of the Macedonian hero were originally inclosed in a coffin of gold, which, about B. c. 118, was stolen by Ptolemy Soter II., and replaced by one of glass, in wliich the corpse was viewed by Augustus in B. C. 30. (Sueton. Octav. 18.) A building to which tradition assigns the name of the "Tomb of Alexander" is found among the ruins of the old city, but its site does not correspond with that of the Soma. It is much reverenced by the Moslems. In form it resembles an ordinary sheikh's tomb, and it stands to the west of the road leading from the Frank Quarter to the Pompey's-Pillar Gate. In the Soma were also deposited the remains of M. Antonius, the only alien admitted into the Mausoleum (Plut. Ant. 82). In this quarter also were the High Court of Justice (l>ieatterium), in which, under the Ptolemies, the senate assembled and discharged such magisterial duties as a nearly despotic government allowed to them, and where afterwards the Roman Juridicus held his court. A stadium, a gymnasium, a palaestra, and an amphitheatre, provided exercise and amusement for the spectacle-loving Alexandrians. The Arsinoeum, on the western side of the Brucheium, was a monument raised by Ptolemy Philadelphia to the memory of his favourite sister Arsinoe; and the Panium was a stone mound, or cone, with a spiral ascent on the outside, from whose summit was visible every quarter of the city. The purpose of this structure is, however, not ascertained. The edifices of the Brucheium had been so arranged by Deinocratcs as to command a prospect of the Great Harbonr and the Phar(«. In its centre was a spacious square, surrounded by cloisters and flanked to the north by the quays — the Emporium, or Alexandrian Exchange. Hither, fur nearly eight centuries, every nation of the civilize! world sent its representatives. Alexandreia had inherited the commerce of both Tyre and Carthage, and collected in this area the traffic and speculation of three continents. The Romans admitted Alexandreia to be the second city of the world; but the

quays of the Tiber presented no such spectacle as the Emporium. In the seventh century, when the Arabs entered Alexandreia, the Brucheium was in ruins and almost deserted.

3. The Rhacotit, or Egyptian Quarter, occupied the site of the ancient Rhacoi is. Its principal buildings were granaries along the western arm of the cibotus or basin, a stadium, and the Temple of Scrapis. The Serapeion was erected by the first or second of the Ptolemies. The image of the god, which was of wood, was according to Clemens (Clemens Alex. Protrept. c. 4. § 48), inclosed or plated over with layers of every kind of metal and precious stones ; it seems also, either from the smoke of incense or from varnish, to have been of a black colour. Its origin and import are doubtful. Serapis is sometimes defined to be Osiri-Apis; and sometimes the Sinopite Zeus, which may imply either that he was brought from the hill Sinopeion near Memphis, or from Sinope in Pontus, whence Ptolemy Soter or Philadclphus is said to have imported it to adorn his new capital. That the idol was a pantheistic emblem may be inferred, both from the materials of which it was composed, and from its being adopted by a dynasty of sovereigns who sought to blend in one mass the creeds of Hellas and Egypt. The Serapeion was destroyed in A. D. 390 by Theopliilus, patriarch of Alexandreia, in obedience to the rescript of the emperor Theodosius, which abolished paganism (Codex Theodot. xvi. 1, 2).* The Coptic population of this quarter were not properly Alexandrian citizens, but enjoyed a franchise inferior to that of the Greeks. (Plin. Epitt. x. 5. 22, 23; Joseph, c. Apion. c. 2. § 6.) The Alexandreia which the Arabs besieged was nearly identical with the Rhacc.lis. It had suffered many calamities both from civil feud and from foreign war. Its Serapeion was twice consumed by fire, once in the reign of Marcus Anrclius, and again in that of Commodus. But this district survived both the Regie Judacorum and the Brucheium.

Of the remarkable beauty of Alexandreia (Jj MaA^ 'A\t(dySpeta, Athen. i. p. 3), we have the testimony of numerous writers who saw it in its prime. Ammianus (xxii. 16) calls it " vertex omnium civitatum;" Strabo (xvii. p. 832) describes it as iniyiarov ifiToptiov *rijs oUovntvT}*; Theocritus (ldylL xvii.), Philo (ad Flaec. ii. p. 541), Eustathius (/£ B.), Gregory of Nyssa ( Vit. Gregor. Thaumaturg.'), and many others, write in the same strain. (Comp. Diodor. xvii. 52; Pausan. viii. 33.) Perhaps, however, one of the most striking descriptions of ita effect upon a stranger is that of Achilles Tatius in his romance of Cleitophon and Leucippe (v. 1). Its dilapidation was not the effect of time, but of the hand of man. Its dry atmosphere preserved, for centuries after their erection, the sharp outline and gay colours of its buildings; and when in A. D. 120 the emperor Hadrian surveyed Alexandreia, he beheld almost the virgin city of the Ptolemies. (Spartian.

* The following references will aid the reader in forming his own opinion respecting the much controverted question of the origin and meaning of Serapis:—Tac Ilitt. iv. 84; Macrob. Sat. i. 29; Vopiscus, Saturnin. 8; Amm. Marc. xx. 16; Pint. It. et Osir. cc. 27, 28; Lactant JntU i. 21; Clem. Alex. Cohort, ad Gent. 4. § 31, Strom, i. 1; August. Civ. D. xviii. 5; Mem. de VAcad. de* Inter. vol. x. p. 500; Gibbon, D. and F. xxviii. p. 113.

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